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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3211 matches for " Chenguang Niu "
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High-density lipoprotein of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus upregulates cyclooxgenase-2 expression and prostacyclin I-2 release in endothelial cells: relationship with HDL-associated sphingosine-1-phosphate
Xunliang Tong, Hui Peng, Donghui Liu, Liang Ji, Chenguang Niu, Jun Ren, Bing Pan, Jianying Hu, Lemin Zheng, Yining Huang
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-27
Abstract: Subjects with T2DM with or without proved large arteries atherosclerosis and normal controls (n=15 for each group) were recruited in the present study. HDL was isolated from the subjects by ultracentrifugation. The levels of HDL-associated S1P were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The protective function of diabetic HDL and S1P was evaluated by measuring cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostacyclin I-2 (PGI-2) release by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively.The S1P levels in isolated HDL were significantly increased in T2DM subjects compared with controls (235.6 +/- 13.4 vs 195.0 +/- 6.4 ng/mg, P< 0.05). The diabetic HDL exerted greater protective effects on inducing COX-2 expression and PGI-2 release by HUVECs than those of control HDL (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). Pertussis toxin, a common inhibitor of G-couple protein receptors, and VPC 23019, an antagonist of S1P receptor 1 and 3 significantly attenuated HDL-induced COX-2 expression and PGI-2 release.Diabetic HDL carries higher level of S1P compared with normal HDL, which has the potential to contribute to protective effects on endothelial cells by inducing COX-2 expression and PGI-2 release. These findings provide a new insight of S1P function in T2DM patients, possibly leading to a new therapeutic target.
A Generalized Information Formula as the Bridge between Shannon and Popper
Chenguang Lu
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: A generalized information formula related to logical probability and fuzzy set is deduced from the classical information formula. The new information measure accords with to Popper's criterion for knowledge evolution very much. In comparison with square error criterion, the information criterion does not only reflect error of a proposition, but also reflects the particularity of the event described by the proposition. It gives a proposition with less logical probability higher evaluation. The paper introduces how to select a prediction or sentence from many for forecasts and language translations according to the generalized information criterion. It also introduces the rate fidelity theory, which comes from the improvement of the rate distortion theory in the classical information theory by replacing distortion (i.e. average error) criterion with the generalized mutual information criterion, for data compression and communication efficiency. Some interesting conclusions are obtained from the rate-fidelity function in relation to image communication. It also discusses how to improve Popper's theory.
Subjective Information Measure and Rate Fidelity Theory
Chenguang Lu
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Using fish-covering model, this paper intuitively explains how to extend Hartley's information formula to the generalized information formula step by step for measuring subjective information: metrical information (such as conveyed by thermometers), sensory information (such as conveyed by color vision), and semantic information (such as conveyed by weather forecasts). The pivotal step is to differentiate condition probability and logical condition probability of a message. The paper illustrates the rationality of the formula, discusses the coherence of the generalized information formula and Popper's knowledge evolution theory. For optimizing data compression, the paper discusses rate-of-limiting-errors and its similarity to complexity-distortion based on Kolmogorov's complexity theory, and improves the rate-distortion theory into the rate-fidelity theory by replacing Shannon's distortion with subjective mutual information. It is proved that both the rate-distortion function and the rate-fidelity function are equivalent to a rate-of-limiting-errors function with a group of fuzzy sets as limiting condition, and can be expressed by a formula of generalized mutual information for lossy coding, or by a formula of generalized entropy for lossless coding. By analyzing the rate-fidelity function related to visual discrimination and digitized bits of pixels of images, the paper concludes that subjective information is less than or equal to objective (Shannon's) information; there is an optimal matching point at which two kinds of information are equal; the matching information increases with visual discrimination (defined by confusing probability) rising; for given visual discrimination, too high resolution of images or too much objective information is wasteful.
GPS Information and Rate Tolerance - Clarifying Relationship between Rate Distortion and Complexity Distortion
Chenguang Lu
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: I proposed rate tolerance and discussed its relation to rate distortion in my book "A Generalized Information Theory" published in 1993. Recently, I examined the structure function and the complexity distortion based on Kolmogorov's complexity theory. It is my understanding now that complexity-distortion is only a special case of rate tolerance while constraint sets change from fuzzy sets into clear sets that look like balls with the same radius. It is not true that the complexity distortion is generally equivalent to rate distortion as claimed by the researchers of complexity theory. I conclude that a rate distortion function can only be equivalent to a rate tolerance function and both of them can be described by a generalized mutual information formula where P(Y|X) is equal to P(Y|Tolerance). The paper uses GPS as an example to derive generalized information formulae and proves the above conclusions using mathematical analyses and a coding example. The similarity between the formula for measuring GPS information and the formula for rate distortion function can deepen our understanding the generalized information measure.
Illustrating Color Evolution and Color Blindness by the Decoding Model of Color Vision
Chenguang Lu
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: A symmetrical model of color vision, the decoding model as a new version of zone model, was introduced. The model adopts new continuous-valued logic and works in a way very similar to the way a 3-8 decoder in a numerical circuit works. By the decoding model, Young and Helmholtz's tri-pigment theory and Hering's opponent theory are unified more naturally; opponent process, color evolution, and color blindness are illustrated more concisely. According to the decoding model, we can obtain a transform from RGB system to HSV system, which is formally identical to the popular transform for computer graphics provided by Smith (1978). Advantages, problems, and physiological tests of the decoding model are also discussed.
Preparation and Characterization of Self-Assembled Nanoparticles of Hyaluronic Acid-Deoxycholic Acid Conjugates
Xuemeng Dong,Chenguang Liu
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/906936
Abstract: Novel amphiphilic biopolymers were synthesized using hyaluronic acid (HA) as a hydrophilic segment and deoxycholic acid (DOCA) as a hydrophobic segment by a 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide mediated coupling reaction. The structural characteristics of the HA-DOCA conjugates were investigated using NMR. Self-assembled nanoparticles were prepared based on HA-DOCA conjugates, and its characteristics were investigated using dynamic laser light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The mean diameter was about 293.5?nm with unimodal size distribution in distilled water. The TEM images revealed that the shape of HA-DOCA self-aggregates was spherical. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC) was in the range of 0.025–0.056?mg/mL. The partition equilibrium constant ( ) of pyrene in self-aggregates solution was from to . The aggregation number of DOCA groups per hydrophobic microdomain, estimated by the fluorescence quenching method using cetylpyridinium chloride, increased with increasing degree of substitution. 1. Introduction Polymeric amphiphiles derived from hydrophobically modified soluble polymers have recently attracted much attention because of their potential application in drug delivery systems [1–3]. Such amphiphiles are able to spontaneously form micelles or nanoparticles via undergoing intra- and/or intermolecular association between hydrophobic moieties in aqueous environment. The hydrophobic parts form the core of the nanoparticles, which is a host system for various hydrophobic drugs, while the hydrophilic backbone forms corona or outer shells enwrapping the hydrophobic core. This shell prevents the inactivation of the encapsulated drug molecules by decreasing the contact with the inactivating species in the aqueous (blood) phase [4–6]. Furthermore, these polymeric nanoparticles exhibit unique characteristics, such as special rheological features, a rather narrow size distribution, considerable lower critical aggregation concentrations (CAC) than surfactant of low molecular weight, and thermodynamic stability [4, 7–9]. Recently, self-assembled nanoparticles based on natural polysaccharides have been of particular interest because of their good biocompatibility, biodegradability, reduced toxic side effects, and improved therapeutic effects [10–12]. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural mucopolysaccharide that consists of alternating residues D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. HA plays a key role in the structure and organization of the extracellular matrix, transport of
Electromagnetically-Induced-Transparency-Like Effect in the Degenerate Triple-Resonant Optical Parametric Amplifier
Chenguang Ye,Jing Zhang
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1364/OL.33.001911
Abstract: We investigate experimentally the absorptive and dispersive properties of triple-resonant optical parametric amplifier OPA for the degenerate subharmonic field. In the experiment, the subharmonic field is utilized as the probe field and the harmonic wave as the pump field. We demonstrate that EIT-like effect can be simulated in the triple-resonant OPA when the cavity line-width for the harmonic wave is narrower than that for the subharmonic field. However, this phenomenon can not be observed in a double-resonant OPA. The narrow transparency window appears in the reflected field. Especially, in the measured dispersive spectra of triple-resonant OPA, a very steep variation of the dispersive profile of the subharmonic field is observed, which can result in a slow light as that observed in atomic EIT medium.
Percolation on the institute-enterprise R&D collaboration networks
Chenguang Li,Yongan Zhang
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Realistic network-like systems are usually composed of multiple networks with interacting relations such as school-enterprise research and development collaboration networks. Here we study the percolation properties of a special kind of that R&D collaboration networks, namely institute-enterprise R&D collaboration networks. We introduce two actual IERDCNs to show their structural properties, and present a mathematical framework based on generating functions for analyzing an interacting network with any connection probability. Then we illustrate the percolation threshold and structural parameter arithmetic in the sub-critical and supercritical regimes. We compare the predictions of our mathematical framework and arithmetic to data for two real R&D collaboration networks and a number of simulations, and we find that they are in remarkable agreement with the data. We show applications of the framework to electronics R&D collaboration networks.
Hypochlorite-induced oxidative stress elevates the capability of HDL in promoting breast cancer metastasis
Bing Pan, Hui Ren, Xiaofeng Lv, Yangyu Zhao, Baoqi Yu, Yubin He, Yijing Ma, Chenguang Niu, Jinge Kong, Fangzhu Yu, Wen-bing Sun, Youyi Zhang, Belinda Willard, Lemin Zheng
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-10-65
Abstract: Human breast cancer cell lines were treated with normal and hypochlorite-oxidized HDL, and then cell metastasis potency in vivo and the abilities of migration, invasion, adhesion to HUVEC and ECM in vitro were examined. Integrin expression and PKC activity were evaluated, and PKC inhibitor and PKC siRNA was applied.We found hypochlorite-oxidized HDL dramatically promotes breast cancer cell pulmonary metastasis (133.4% increase at P < 0.0 l for MDA-MB-231 by mammary fat pad injection; 164.3% increase at P < 0.01 for MCF7 by tail vein injection) and hepatic metastasis (420% increase at P < 0.0 l for MDA-MB-231 by mammary fat pad injection; 1840% fold increase at P < 0.001 for MCF7 by tail vein injection) in nude mice, and stimulates higher cell invasion (85.1% increase at P < 0.00 l for MDA-MB-231; 88.8% increase at P < 0.00 l for MCF7;), TC-HUVEC adhesion (43.4% increase at P < 0.00 l for MDA-MB-231; 35.2% increase at P < 0.00 l for MCF7), and TC-ECM attachment (41.0% increase at P < 0.00 l for MDA-MB-231; 26.7% increase at P < 0.05 for MCF7) in vitro compared with normal HDL. The data also shows that the PKC pathway is involved in the abnormal actions of hypochlorite-oxidized HDL.Our study demonstrated that HDL under hypochlorite-induced oxidative stress stimulates breast cancer cell migration, invasion, adhesion to HUVEC and ECM, thereby promoting metastasis of breast cancer. These results suggest that HDL-based treatments should be considered for treatment of breast cancer patients.Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm among women worldwide, and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death [1]. Annually, about one million women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer and 400,000 patients die from the disease [2]. The etiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. It is suggested that oxidative stress which is responsible for protein, lipid and DNA damage plays an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer [3]. Hypochlorit
Effect of Fine-Grained Lexical Rating on L2 Learners’ Lexical Learning Gain  [PDF]
Ruiying Niu
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.55038
Abstract: In assessing L2 lexical learning, especially initial learning, researchers always face the problem of whether partial word learning should be counted. Existing studies have either counted partial word learning (i.e. counted both partial and complete word learning) or have only counted complete word learning. However, it is not clear whether counting partial word learning makes a difference in capturing task-based and intra-learner lexical learning gain. Few studies have investigated this potential difference and even fewer if both productive and receptive lexical learning are considered. The present study employed differently fine-grained word rating methods to assess three Chinese EFL learner groups’ performances on four vocabulary posttests after receiving three treatment tasks: a written output task, an oral output task, and a reading task. Data analyses revealed that the use of differently fine-grained scoring methods did not necessarily affect learners’ cross-task lexical learning effects significantly, but it did make a significant difference in measuring individual learners’ lexical learning gain. The findings are discussed with reference to whether and how a less or more fine-grained scoring method should be adopted in rating lexical learning.
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