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A Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Carrier Coinfected with Mycobacterium intracellulare and Pneumocystis jirovecii with a Characteristic Compositional Change of Bone Marrow Cells  [PDF]
Sayaka Uda, Shinsuke Shiotsu, Ayaka Omura, Ryosuke Hamashima, Akihiro Yoshimura, Naoko Kurisu, Tomoya Sagawa, Koichi Hasegawa, Tatsuya Yuba, Chieko Takumi, Seiko Ono, Noriya Hiraoka, Noriya Hiraoka
Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases (OJRD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojrd.2017.73011
Abstract: Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in the southern part of Japan. Infection of the virus can cause adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), while most infected individuals remain in a carrier state for a long period of time. Although rare cases of carriers, like ATL patients, who developed opportunistic infections, have been reported, hematological changes of carriers who are prone to opportunistic infections have not been well defined. Here, we present a case of an HTLV-1 carrier who developed Mycobacterium intracellulare infection and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) simultaneously. Flow cytometric analysis of bone marrow cells revealed an aberrant compositional change similar to that in ATL patients. This suggests the presence of a pre-ATL state prior to the development of ATL, which is notable in terms of underlying cellular immunodeficiency.
Simulation of a Daily Precipitation Time Series Using a Stochastic Model with Filtering  [PDF]
Chieko Gomi, Yasuhisa Kuzuha
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2013.34025
Abstract: After we modified raw data for anomalies, we conducted spectral analysis using the data. In the frequency, the spectrum is best described by a decaying exponential function. For this reason, stochastic models characterized by a spectrum attenuated according to a power law cannot be used to model precipitation anomaly. We introduced a new model, the e-model, which properly reproduces the spectrum of the precipitation anomaly. After using the data to infer the parameter values of the e-model, we used the e-model to generate synthetic daily precipitation time series. Comparison with recorded data shows a good agreement. This e-model resembles fractional Brown motion (fBm)/fractional Lévy motion (fLm), especially the spectral method. That is, we transform white noise Xt to the precipitation daily time series. Our analyses show that the frequency of extreme precipitation events is best described by a Lévy law and cannot be accounted with a Gaussian distribution.
Selective Translation of the Measles Virus Nucleocapsid mRNA by La Protein
Chieko Kai
Frontiers in Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00173
Abstract: Measles, caused by measles virus (MeV) infection, is the leading cause of death in children because of secondary infections attributable to MeV-induced immune suppression. Recently, we have shown that wild-type MeVs induce the suppression of protein synthesis in host cells (referred to as “shutoff”) and that viral mRNAs are preferentially translated under shutoff conditions in infected cells. To determine the mechanism behind the preferential translation of viral mRNA, we focused on the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of nucleocapsid (N) mRNA. The La/SSB autoantigen (La) was found to specifically bind to an N-5′UTR probe. Recombinant La enhanced the translation of luciferase mRNA containing the N-5′UTR (N-fLuc), and RNA interference of La suppressed N-fLuc translation. Furthermore, recombinant MeV lacking the La-binding motif in the N-5′UTR displayed delayed viral protein synthesis and growth kinetics at an early phase of infection. These results suggest that La induced predominant translation of N mRNA via binding to its 5′UTR under shutoff conditions. This is the first report on a cellular factor that specifically regulates paramyxovirus mRNA translation.
Fermented Brown Sugar Residue Prolongs the Caenorhabditis elegans Lifespan via DAF-16  [PDF]
Takumi Satoh, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.89061
Abstract: Purification of biomass ethanol from the products of brown sugar yeast-fermentation produces a large amount of residue. This fermentation residue contains abundant brown sugar-derived nutrients and is mainly used as compost or livestock feed. However, the in vivo physiological effects of oral residue ingestion are not known. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological action and molecular mechanism of fermented brown sugar residue in nematode stress tolerance, aging, and lifespan using Caenorhabditis elegans. Fermented brown sugar residue was divided into two layers, supernatant and precipitate, and each was given to nematodes. Analysis of motility and survival rate under thermal stress revealed reduced mobility and increased survival rate following treatment with fermented brown sugar residue. The survival rate of nematodes under 1% H2O2 was markedly increased by the residue and mitochondrial membrane depolarization was induced and mitochondrial radical oxygen species levels increased. Furthermore, aging dependent reduction of motility was suppressed, and the average life span of nematodes was extended by treatment with fermented brown sugar residue. Moreover, the effects of fermented brown sugar residue on stress tolerance, lifespan elongation, and decreased aging dependent momentum reduction were lost in the daf-16 mutant. Taken together, our results show that the various physiological actions of fermented brown sugar residue, including stress tolerance and lifespan extension, occur via DAF-16.
Study on Properties of Silver Powder for Maki-e  [PDF]
Chieko Narita, Yutaro Shimode, Kazushi Yamada
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.61001
Abstract: Maki-e is a traditional Japanese decorative technique that uses the natural lacquer Urushi and metal powders. In 2014, there exist only two companies that manufacture silver powder for the purpose of Maki-e, and this study focuses on comparing the powders manufactured by them. Gloss and color of each silver powder were measured after Maki-e decoration was finished, and EDS (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) was used to determine the differences in their chemical composition. In addition, to verify the effect of polishing, residual gloss after sulfuration and polishing was measured. The study revealed that the shapes of the silver powders (Maru-fun, No. 1) manufactured by the two companies are different and it affects the occupancy rate of Urushi and powder, which in turn affects their gloss and color. Wakou silver has a very strong resistance to sulfuration; however, owing to its Pd content, its chroma is much lower than that of other powders. It was shown that sulfuration on powder surface can be removed by polishing irrespective of the shape and chemical composition ratio of the particles.
Study on Characteristics of Gold Powder with Round Shape for Maki-e  [PDF]
Chieko Narita, Yutaro Shimode, Kazushi Yamada
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2015.610086
Abstract: Maki-e is a traditional Japanese decorative technique that uses the natural lacquer Urushi and metal powders. Currently, there exist only two companies that manufacture metal powder for the purpose of Maki-e, and this research focuses on comparing the material characteristics of the gold powders with round shape manufactured by them. EDS (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis, image analysis of particle shape before and after Maki-e processing, and color analysis of samples after Maki-e processing were carried out in this research. The study revealed that current gold powders with round shape had almost the same content ratio regardless of the manufacturing company and the powder diameter. In addition, spherical shape and irregular shape were observed in any gold powders, and the aggregates were observed in powder with increasing the powder diameter, while the shape of the aggregates differed with manufacturing companies. Therefore, it was indicated that the aggregates in the powder made by Asano Co., Ltd. had an influence on the particle diameter and its deviation after Maki-e processing. Moreover, the powder in Urushi resin has an influence on the Maki-e appearance because there is a color difference in polished powder, powder in Urushi resin, and Urushi resin.
Color Barrier Free Displays in Disaster Situations  [PDF]
Kensei Tsuchida, Chieko Kato, Toshiaki Nagshima
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.42005

Concerning color barrier free, there have been many research studies and an increasing interest in it. For example, to expand activities for the promotion of colorblind-friendly designs not only among scientists but also among industrial products and public facilities, the non-profit organization CUDO (Color Universal Design Organization) was established in 2004. However, there has been very little research of this type focusing on disaster situations. From their experiences volunteering in reconstruction support for victims of the 2011 tsunami, the authors came to recognize the importance for both non-colorblind and colorblind people to notice and distinguish emergency escape notifications, cautions and passage maps quickly and accurately. Therefore this research is aimed at the realization of color barrier free displays in disaster situations. Initially, requirements for color barrier free displays in disaster situations were analyzed. Four desirable criteria were derived as a result: “eye-catching”, “instantly-readable”, “unmistakable” and “stable”. In order to evaluate given signs from the viewpoint of the above criteria, evaluation experiment systems for displays in disaster situations were developed. With the evaluation experiment systems it would be possible to design effective signs and maps as color barrier free displays in disaster situations.

Transperitoneal Calcium Balance in Anuric Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis and Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
Chieko Hamada,Yasuhiko Tomino
International Journal of Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/863791
Abstract: Backgrounds. Calcium (Ca) and bone metabolism in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients show a remarkable difference depending on dialysis modalities. The levels of serum Ca and phosphate (P) in HD patients fluctuate contributing to the intermittent and rapid removal of plasma solute unlike in CAPD. Characteristics of plasma solute transport in automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients are resembled with that in HD. The purpose of the present study was to examine the difference of transperitoneal Ca removal between APD and CAPD anuric patients. Subjects and Methods. Twenty-three APD anuric patients were enrolled in this study. Biochemical parameters responsible for transperitoneal Ca removal in 24-hour and 4-hour peritoneal effluents were analyzed on CAPD and APD. Results. Transperitoneal Ca removal on APD was smaller compared with that on CAPD. The Ca removal was related to the ultrafiltration during short-time dwell. Decrease of the Ca removal during NPD induced by short-time dialysate dwell caused negative or small Ca removal in APD patients. The levels of intact PTH were increased at the end of PET. Conclusion. It appears that short-time dwell and frequent dialysate exchanging might suppress the transperitoneal Ca removal in anuric APD patients. 1. Introduction Bone disease is one of the serious complications in chronic dialysis patients. Adynamic bone disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism are associated with not only viability and quality of life (QOL) but also mortality in long-term dialysis patients. It is generally considered that Ca and bone metabolism between peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients provided remarkable differences according to dialysis modalities. Hemodialysis patients undergo rapid and intermittent removal of phosphate, uremic toxins and excess body fluid from sera, and influx or efflux of Ca influent in such metabolism [1–3]. Higher serum Ca levels and continuous glucose loading occur, which may lead to a higher incidence of adynamic bone in CAPD patients compared with that in HD patients [4, 5]. Patients with very low parathyroid hormone (PTH) level had a higher mortality rate after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, and dialysis vintage [6]. The turnover of bone remodeling in PD patients is lower than that in HD patients [4, 5]. Using 3.5?mEq/L Ca dialysate in HD, Ca removal demonstrated a negative balance [7, 8]. It is recognized that Ca mass transport in CAPD patients depends on the following factors: Ca concentration in the dialysis fluid, starting plasma
Theoretical Status of Pentaquarks
Doi, Takumi
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1143/PTPS.168.45
Abstract: We review the current status of the theoretical pentaquark search from the direct QCD calculation. The works from the QCD sum rule and the lattice QCD in the literature are carefully examined. The importance of the framework which can distinguish the exotic pentaquark state (if any) from the NK scattering state is emphasized.
Pulmonary Vein Isolation with a Multielectrode Basket Catheter
Takumi Yamada
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Pulmonary vein (PV) isolation (PVI) techniques have evolved as a curative treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) since PVI guided by circumferential mapping with a circular catheter was initially proposed. A multielectrode basket catheter (MBC) is also useful for PVI because of some advantages; (1) an MBC provides some information about the PV anatomy on the fluoroscopic image, (2) an MBC can utilize the non-fluoroscopic navigation system, (3) an MBC enables the direct three-dimensional mapping around the PV ostium and antrum, (4) the distal electrodes of the MBC can be used to monitor some activation changes within the PV in real time and thereby indicate the effects of ablation at the ostium and antrum as radiofrequency lesions are created. PVI with an MBC is an effective and safe procedure to cure AF by integrating the PV anatomy and electrophysiology in combination with a non-fluoroscopic three-dimensional navigation system for the ablation catheter.
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