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Impacto de gastroenteritis severa por rotavirus en ni?os chilenos menores de 3 a?os de edad
Vergara F,Rodrigo; Navarrete,María S; Nú?ez,Ernesto; Escobar,Lorena; Navarro G,Sofía; Venegas E,Guillermo; Schuffeneger,Patricia; O'Ryan,Miguel;
Revista médica de Chile , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872007000800003
Abstract: background: rotavirus infections account every year in chile, for approximately 53,000 emergency consultations and 8,000hospital admissions among children under three years of age. aim: to estimate incidence rates of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children <3 years of age, living in the v and viii regions and to identify the predominant viral serotypes. material and methods: a prospective hospital-based surveillance for severe gastroenteritis was implemented in public and private hospitals of vi?a del mar and valparaiso (region v) and of chiguayante, concepción, penco, san pedro de la paz, talcahuano and tomé (region viii). all children <3 years of age residing in the districts, who consulted for severe gastroenteritis requiring oral or intravenous rehydration (equivalent to who plan b or c), or who were admitted to the hospital, were enrolled. demographic and clinical information and a stool sample were obtained. rotavirus was detected by elisa and positive samples were serotyped by elisa or real time pcr. results: between january 23 and june 30, 2003, a total of 760 children were recruited. among these, 343 (45%) were admitted to the hospital. stool samples were collected from 433 children. among these, 214 were positive for rotavirus (49.4%). overall, monthly disease incidence rates were 124/100,000 in v region, and 114/100,000 in viiiregion. the predominant serotype was g4. conclusions: rotavirus was responsible for nearly half of the severe gastroenteritis episodes among children <3 years, during a predominantly g4 serotype season. every year, approximately one every 70 children <3 years will have a severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episode (rev méd chile 2007; 135:975-81)
Child maltreatment, abuse and neglect in a Nigerian adolescent boy, the common but unheard menace: A case report form Southwest, Nigeria  [PDF]
Chinyere C. Uzodimma, Morufat M. Ogundeyi, Florence I. Dedeke, Olasunkanmi Owolabi
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.34068

Child abuse is a global problem. It includes all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that result in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, development or dignity. Child abuse and neglect are common in Nigeria, yet poorly reported. We herein report a case of child abuse and neglect in a 14-year-old boy, complicated by severe malnutrition, human immunodeficiency virus infection and gross under achievement of educational goal. The social and economic factors that play major roles are highlighted with the aim of sensitizing health care professionals, child advocacy groups, policy makers and other stakeholders on the impact of child abuse. We also hope that this would remind all concerned organisations and individuals of child protection which is integrated in the child right act 2003 adopted by Nigeria.

Family Centered Care versus Child Centered Care: The Malawi Context  [PDF]
Maureen Daisy Majamanda, Tiwonge Ethel Mbeya Munkhondya, Miriam Simbota, Maria Chikalipo
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.76088
Abstract: Family Centered care is a model that is practiced and encouraged in child health care. It considers family as partners and collaborators in care of children. It aims at involving family in all aspects of child care. Family centered care also mentions involvement of child. However, emphasis is given more on family than child and does not take into account the older child’s capacity for independent decision making and right to privacy. As such, child’s needs are missed out. With child centered care, children are involved and supported at all levels of care based on their age and developmental stage. This paper aims to stress the importance of involving children within family centered care. Involving children in their care, makes them feel less threatened by the health care professional and their self esteem is promoted. Currently, no studies have been identified in Malawi that demonstrates full partnership between the family, child and the nurse. Furthermore, Family Centered Care and Child Centered Care as models are not fully practiced. It is therefore important to practice both family and child centered care in child health care if the needs of both family and children are to be addressed concurrently.
Child Migration and Dropping Out of Basic School in Ghana: The Case of Children in a Fishing Community  [PDF]
Eric Daniel Ananga
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.46057

The government of Ghana’s effort on increasing access to basic education led to removal of school fees, introduction of capitation grants, school feeding and free school uniforms. While such moves have been applauded leading to improved access, child migration remains a barrier to educational access for children living in fishing communities in Ghana. This paper presents the experiences of schoolchildren who drop out of school as a result of child labour and seasonal migration. The central questions of the study are how and why migration acts as a barrier to education of children who had initial access. The paper presents in-depth analysis of qualitative data. The findings presented in the paper demonstrate that children enroll and attend school until they begin to migrate during mid-school sessions resulting in their exclusion from basic school. The paper concludes by highlighting some policy implications of children’s seasonal migration during school sessions and access to basic school in Ghana.

Hypopigmented Mycosis Fungoides in a 7-Year-Old Boy  [PDF]
Felipe Nazareth, Maria Victoria Quaresma, Fred Bernardes, Carlos Gustavo Carneiro Castro, Edilbert Pellegrini Nahn, Jose Augusto da Costa Nery, Mayra Carrijo Rochael, Omar Lupi
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2012.22015
Abstract: Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) is an uncommon variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. It is more frequent in dark-skinned people, particularly children. The HMF diagnose is difficult, especially in early stages because this condition resembles benign skin diseases. Thus is histopathological analysis very important for the diagnosis. We report a case of a 7-year-old child with widespread HMF confirmed by histopathology that showed cells tagging along the dermal/epidermal junction and extending into the epidermis in a pattern of epidermotropism and focal cell aggregates in the epidermis (Pautrier’s microabscess). We demonstrate the importance of clinical suspicion for this cutaneous neoplasia in patients with hypopigmentated lesions.
Diagnosis of Fucosidosis through Cutaneous Manifestations  [PDF]
Bouguila Jihene, Mabrouk Sameh, Ben Turkia Hadhemi, Mokni Mourad, Boughammoura Lamia
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2014.41010
Abstract: Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum is a dermatological hallmark of several inherited lysosomal storage disorders including Anderson-Fabry disease and other enzyme deficiencies such as fucosidosis. We report a 4-year-old boy with neurodevelopment delay who was diagnosed as having fucosidosis following recognition of dermatological signs, angiokeratoma and telangiectasies. The diagnosis was confirmed by leukocyte oligosaccharide enzyme analysis.
Food Insecurity in US Families with Children with Limiting Health Conditions  [PDF]
Lea Anne DeRigne, Linda Quinn, Patricia Stoddard-Dare, Christopher Mallett
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.618283
Abstract: Food insecurity in US households with children with limiting health conditions was compared to households with children without limiting health conditions, controlling for demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios. Data from the 2008-2011 Making Connections Survey (N = 1940) of households with children in seven high poverty communities in the US were used. Having a child with a limiting health condition made a household’s odds 1.41 times (95% C.I., 1.110, 1.790) more likely to be food insecure. When there are two or more children with limiting conditions in the household, the odds of food insecurity are 1.67 times (95% CI, 1.16, 2.40), higher than a family with no children with a disabling health condition. Families with children with limiting health conditions in high poverty communities are especially at risk of experiencing food insecurity, which can complicate health conditions. Nutrition assistance programs are vital to keep children and families food secure.
Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV among Children 6 to 59 Months in the Community in the Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Jeff Maotela Kabinda, Tony Shindano Akilimali, Ahuka Serge Miyanga, Philippe Donnen, Dramaix-Wilmet Michèle
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2015.52026
Abstract: Objectives: To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV among children 6 to 59 months and determine the risk factors. Materials and Methods: Descriptive and analytical study on children aged 6 to 59 months of community Maniema (DRC) conducted between 24 June and 24 July 2013. We enrolled 781 children aged 6 to 59 months. For association between the presence of viral markers and potential risk factors the chi-square test of Pearson was applied, the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The Fisher exact test was used when the conditions for application of the chi-square test of Pearson were not met. Results: The median age of the children was 34 months, 51% of female children. Ten percent of children had a history of blood transfusion; 6.6% and 64% had fever and anemia. The prevalence of HBsAg was 3.6%, the prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C was 2.8% and HIV was 3.7%. The risk factors were HBsAg, male gender (5.5% male vs 2.0 % female; OR = 2.8(1.3 - 6.9) p = 0.001) and urban areas (5.0% rural vs 0.5% urban, OR = 0.1 (0.01 - 0.72), p = 0.01). For HCV and HIV, these factors were the history of blood transfusion in the child and the mother. For HCV 7.6% of children with blood transfusion history; OR = 3.2 (1.1 - 8.5); p = 0.05 and 11.1% history’s mother blood transfusion, OR = 5.6 (2.1 - 14.1). For HIV 11.4% of children with blood transfusion history, OR = 3.8, p = 0.005 and 9.8% history’s mother blood transfusion, OR = 2.9, p = 0.04. Conclusion: Vaccination against hepatitis B in children must be widespread, educational messages to the population must target the risk factors for these viruses. A screening of hepatitis in pregnant women must be coupled with rigorous selection policy for blood donors before each donation and qualification of any unit of blood.
Clinical Follow-Up Nursing Quality in Child Health  [PDF]
Fábia Barbosa de Andrade, Tainara L?rena dos Santos Ferreira, Tiago José Barbosa de Andrade, Jéssica Isabelle dos Santos Dutra, Dídia de Oliveira Pereira, Brenda Kalyny Silva, Brenda Kalyny Silva, íngrid Katianne Marques Araújo
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.710138
Abstract: Objective: The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the activities of nursing consultations on health conditions of children served in Clínica de Enfermagem Salvando Vidas com Educa??o. Methods: This is an exploratory, descriptive study with a quantitative approach, realized from January through December 2012, at the Clínica de Enfermagem (Nursing Clinic), in the Santa Cruz County, Rio Grande do Norte’s countryside, Brazil. Results: The obtained results showed a significant correlation between the type of pathology and final treatment proven by the value of p = 0.000; as for assessed 60%, more than half were discharged; the most prevalent diseases were the association between cutaneous and gastric with 11% who were discharged and, lastly, the association between gastric and respiratory with 7% discharged. Conclusion: Thus, the activities developed by the project are not restricted to the examination during the nursing consultation, since educational activities are planned from the data obtained in those consultations.
Predictors of Bacterial Meningitis among Paediatric Patients Aged 0 - 5 Years at Kenyatta Hospital, Kenya  [PDF]
June J. Serem, Margaret Chege, Dorcas Maina
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2018.83023
Abstract: Introduction: Meningitis remains a common and serious problem in children worldwide. One million instances of meningitis are assessed to happen in children worldwide each year. In Africa, where outbreaks are common 70% of meningitis cases are diagnosed in children under the age of five (5) years. Though in most cases, doctors diagnose early and adequate treatment started, 5% to 10% of patients still succumb during the 24 - 48 hours after onset of clinical features. In 2009, the mortality rate in Africa was four thousand deaths. Study Objective: This study describes the predictors of bacterial meningitis among children aged 0 - 5 years admitted at Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H.) paediatric wards. Methodology: The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design. It was carried out in K.N.H. paediatric wards. Data were obtained from consenting parent or guardian and healthcare workers (nurses and registrars). Study participants were selected by convenient sam-pling method. A total of 104 study participants were included in the study sample. In-depth interviews of key informants were conducted on 7 health workers; 5 nurses from the paediatric wards and paediatric emergency unit and 2 paediatric registrars. Ethical consideration included full disclosure to participants, confidentiality, security of health records and informed consent. Data were collected by use of researcher administered semi-structured ques-tionnaire and desk reviews of patients’ files were also used. Qualitative data from the interviews were audio-taped. Logistic regression analysis was used for data analysis. Quantitative data were cleaned, entered and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23. Results were displayed by utilization of tables, pie charts. Qualitative data were transcribed, grouped in themes and analysed manually. Study Results: The majority of the children (55.8%) were female. The highest percentage of the children (53.8%) was aged less than one year. The highest proportion of the parents (39.4%) was within the age group of 26 - 30 years. Neonatal sepsis (37.5%), neonatal jaundice (25.0%) and for observation (25.0%) were the common reasons
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