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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 78261 matches for " Chen YW "
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Sediment distribution and composition on the shallow water carbonate basin of the Zanzibar channel
YW Shaghude
Tanzania Journal of Science , 2003,
Abstract: Sediments of the shallow water carbonate basin in Zanzibar channel were investigated for composition and grain size distribution. The surface sediment composition was dominated by carbonate sands (with CaCO3 > 30%), except in the area adjacent to mainland coastline and a thin lobe which projects from Ruvu River to the middle of the channel. Mean grain size distribution closely resembles that of the carbonate content, where Tidally Dominated Reef Platform Sediments (TDRPS) located east of the Zanzibar channel were characterised by medium to coarse sands and the siliciclastic sediments adjacent to the mainland were characterised by fine sand. The TDRPS are the most poorly sorted sediments with sorting values between 1.2 and 1.6 phi. The present study highlights existence of major differences between the eastern and western sides of the channel. Sediments on the eastern side of the channel, that are predominantly biogenic, were characterized by grain size frequency curves without any prominent mode. Sediments on the western side of the channel are composed of both biogenic and terrigenous material. The grain size frequency curves of these sediments have a fine mode and usually a coarse tail. Tanz. J. Sci. Vol.29(1) 2003: 35-44
Suicide among adults aged 30–49: A psychological autopsy study in Hong Kong
Paul WC Wong, Wincy SC Chan, Eric YH Chen, Sandra SM Chan, YW Law, Paul SF Yip
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-147
Abstract: The next-of-kin of 85 suicide cases and 85 community subjects aged 30–49 years were interviewed by a psychological autopsy approach. Information was triangulated by interview notes, coroner's court files, and police investigation reports.A multiple logistic regression analysis identified the following risk factors for suicide among the middle age people in Hong Kong: the presence of at least one psychiatric disorder (OR = 37.5, 95% CI 11.5–121.9, p < 0.001), indebtedness (OR = 9.4, 95% CI 2.2–40.8, p < 0.01), unemployment (OR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.3–17.5, p < 0.05), never married (OR = 4.2, 95% CI 1.1–16.3, p < 0.05), and lived alone (OR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.2–13.4, p < 0.05).The data show that socio-economical factors had a strong impact on suicide in the target group. Further research is needed to explore any positive qualities that protect the middle-aged from suicide. The prevention of suicide in the middle-aged requires multiple strategies.There are growing concerns about the recent increasing rates of middle-aged suicide in Asian countries [1,2]. The trend has also been clearly evident in Hong Kong since the sovereignty handover in 1997. In the last decade, Hong Kong was affected by a number of unanticipated socio-cultural and economical crises. Alongside the region-wide financial turmoil in late 1997, the internet dot-com bubble in late 2000, and the SARS epidemic outbreak in early 2003, an upward trend of a number of ill mental health indicators was evident by an increased demand of psychiatric and hotline services [3]. The emergence of these crises was also paralleled by a surge in suicide rates in all ages in Hong Kong. Hong Kong's suicide rate increased from 12.1 per 100,000 in 1997 to 18.6 per 100,000 in 2003 [2]. Of these increased number of suicide cases a marked increase in fatal suicidal incidents was observed in the 30-to-49-year-olds. The number of fatal suicide cases in this subgroup increased from 294 (10.4 per 100,000) in 1996 to 484 (18.9 per 100,000) in
Exercise prescription for hospitalized people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbidities: a synthesis of systematic reviews
Reid WD, Yamabayashi C, Goodridge D, Chung F, Hunt MA, Marciniuk DD, Brooks D, Chen YW, Hoens AM, Camp PG
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S29750
Abstract: cise prescription for hospitalized people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbidities: a synthesis of systematic reviews Review (5543) Total Article Views Authors: Reid WD, Yamabayashi C, Goodridge D, Chung F, Hunt MA, Marciniuk DD, Brooks D, Chen YW, Hoens AM, Camp PG Published Date May 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 297 - 320 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S29750 Received: 07 January 2012 Accepted: 17 February 2012 Published: 14 May 2012 W Darlene Reid,1,2 Cristiane Yamabayashi,1 Donna Goodridge,3 Frank Chung,4 Michael A Hunt,1 Darcy D Marciniuk,5 Dina Brooks,6 Yi-Wen Chen,1 Alison M Hoens,1,7 Pat G Camp1,2 1Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 2Institute of Heart and Lung Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 3College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, 4Physiotherapy, Burnaby Hospital, Fraser Health, British Columbia, 5Division of Respirology, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, 6Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 7Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada Introduction: The prescription of physical activity for hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) can be complicated by the presence of comorbidities. The current research aimed to synthesize the relevant literature on the benefits of exercise for people with multimorbidities who experience an AECOPD, and ask: What are the parameters and outcomes of exercise in AECOPD and in conditions that are common comorbidities as reported by systematic reviews (SRs)? Methods: An SR was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. Nine electronic databases were searched up to July 2011. Articles were included if they (1) described participants with AECOPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or one of eleven common comorbidities, (2) were an SR, (3) examined aerobic training (AT), resistance training (RT), balance training (BT), or a combination thereof, (4) included at least one outcome of fitness, and (5) compared exercise training versus control/sham. Results: This synthesis examined 58 SRs of exercise training in people with AECOPD, COPD, or eleven chronic conditions commonly associated with COPD. Meta-analyses of endurance (aerobic or exercise capacity, 6-minute walk distance – 6MWD) were shown to significantly improve in most conditions (except osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression), whereas strength was shown to improve in five of the 13 conditions searched: COPD, older adults, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes. Several studies of different conditions also reported improvements in quality of life, function, and control or prevention outcomes. Meta-analyses also demonstrate that exercise training decreases the risk of mortality in older adults, and those with COPD or ischemic heart disease. The most common types of training were AT and RT. BT and
Validation Study of the Siriraj Stroke Score in North-east Nigeria
YW Nyandaiti, SA Bwala
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2008,
Abstract: Background: The management and prognosis of stroke depends on the correct assessment of its pathological sub-type. It is therefore pertinent to have a simple and quick means of evaluating patients with stroke. The Siriraj stroke score (SSS) was developed in Thailand based on clinical parameters and have a good predictive value. This study aims at validating the Siriraj stroke score, as the predictive value of any diagnostic score depends on the prevalence of the disease in the community. Methodology: Patients who had stroke less than fourteen days before admission were enrolled into the study. Clinical variables for calculating the Siriraj stroke score were documented all patients subsequently had computerized tomography scan performed. A total of fifty patients were studied from University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and the State Specialist Hospital Maiduguri Results: Twenty-seven patients had infarction while twenty-three patients had hemorrhagic strokes respectively, based on the CT scan findings. The Siriraj stroke score correctly diagnosed fourteen as infarction and twenty as having hemorrhagic strokes, sixteen subjects were unclassified. The SSS correctly diagnosed thirteen cases as infarctive and seventeen as hemorrhagic strokes as confirmed by CT scan. The sensitivity and the predictive value of the SSS were 76.2% and 93% for infarction and 94.4% and 85% for hemorrhagic stroke respectively with overall accuracy of 84.6%. The clinical variables such as headache, vomiting and atheroma markers did not show discriminant value independently in differentiating CI and CH. However, level of Consciousness (coma) and diastolic blood pressure of greater than 110mmHg are discriminant variables in differentiating CI and CH. Conclusion: Siriraj stroke score is recommended to be used in this community especially where CT scan is not available or affordable and the physician wishes to start thrombolytic or/and anticoagulation therapy.
Pro-life role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase at rostral ventrolateral medulla in experimental brain stem death
Chang Alice YW
Journal of Biomedical Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-96
Abstract: Background Based on an experimental brain stem death model, we demonstrated previously that activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)/mitogen-activated protein kinase signal-interacting kinase 1/2 (MNK1/2) cascade plays a pro-life role in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of a life-and-death signal detected from systemic arterial pressure, which sequentially increases (pro-life) and decreases (pro-death) to reflect progressive dysfunction of central cardiovascular regulation during the advancement towards brain stem death in critically ill patients. The present study assessed the hypothesis that, in addition to ERK1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), the other two mammalian members of MAPKs that are originally identified as stress-activated protein kinases, are activated specifically by MAPK kinase 4 (MAP2K4) or MAP2K6 and play a pro-life role in RVLM during experimental brain stem death. We further delineated the participation of phosphorylating activating transcriptional factor-2 (ATF-2) and c-Jun, the classical transcription factor activated by JNK or p38MAPK, in this process. Results An experimental model of brain stem death that employed microinjection of the organophosphate insecticide mevinphos (Mev; 10 nmol) bilaterally into RVLM of Sprague–Dawley rats was used, alongside cardiovascular, pharmacological and biochemical evaluations. Results from ELISA showed that whereas the total JNK, p38MAPK, MAP2K4 and MAP2K6 were not affected, augmented phosphorylation of JNK at Thr183 and Tyr185 and p38MAPK at Thr180 and Tyr182, accompanied by phosphorylation of their upstream activators MAP2K4 at Ser257 and Thr261 and MAP2K6 at Ser207 and Thr211 in RVLM occurred preferentially during the pro-life phase of experimental brain stem death. Moreover, the activity of transcription factors ATF-2 at Thr71 and c-Jun at Ser73, rather than Elk-1 at Ser383 in RVLM were also augmented during the pro-life phase. Furthermore, pretreatment by microinjection into the bilateral RVLM of specific JNK inhibitors, JNK inhibitor I (100 pmol) or SP600125 (5 pmol), or specific p38MAPK inhibitors, p38MAPK inhibitor III (500 pmol) or SB203580 (2 nmol), exacerbated the depressor effect and blunted the augmented life-and-death signal exhibited during the pro-life phase. On the other hand, pretreatment with the negative control for JNK or p38MAPK inhibitor, JNK inhibitor I negative control (100 pmol) or SB202474 (2 nmol), was ine
Effects of traffic pollution on the genetic structure of Poa annua L. populations
Effects of traffic pollution on the genetic structure of Poa annua L.populations

Li Ning,Chen Xiao-yong,Shen Lang,Li Yuan-yuan,Cai Yue-wei,
Li N
,Chen XY,Shen L,Li YY,Cai YW

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2004,
Abstract: The genetic composition of Poa annua L. populations with a series of traffic pollution was studied by starch electrophoresis. Five enzyme systems were stained. The results showed that: (1) Traffic pollution can dramatically change genotypic frequencies at some loci of P. annua populations. Significant deviations from Hardy Weinberg equilibrium were observed on loci Fe 1 and Me due to the excess of heterozygotes in some populations. (2) The effective number of alleles per locus and the observed and expected heterozygosity were higher in the pollution series than in the clear control site(Botanic Park population), but the increase was not related with the pollution extent. (3) Most genetic variation was found within populations, and only 6 21% was among populations of the polluted series. Slightly higher differentiation( F ST =7 98%) was observed when the control population was included. (4) The calculated gene flow(Nm) is 2 8841 per generation. The mean of genetic identity is 0 9864 and the genetic distance average to 0 0138
Comorbidity and confounding factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep disorders in children
Jan YW, Yang CM, Huang YS
Psychology Research and Behavior Management , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S14055
Abstract: morbidity and confounding factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep disorders in children Review (3690) Total Article Views Authors: Jan YW, Yang CM, Huang YS Published Date September 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 139 - 150 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S14055 Ya-Wen Jan1,2, Chien-Ming Yang1,3, Yu-Shu Huang4,5 1Department of Psychology, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 2Sleep Center of Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei; 3The Research Center for Mind Brain and Learning, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 4Department of Child Psychiatry and Sleep Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan; 5College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Abstract: Sleep problems are commonly reported in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Research data regarding the complex and reciprocal relationship between ADHD and sleep disturbances has now accumulated. This paper is focused on the types of sleep problems that are associated with ADHD symptomatology, and attempts to untangle confounding factors and overlapping symptoms. The goal is also to present an updated overview of the pathophysiology of and treatment strategies for sleep problems in children with ADHD. The review also points out that future research will be needed to clarify further the other psychiatric comorbidities and side effects of medication in order to improve treatment outcomes and prevent misdiagnosis in clinical practice.
Comorbidity and confounding factors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep disorders in children
Jan YW,Yang CM,Huang YS
Psychology Research and Behavior Management , 2011,
Abstract: Ya-Wen Jan1,2, Chien-Ming Yang1,3, Yu-Shu Huang4,51Department of Psychology, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 2Sleep Center of Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei; 3The Research Center for Mind Brain and Learning, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei; 4Department of Child Psychiatry and Sleep Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan; 5College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, TaiwanAbstract: Sleep problems are commonly reported in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Research data regarding the complex and reciprocal relationship between ADHD and sleep disturbances has now accumulated. This paper is focused on the types of sleep problems that are associated with ADHD symptomatology, and attempts to untangle confounding factors and overlapping symptoms. The goal is also to present an updated overview of the pathophysiology of and treatment strategies for sleep problems in children with ADHD. The review also points out that future research will be needed to clarify further the other psychiatric comorbidities and side effects of medication in order to improve treatment outcomes and prevent misdiagnosis in clinical practice.Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, sleep, children
Estimating the phylogeny and divergence times of primates using a supermatrix approach
Helen J Chatterjee, Simon YW Ho, Ian Barnes, Colin Groves
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-259
Abstract: To estimate the structure and tempo of primate evolutionary history, we employed Bayesian phylogenetic methods to analyze data supermatrices comprising 7 mitochondrial genes (6,138 nucleotides) from 219 species across 67 genera and 3 nuclear genes (2,157 nucleotides) from 26 genera. Many taxa were only partially represented, with an average of 3.95 and 5.43 mitochondrial genes per species and per genus, respectively, and 2.23 nuclear genes per genus. Our analyses of mitochondrial DNA place Tarsiiformes as the sister group of Strepsirrhini. Within Haplorrhini, we find support for the primary divergence of Pitheciidae in Platyrrhini, and our results suggest a sister grouping of African and non-African colobines within Colobinae and of Cercopithecini and Papionini within Cercopthecinae. Date estimates for nodes within each family and genus are presented, with estimates for key splits including: Strepsirrhini-Haplorrhini 64 million years ago (MYA), Lemuriformes-Lorisiformes 52 MYA, Platyrrhini-Catarrhini 43 MYA and Cercopithecoidea-Hominoidea 29 MYA.We present an up-to-date, comprehensive estimate of the structure and tempo of primate evolutionary history. Although considerable gaps remain in our knowledge of the primate phylogeny, increased data sampling, particularly from nuclear loci, will be able to provide further resolution.The evolutionary relationships of our own order, Primates, have been of central interest since the birth of phylogenetic analysis. There has been consistent attention towards the relationships of primates to other mammals, with molecular and (more recently) morphological evidence providing strong support for the placement of Primates in the superorder Euarchontoglires [1-3]. Within Primates, the relationships within and between various families and genera continue to cause debate, despite the numerous molecular estimates of the phylogeny that have been presented over the past 10 to 15 years [4]. With increasing concerns over the extinction risk
Heme oxygenase-1 plays a pro-life role in experimental brain stem death via nitric oxide synthase I/protein kinase G signaling at rostral ventrolateral medulla
Kuang-Yu Dai, Samuel HH Chan, Alice YW Chang
Journal of Biomedical Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-17-72
Abstract: We performed cardiovascular, pharmacological, biochemical and confocal microscopy experiments in conjunction with an experimental model of brain stem death that employed microinjection of the organophosphate insecticide mevinphos (Mev; 10 nmol) bilaterally into RVLM of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.Western blot analysis coupled with laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that augmented HO-1 expression that was confined to the cytoplasm of RVLM neurons occurred preferentially during the pro-life phase of experimental brain stem death and was antagonized by immunoneutralization of HIF-1α or HIF-1β in RVLM. On the other hand, the cytoplasmic presence of HO-2 in RVLM neurons manifested insignificant changes during both phases. Furthermore, immunoneutralization of HO-1 or knockdown of ho-1 gene in RVLM blunted the augmented life-and-death signals exhibited during the pro-life phase. Those pretreatments also blocked the upregulated pro-life NOS I/PKG signaling without affecting the pro-death NOS II/peroxynitrite cascade in RVLM.We conclude that transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 on activation by HIF-1 in RVLM plays a preferential pro-life role by sustaining central cardiovascular regulatory functions during brain stem death via upregulation of NOS I/PKG signaling pathway. Our results further showed that the pro-dead NOS II/peroxynitrite cascade in RVLM is not included in this repertoire of cellular events.The observation that asystole invariably takes place within hours or days after the diagnosis of brain stem death [1], the legal definition of death stipulated in professional or statutory documents from the United Kingdom [2,3], United States [4], European Union [5] or Taiwan [6], implies that permanent impairment of the brain stem cardiovascular regulatory machinery is intimately associated with this fatal phenomenon. It is therefore intriguing that based on power spectral analysis of systemic arterial pressure (SAP) signals from comatose intensive care unit pa
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