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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 25411 matches for " Child Development. "
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The Relation of Externalizing Behavior and Central Auditory Processing Deficits in 4-Year-Old Children  [PDF]
Cristina de Andrade Varanda, Eva Cristina de Carvalho Souza Mendes, Nilva Nunes Campina, Maria da Gra?a Giordano de Marcos Crescenti Aulicino, Rita de Cássia Gottardi van Opstal Nascimento, Cláudia Maria Fernandes Marczak, Karla Regina de Jesus Grilo, Elaine Cristina Diogo, Fernanda Mello, Renata Cristina Borges Corrêa, Fernanda Dreux Miranda Fernandes
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.613156
Abstract: The integrity of the central auditory system is a fundamental condition for language development. Good language development is related to good academic performance and adaptive behavior. Therefore, the evaluation of auditory processing along with behavior as well as the verification of a possible relationship between them can indicate possible ways on how to deal with both problem behavior and difficulties in language. 187 parents of preschoolers (mean age 3.8 years) were interviewed individually and asked to fill in the CBCL (Child Behavior Checklist), for ages 1(1/2) to 5, providing a behavioral profile concerning externalizing and internalizing behavior. Children were assessed regarding central auditory processing skills through the Simplified Assessment of the Auditory Processing—SAAP (Pereira & Schochat, 1997) including Sound Source Localization (SSL); Non-Verbal Sound Sequence Memory (NVSSM); Verbal Sounds Sequence Memory (VSSM). To investigate a possible association between central auditory processing skills and behavioral problems, all the scores in CBCL and the total scores of Simplified Auditory Processing Assessment were correlated with functional parameters using the Spearman rank correlation. The behaviors “acts too young for age”; “constantly seeks help”; “does not eat well”; “does not seem to feel guilty after misbehaving”; “easily frustrated”; “nervous movements or twitching”; “nervous, highstrung, or tense”; “poorly coordinated or clumsy”; “repeatedly rocks head or body”; “stares into space and seems preoccupied”, “sulks a lot” and “wanders away” were correlated with poor auditory processing skills. This indicates that the school staff along with health professionals should provide informational counseling regarding, not only the communicative difficulties associated with a poor performance on central auditory processing skills but also the psychosocial difficulties that these children may be facing.
Estímulo ao desenvolvimento infantil: produ??o do conhecimento em enfermagem
Falbo, Bruna Cristine Peres;Andrade, Raquel Dully;Furtado, Maria Candida de Carvalho;Mello, Débora Falleiros de;
Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-71672012000100022
Abstract: this integrative literature review aimed to identify nursing actions for stimulating child development in national and international journals, between 2000 and 2009. medline and lilacs were examined, with analysis of fifteen articles. results point out ludic elements as essential for child development and state that it should be explored by nursing professionals through art, music, toys and theatre. soften the stress of hospitalization through environmental adjustments reduces its impact on child development. guiding and intervening in the inter-relationships are nursing actions for the social and behavioral development of children. the themes addressed in literature are essential to the nursing practice in comprehensive child care.
Estimula??o ambiental e uso do andador infantil por lactentes com desenvolvimento normal
Albuquerque, Karolina Alves de;Mancini, Marisa Cotta;Drummond, Adriana de Fran?a;Megale, Luis;Chagas, Paula Silva de Carvalho;
Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-38292011000200009
Abstract: objectives: to evaluate the quantity and quality of environmental stimuli available to infants with normal development who use a baby walkers prior to learning to walk by themselves. methods: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 24 infants distributed into two groups of twelve: one group of children who had used a baby walkers (bw) and 12 who had not (c), with the children in both groups being of equivalent ages, sex, and socio-economic background. the home observation for measurement of the environment (home) test provided a documentary record of the stimuli provided by the environment. student's t-test for independent samples was used to compare the mean scores on the home test of both groups, considering the level of significance to be α=0.05. results: differences in the home scores, with the bw group obtaining higher scores than the control group (p=0.014), with a low magnitude effect (d=0.24). conclusions: the use of a children's baby walkers in the period before learning to walk by infants with normal development may be associated with more stimulating home environments.
Assessing Child Impairment in Functioning in Different Contexts: Implications for Use of Services and the Classification of Psychiatric Disorders  [PDF]
Glorisa J. Canino, Prudence W. Fisher, Margarita Alegria, Héctor R. Bird
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2013.21006

Context: Functional impairment is a necessary criterion for most DSM IV disorders, for determining need for services, for evaluating the effectiveness of treatment and for reimbursement of mental health services. It is also an important predictor of mental health service utilization in children. Presently the diagnosis of impairment on axis V of DSM IV makes it difficult to disentangle symptoms and functioning. Furthermore, clinicians are required to consider familial and contextual issues in assessing child impairment, but no specific guidance or guidelines to accomplish this are offered. Conclusions: Given these limitations, a new conceptualization of impairment in functioning based on a modification of the International Classification of Functional Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) is recommended. A new instrument, the Child WHODAS, which is being considered for inclusion in the new edition of DSM 5, is described. This instrument is a disability measure based on the ICF-CY for ascertaining disability in functioning.

Deficit in Phonological Working Memory: A Psycholinguistic Marker in Portuguese Speaking Children with Specific Language Impairment?  [PDF]
Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos Hage, Ana Paola Nicolielo, Marilisa Mantovani Guerreiro
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.55049

Among the disorders of language, the disorder known as Specific Language Impairment (SLI) has aroused the interest of many researchers due to the peculiarity of this disorder, which refers to the great difficulty in developing language skills in the absence of hearing impairment, motor deficit, mental retardation, brain damage, broad development disorders, acquired brain injuries and restricted social interaction. Some researchers have demonstrated that subjects with SLI have deficits in short-term memory skills and the phonological component of working memory leading to semantic and syntactic difficulties. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of children with SLI and normal children using the phonological working memory (PWM) test and verify if there is an association between performance on this test and a test that assesses reading and writing in children with SLI. We selected 44 school children, whose ages ranged between seven and 10 years old, 22 of whom had SLI—Study Group (SG)—and 22 with typical language development (TLD). All subjects were subjected to the Phonological Working Memory Test and Measures Analysis of Reading and Writing. For statistical analysis, we used the Chi-square test. Data analysis showed that children in the SG performed worse than the CG in all the tests that evaluated the PWM indicating that Portuguese speaking children with SLI have a significant gap in their PWM and that this gap can explain the difficulties with oral language. Data analysis showed an association between the nonword repetition test and reading text, dictation and spontaneous writing, suggesting that the difficulties encountered in the field of written language in children with SLI may be connected, even in part, to difficulties in the PWM.

Essay on Playfulness and Play in Children’s Art Class: A Reflection Based on Winnicott  [PDF]
Alain Savoie
Creative Education (CE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.102024
Abstract: From a survey of literature, this article presents some reflections about the value of play and playfulness as, respectively, an activity and a creative attitude of mind to be fostered in art education in children. Indeed, at the heart of any artistic creative impulse sits a playful attitude of the artist towards realitya feature that has been highlighted by the psychoanalyst Winnicott. Following his line of thought, we propose that the art teacher must place the learner in a position of being able to play with her/him, in order to overlap their two areas of playing and establish a learning space. Playfulness and play tend to be confused with impulsive and disruptive behaviours and generally more tolerated at home then school. We claim that artistic activities in school should always be play-based and take place in a playful environment because art and creation emerge from and grow in and as play.
Schedule of Growing Skills II: Pilot Study of an Alternative Scoring Method  [PDF]
Margiad E. Williams, Judy Hutchings, Tracey Bywater, David Daley, Christopher J. Whitaker
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.43021
Abstract: The accurate early identification of developmental delay in young children is important. The aim of this study was to highlight and propose a solution to problems associated with scoring a UK developmental screening tool known as the Schedule of Growing Skills II. Potential problems associated with the sensitivity of this screening tool were identified. As a possible solution to this problem, an alternative scoring method was developed to yield a developmental quotient. A pilot investigation of the new scoring method was conducted through comparisons with the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. Forty-three children aged 0 - 5 years were recruited and administered both developmental assessments. Results from both assessments were compared to examine validity. Both the new and published scoring methods showed good concurrent validity, however the new scoring method demonstrated better criterion-related validity in terms of higher sensitivity, comparable specificity, generally higher over-referrals, and lower under-referrals. The Schedule of Growing Skills II could be a valid, cost-effective way of screening for developmental delay in young children using this new, more sensitive scoring method.
Global Functional Performance and Caregiver Assistance in Autism and Asperger Syndrome  [PDF]
Michele Gea Guimar?es Pozzato, Thais Soares Cianciarullo Minett, Marcelo Rodrigues Masruha, Luiz Celso Pereira Vilanova
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2014.51007

Autism and Asperger’s syndrome belong to a family of neuro-developmental disorders called Pervasive Development Disorders. The aims of this study were to 1) quantify the overall functional performance and need for caregiver assistance in autism (A) and Asperger’s syndrome (AS), 2) compare the findings between groups and to normative data from Brazilian children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 52 children between three and eight years of age diagnosed with either A (n = 26) or SA (n = 26). The Brazilian version of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory was administered. Results: The children with A and AS achieved significantly lower scores than that expected for normality. The children with AS had a significantly better social function than that the children with A had. However, those with A achieved significantly better scores than those with AS on activities related to self-care and mobility, requiring less assistance. Conclusion: While patients with AS are better at social interaction than typical autistic children, they exhibit greater deficits with regard to basic tasks, such as self-care and mobility, requiring greater assistance than children with A.

Risk and Protective Factors in Child Development and the Development of Resilience  [PDF]
Ann Buchanan
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24025
Abstract: It was the distinguished UK psychiatrist, Professor Sir Michael Rutter, who first promoted the idea that there were risk and protective factors within the wider ecological framework of the child which profoundly influenced the child’s development. This paper based on 20 years of research at the Centre for Research into Parenting and Children at University of Oxford will explore some of these risk and protective factors and demonstrate how it is possible to artificially create protective conditions for those children who do not have them naturally, and to promote their resilience, so necessary in this fast changing world.
Risk Factors for Development of Children with Down Syndrome in Brazil  [PDF]
Wesley Correa, Maria de Fatima Minetto, Rafaeli Cappellaro-Kobren, Josafá Moreira Cunha
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.612128
Abstract: The study of risk factors that affect the development of children with Down syndrome (DS) has been the main subject of several studies. In the Brazilian context, the development of instruments to identify such risks is still a challenge. The current study had the objective of examining the characteristics of a diagnostic organizer instrument which detects risk factors for development. The study was conducted in a clinic that offers services to children with DS in a Public Hospital in Curitiba, Brazil—and 15 parents of children from 0 - 8 years with DS that use the ambulatory service were interviewed, while the children’s medical records were also consulted. With the use of the Organization Diagnostic for Early Intervention (ODAP (GAT, 2008)), current and past conditions of child development as well as risk factors were evaluated. The research provided an organization of diagnostic, identifying cumulative risks factors for child development with emphasis on biological and environmental factors, and revealed vulnerabilities. The study provided a comprehensive understanding about the influence of the risk factors to development, as well as informing the development of strategies for intervention to enhance protective factors and promote positive child development and higher quality in family and social relationships.
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