Abstract:
Estimation of progression rates in the multi-state model is performed using the E-M algorithm. This approach is applied to data on Type 2 diabetes screening.Good convergence of estimations is demonstrated. In contrast to previous Markov models, the major advantage of our proposed method is that integrating the prevalence pool equation (that the numbers entering the prevalence pool is equal to the number leaving it) into the likelihood function not only simplifies the likelihood function but makes estimation of parameters stable.This approach may be useful in quantifying the progression of a variety of chronic diseases.While the relationship between exposure and outcome is explored in traditional epidemiology, the status of the disease in question is usually expressed as a dichotomous state: disease and non-disease. Categorizing the disease of interest into two states, more often than not, may not only widen the gap between epidemiologists, who are interested in the occurrence of disease, and clinicians, who are concerned with the prognosis of disease, but also limit investigation of the disease progression for the majority of chronic diseases. As a matter of fact, chronic diseases usually have a multi-state property for which a dynamic progression from the early stage to the late stage proceeds under the influence of a range of internal and external risk factors. In order to elucidate the mechanism of disease progression quantifying the multi-state natural history of the disease becomes important in the new era of epidemiology.Multi-state models are increasingly used to model the progression of chronic diseases [1,2]. Such models are useful for study of both natural history and progression of the related disease [3,4]. Examples include the estimation of transition rates of growth, spread of breast cancer [4], and outcomes of cardiac transplantation [2]. Quantifying the progression of chronic diseases from mild state to advanced state is also relevant to prevention a

Abstract:
This article [1] has been retracted because the Editors are unable to ensure the scientific veracity of the findings or the ethical conduct of the authors despite an extensive investigation.The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/9/45/prepub

Abstract:
In this paper, a compact planar monopole antenna with eight-band LTE/WWAN (LTE700/2300/2500/GSM850/900/1800/1900/UMTS) operation for laptop computer application is presented. This design structure comprises a bent driven strip and two coupled strips, which can contribute multiple resonance modes to combine two wide operating frequency bands covering 665-1023 MHz and 1612-2924 MHz. The proposed antenna fed by a 50-Ω coaxial cable occupies a small size of only 65()x11()x0.4() mm, so it can be flexibly embedded inside the casing of the laptop computer as an internal antenna. A fabricated prototype of the antenna is tested and analyzed. Experimental results exhibit that nearly omnidirectional coverage and stable gain variation across the desirable LTE/WWAN bands can be obtained with the antenna.

Abstract:
The gold(I)/silver(I)-cocatalyzed cascade intermolecular N-Michael addition/intramolecular hydroalkylation reaction offers a simple and efficient method for the synthesis of pyrrolidine derivatives in moderate to excellent product yields and with moderate to good diastereoselectivities. The reaction conditions and the substrate scope of this reaction are examined, and a possible mechanism involving AgClO4 catalyzed intermolecular N-Michael addition and the subsequent gold(I)-catalyzed hydroalkylation is proposed.

Abstract:
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of gallstone disease (GSD) and to evaluate the risk of symptomatic GSD among diabetic patients. METHODS: The study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) dataset of ambulatory care patients, inpatient claims, and the updated registry of beneficiaries from 2000 to 2008. A total of 615 532 diabetic patients without a prior history of hospital treatment or ambulatory care visits for symptomatic GSD were identified in the year 2000. Age- and gender-matched control individuals free from both GSD and diabetes from 1997 to 1999 were randomly selected from the NHIR database (n = 614 871). The incidence densities of symptomatic GSD were estimated according to the subjects’ diabetic status. The distributions of age, gender, occupation, income, and residential area urbanization were compared between diabetic patients and control subjects using Cox proportion hazards models. Differences between the rates of selected comorbidities were also assessed in the two groups. RESULTS: Overall, 60 734 diabetic patients and 48 116 control patients developed symptomatic GSD and underwent operations, resulting in cumulative operation rates of 9.87% and 7.83%, respectively. The age and gender distributions of both groups were similar, with a mean age of 60 years and a predominance of females. The diabetic group had a significantly higher prevalence of all comorbidities of interest. A higher incidence of symptomatic GSD was observed in females than in males in both groups. In the control group, females under the age of 64 had a significantly higher incidence of GSD than the corresponding males, but this difference was reduced with increasing age. The cumulative incidences of operations for symptomatic GSD in the diabetic and control groups were 13.06 and 9.52 cases per 1000 person-years, respectively. Diabetic men exhibited a higher incidence of operations for symptomatic GSD than did their counterparts in the control group (12.35 vs 8.75 cases per 1000 person-years). CONCLUSION: The association of diabetes with increased symptomatic GSD may provide insight to the treatment or management of diabetes in clinical settings.

Abstract:
We introduce the notions of the function and function, and then we prove two common fixed point theorems in complete generalized metric spaces under contractive conditions with these two functions. Our results generalize or improve many recent common fixed point results in the literature.

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We obtain some new fixed point theorems for -contractive mappings in ordered metric spaces. Our results generalize or improve many recent fixed point theorems in the literature (e.g., Harjani et al., 2011 and 2010).

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We obtain some new fixed point theorems for a ( )-pair Meir-Keeler-type set-valued contraction map in metric spaces. Our main results generalize and improve the results of Klim and Wardowski, (2007). 1. Introduction and Preliminaries Let be a metric space, a subset of , and a map. We say is contractive if there exists such that, for all , The well-known Banach’s fixed-point theorem asserts that if , is contractive and is complete, then has a unique fixed point in . It is well known that the Banach contraction principle [1] is a very useful and classical tool in nonlinear analysis. Also, this principle has many generalizations. For instance, a mapping is called a quasi-contraction if there exists such that for any . In 1974, ？iri？ [2] introduced these maps and proved an existence and uniqueness fixed-point theorem. Throughout this paper, by we denote the set of all real numbers, while is the set of all natural numbers. Let be a metric space. Let denote a collection of all nonempty closed subsets of and a collection of all nonempty closed and bounded subsets of . The existence of fixed points for various multivalued contractive mappings had been studied by many authors under different conditions. In 1969, Nadler Jr. [3] extended the famous Banach contraction principle from single-valued mapping to multivalued mapping and proved the below fixed-point theorem for multivalued contraction. Theorem 1.1 (see [3]). Let be a complete metric space, and let be a mapping from into . Assume that there exists such that where denotes the Hausdorff metric on induced by ; that is, , for all and . Then has a fixed point in . In 1989, Mizoguchi-Takahashi [4] proved the following fixed-point theorem. Theorem 1.2 (see [4]). Let be a complete metric space, and let be a map from into . Assume that for all , where satisfies for all . Then has a fixed point in . In 2006, Feng and Liu [5] gave the following theorem. Theorem 1.3 (see [5]). Let be a complete metric space, and let be a multivalued map. If there exist , such that for any , there is satisfying the following two conditions:(i) ,(ii) . Then has a fixed point in provided that the mapping defined by , , is lower semicontinuous; that is, if for any and , , then . In 2007, Klim and Wardowski [6] proved the following fixed point theorem. Theorem 1.4 (see [6]). Let be a complete metric space, and let be a multivalued map. Assume that the following conditions hold:(i)the mapping defined by , , is lower semicontinuous;(ii)there exist and such that Then has a fixed point in . Recently, Pathak and Shahzad [7] introduced a new

Abstract:
We introduce the notions of the asymptotic ？-sequence with respect to the stronger Meir-Keeler cone-type mapping ∶int()∪{}→[0,1) and the asymptotic ？-sequence with respect to the weaker Meir-Keeler cone-type mapping ∶int()∪{}→int()∪{} and prove some common fixed point theorems for these two asymptotic sequences in cone metric spaces with regular cone . Our results generalize some recent results.