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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100876 matches for " Chen-Kang Chang "
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Estimates of energy expenditure using the RT3 accelerometer in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus  [PDF]
Tim K. Tso, Wen-Nan Huang, Chen-Kang Chang
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.26089
Abstract: This study aimed to characterize energy expenditure patterns using the triaxial accelerometer and to identify the association of energy expenditure with clinical parameters in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Estimates of energy expenditures represented by total activity calorie (TA), physical activity calorie (PA), total activity calorie per body weight (TABW), and physical activity calorie per body weight (PABW) of 49 female SLE patients were assessed using the RT3 triaxial accelerometer (StayHealthy, Monrovia, CA) in a sevenday period. SLE patients in the highest body mass index (BMI) tertile showed significantly lower values of TABW compared to those in the lowest tertile, while SLE patients in the lowest TABW tertile showed significantly higher body weight, waist circumference, BMI, SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), dosage of prednisone, and blood pressure. There was a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and SLE patients with metabolic syndrome showed significantly lower TABW. In addition, both TABW and PABW significantly but negatively correlated with SLEDAI. In conclusion, the RT3 accelerometer is suitable for evaluating total and physical activity-related energy expenditure in patients with SLE. TABW measured by the triaxial accelerometer is inversely related with body weight status and disease activity in SLE patients. This suggests that estimates of energy expenditure by the tri-axial accelerometer may be applied in the management of SLE.
The association of circulating interleukin-18 with fasting insulin and weight loss in obese children  [PDF]
Tim K. Tso, Wen-Nan Huang, Chen-Kang Chang
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.27102
Abstract: Obesity is an independent risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease and increases insulin resistance in children. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a novel pro-inflammatory cytokine with potential atherogenetic properties. This study ai- med to identify circulating levels of IL-18 in obese children and examine the effects of combined nutritional education-physical activity course on circulating IL-18. Plasma IL-18, body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose and insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA IR), lipid profile, uric acid, high- sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine were determined in 70 obese children aged 10-12 years before and after attending a 13-week weight reduction program, which included physical activities and nutritional education. Twenty-five age-matched non-obese children served as controls. At baseline, obese children had significantly higher levels of BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA IR, triglyceride (TG), uric acid, hs-CRP, and IL-18 but lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) than non-obese children. Plasma IL-18 levels in obese children decreased significantly after the weight reduction program. At baseline, plasma IL-18 levels in obese children positively correlated with BMI, HOMA IR, insulin and TG but negatively correlated with HDL-C. There was a significant relationship between plasma IL-18 and BMI changes. Moreover, fasting insulin was responsible for IL-18 variability in obese children. These findings suggest that elevated plasma IL-18 levels in obese children are partly associated with parameters of obesity and insulin resistance, and are significantly affected by modest weight loss.
Ching-Lin Wu,Wei Hung,Shin-Yuan Wang,Chen-Kang Chang
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: The endocrine system has been suggested as a useful indicator for training stress (Kraemer and Ratamess, 2005). An equilibrium between anabolic and catabolic states in athletes is often represented by testosterone-to-cortisol ratio (TCR). Changes in TCR have been positively related to weight training performance (Hakkinen, et al., 1987). The decreased TCR has been used as an indicator for overtraining (Roberts, et al., 1993, Vervoorn, et al., 1991) and insufficient recovery (Passelergue and Lac, 1999). Elite weightlifters undergo year-round training with various overreaching and recovery periods. Previous investigations have not established the detailed time course of the hormonal responses in these periods mostly due to insufficient sampling frequencies.We investigated the changes in serum levels of total and free testosterone and cortisol, free testosterone-to-free cortisol ratio (FTFCR), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroxine (FT4) every 2 weeks for 21 weeks in an elite male weightlifter. This study was performed from August, 2003 to January, 2004, including the preparation, taper, and recovery periods for the World Championship in November, 2003.The 27-year-old male weightlifter holds the national records of Taiwan (Chinese Taipei) in 56 and 62 kg categories. The subject had ranked top 5 in the world for several years prior to this study and ranked first in the world in 2005 in 56 kg category. His height was 1.58 m and body weight ranged from 55.8 to 59.6 kg during the 21-week study period. The subject has no history of using anabolic steroid or other banned substances. Venous blood samples were collected after overnight fast every 2 weeks between 7 and 8 am. The first blood sample after the World Championship was collected in week 15. Serum concentrations of total and free testosterone and cortisol were measured with enzyme immunoassay and IGF-1 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc., Webster, TX, USA) according to the protocols recommended by the manufacturer. Serum levels of FT3 and FT4 were measured by electrochemiluminescence using an automatic analyzer (Elecsys 2110, Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland). Blood samples were frozen and analyzed within 3 days after collection.Serum hormone concentrations in the end of each 2-week period and the total weight lifted during the 2 weeks prior to the day of blood sampling were shown in Table 1. After reaching the lowest in week 2, total testosterone level showed a general trend of mild increase thro
Private doctors' practices, knowledge, and attitude to reporting of communicable diseases: a national survey in Taiwan
Hsiu-Fen Tan, Chia-Yu Yeh, Hsueh-Wei Chang, Chen-Kang Chang, Hung-Fu Tseng
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-9-11
Abstract: A total of 1250 clinics were randomly sampled nationwide by a 2-stage process. Data were collected from 1093 private doctors (87.4% response rate) using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Four hundred and six (37.2%) doctors reported having diagnosed reportable communicable diseases. Among them, 340 (83.5%) have the experiences of reporting.The most common reasons for not reporting were "do not want to violate the patient's privacy", "reporting procedure is troublesome", and "not sure whether the diagnosed disease is reportable". Significantly higher proportions of the non-reporting doctors considered the reporting system inconvenient or were not familiar with the system. The highest percentage (65.2%) of the non-reporting doctors considered that a simplified reporting procedure, among all measures, would increase their willingness to report. In addition, a significantly higher proportion of the non-reporting doctors would increase their willingness to report if there has been a good reward for reporting or a penalty for not reporting.The most effective way to improve reporting rate may be to modify doctor's attitude to disease reporting. The development of a convenient and widely-accepted reporting system and the establishment of a reward/penalty system may be essential in improving disease reporting compliance in private doctors.Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases through the mandatory-reporting system is crucial in the planning and evaluation of disease prevention and control programs, in the assurance of appropriate medical therapy, and in the detection of common-source outbreaks [1,2]. The Communicable Disease Control Act in Taiwan requires doctors and/or other designated medical personnel to file either a detailed or an abridged report of cases of notifiable diseases to local or central competent authorities through telephone/fax or computer.It has been shown that approximately half of the primary care doctors in Germany [3], Austral
Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match
Ching-Lin Wu, Mu-Chin Shih, Chia-Cheng Yang, Ming-Hsiang Huang, Chen-Kang Chang
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-7-33
Abstract: Tennis is an intermittent sport with the actual playing time being 17-28% of total match duration [1]. The remainder of the time is recovery between points and games. On average, the rallies last 4.3-7.7 sec in men's Grand Slam tournament matches [2]. At the stroke frequency of approximately 0.75 shots. sec-1 [2], the cumulative effect of the repetitive short-term high-intensity efforts throughout prolonged tennis matches could result in significant neuromuscular fatigue [1,3], which in turn may impair certain aspects of skilled performance [4,5]. Indeed, the stroke accuracy was significantly decreased in competitive tennis players near the point of volitional fatigue [6]. Stroke accuracy and velocity were also significantly decreased after a strenuous training session (average rating of perceived exertion (RPE) 15.9/20) in well-trained tennis players [7].One of the potential factors that may influence the skilled tennis performance is neural function. The central activation failure, changes in neurotransmitter levels and disturbance in excitation-contraction coupling have been suggested to play an important role in the development of fatigue in prolonged tennis matches [3,8]. The decline in maximal voluntary contraction and electromyographic activity of knee extensor muscles occurred progressively during a 3-hour tennis match, indicating a decreasing number of motor units that are voluntarily recruited [3]. The impairments in neural functions in lower limbs may lead to the slower acceleration in movement and the inability to reach the optimal stroke position. In addition, the neural impairments in forearm muscles may result in the poor control of the racquet.Alkalinizing agents including sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) have been proposed as ergogenic aids for their potential effects on providing enhanced extracellular buffer capacity, leading to the elevated proton (H+) efflux from the contracting musculature [9,10]. The increased intramuscular [H+] during exercise has
Effects of carbohydrate, branched-chain amino acids, and arginine in recovery period on the subsequent performance in wrestlers
Tsong-Rong Jang, Ching-Lin Wu, Chai-Ming Chang, Wei Hung, Shih-Hua Fang, Chen-Kang Chang
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-8-21
Abstract: Carbohydrate availability is one of the crucial factors for performance in endurance [1] and high-intensity intermittent exercise [2]. It has been well-documented that carbohydrate supplementation before a single-bout of endurance [3] and high-intensity intermittent exercise [4] could improve the performance. In real circumstances, many athletes undergo more than 1 training session per day. In addition, many competitions require athletes to participate in multiple events in a single day. Therefore, adequate nutritional strategies during the short-term post-exercise recovery period may be critical for the performance in subsequent exercise. Several studies have shown that ingestion of protein with carbohydrate after exercise increases muscle glycogen resynthesis rate, compared to the same amount of carbohydrate [5,6]. The increased muscle glycogen recovery may lead to the improved performance during subsequent endurance exercise [7].Muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise consists of two phases. The initial insulin-independent phase that lasts approximately 1 hour has a higher resynthesis rate. It is followed by an insulin-dependent phase with a lower rate that lasts several hours [8]. Previous studies have suggested that branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and arginine may help improve both phases. Studies in rats have shown that BCAA could stimulate insulin-independent glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by increasing the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 and GLUT-1 to the sarcolemma [9]. Leucine also activated glycogen synthetase via activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signals in isolated muscles [10]. Isoleucine increased insulin-independent glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in C2C12 myotubes [11]. In addition, nitric oxide (NO), a product of arginine, could increase the insulin-independent expression and translocation of GLUT-4 in rat skeletal muscles [12]. The vasodilation effect of arginine could increase blood flow and substrate
Green Tea Consumption after Intense Taekwondo Training Enhances Salivary Defense Factors and Antibacterial Capacity
Shiuan-Pey Lin, Chia-Yang Li, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Chen-Kang Chang, Kuei-Ming Chou, Shih-Hua Fang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087580
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on selected salivary defense proteins, antibacterial capacity and anti-oxidation activity in taekwondo (TKD) athletes, following intensive training. Twenty-two TKD athletes performed a 2-hr TKD training session. After training, participants ingested green tea (T, caffeine 6 mg/kg and catechins 22 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water (W). Saliva samples were collected at three time points: before training (BT-T; BT-W), immediately after training (AT-T; AT-W), and 30 min after drinking green tea or water (Rec-T; Rec-W). Salivary total protein, immunoglobulin A (SIgA), lactoferrin, α-amylase activity, free radical scavenger activity (FRSA) and antibacterial capacity were measured. Salivary total protein, lactoferrin, SIgA concentrations and α-amylase activity increased significantly immediately after intensive TKD training. After tea drinking and 30 min rest, α-amylase activity and the ratio of α-amylase to total protein were significantly higher than before and after training. In addition, salivary antibacterial capacity was not affected by intense training, but green tea consumption after training enhanced salivary antibacterial capacity. Additionally, we observed that salivary FRSA was markedly suppressed immediately after training and quickly returned to pre-exercise values, regardless of which fluid was consumed. Our results show that green tea consumption significantly enhances the activity of α-amylase and salivary antibacterial capacity.
Transmission Strategy and Power Allocation for MIMO-OFDM Broadcast Channels with Power-limited Constraints

Song Fei,Wu Qi-hui,Pan Chen-kang,Wang Jin-long,

电子与信息学报 , 2008,
Abstract: Transmission optimization for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) broadcast channel with power-limited constraints is analyzed in this paper. Applying different optimization rules, two different transmission strategies are proposed. One is Optimal Space Distance Dirty Paper Coding(OSD-DPC), the other is Max Signal to Noise Ratio Dirty Paper Coding (MSNR-DPC). Numerical results show that proposed schemes have the similar performance to the optimal schemes and are capable of improving the system capacity and performance with power-limited constraints.
Transgenic Mouse (Tg2576) Is an Ideal Model for the Biological Characterization of [18F]-FDDNP for Identifying Alzheimer’s Disease  [PDF]
Kang-Wei Chang, Shih-Ying Lee, Chia-Chieh Chen
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.312001

[18F]-FDDNP was synthesized and characterized as a positron-emitting probe to identify Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in transgenic mouse models (Tg2576 and dE9) expressing the AD pathology. We observed in in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo studies that [18F]-FDDNP accumulated specifically in the Ab-overexpressing brain regions and that this accumulation was significantly reduced by co-incubation with non-radioactive FDDNP. In ex vivo and in vivo studies of brain sections, the retention of radioactivity was more specific in Tg2576 mice than in dE9 mice. Using in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo, and ELISA analyses, we characterized the utility of [18F]-FDDNP in mapping b-amyloid in the Tg2576 mouse brain, to assess its potential application in imaging strategies.

SWCF of Forest in Three-Gorges of Yangtze River  [PDF]
Kang Chen
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2014.21003

In Qinjiagou watershed of Three-Gorge of Yangtze River, 18 indices were selected from canopy layer, litter layer, soil layer and topography to evaluate the soil and water conservation capacities of four common plantation types by ideal point method. Results indicated that the broadleaf plantation of robur (Lithocrpus glabra) and Chinese gugertree (Schima superba) (LS) has the biggest soil and water conservation capacity. The rank of three other plantation types from big to small is the mixed broadleaf plantation of sweetgum (Liguidambar formosana), Chinese gugertree and camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) (LSC), the mixed broadleaf-conifer plantation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) and Chinese gugertree (CPS), and the mixed Pine plantation of Chinese fir and Masson pine (CP). Under the same climate and topographical condition, the broadleaf plantation has better soil and water conservation capacity than the conifer plantation. Sensitivity analysis showed that the three most sensitive indices are soil non-capillary porosity, soil aggregation, and soil initial infiltration rate. The litter amount and soil properties are the most important indicators of soil and water conservation capacity of plantations. Therefore, suitable measurements such as deep tillage should be taken to improve the properties of soil under different plantations.

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