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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 299284 matches for " Chauying J Jen "
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Severe Exercise and Exercise Training Exert Opposite Effects on Human Neutrophil Apoptosis via Altering the Redox Status
Guan-Da Syu, Hsiun-ing Chen, Chauying J. Jen
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024385
Abstract: Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis, a process crucial for immune regulation, is mainly controlled by alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria integrity. Exercise has been proposed to be a physiological way to modulate immunity; while acute severe exercise (ASE) usually impedes immunity, chronic moderate exercise (CME) improves it. This study aimed to investigate whether and how ASE and CME oppositely regulate human neutrophil apoptosis. Thirteen sedentary young males underwent an initial ASE and were subsequently divided into exercise and control groups. The exercise group (n = 8) underwent 2 months of CME followed by 2 months of detraining. Additional ASE paradigms were performed at the end of each month. Neutrophils were isolated from blood specimens drawn at rest and immediately after each ASE for assaying neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis (annexin-V binding on the outer surface) along with redox-related parameters and mitochondria-related parameters. Our results showed that i) the initial ASE immediately increased the oxidative stress (cytosolic ROS and glutathione oxidation), and sequentially accelerated the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, the surface binding of annexin-V, and the generation of mitochondrial ROS; ii) CME upregulated glutathione level, retarded spontaneous apoptosis and delayed mitochondria deterioration; iii) most effects of CME were unchanged after detraining; and iv) CME blocked ASE effects and this capability remained intact even after detraining. Furthermore, the ASE effects on neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis were mimicked by adding exogenous H2O2, but not by suppressing mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, while ASE induced an oxidative state and resulted in acceleration of human neutrophil apoptosis, CME delayed neutrophil apoptosis by maintaining a reduced state for long periods of time even after detraining.
Endothelial [Ca2+]i is an integrating signal for the vascular tone in rat aortae
Tung-Yi Huang, Hsiun-ing Chen, Chin-Yen Liu, Chauying J Jen
BMC Physiology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6793-1-5
Abstract: Receptor-dependent (acetylcholine) or independent (ionomycin) agonists caused immediate EC [Ca2+]i elevation followed by vasorelaxation in preparations pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Low doses of agonists induced small EC [Ca2+]i elevations (about 100 nmol/L) and concomitant half-maximal vasorelaxation. At high doses, agonists elevated EC [Ca2+]i to μmol/L range with little additional vasodilatation. When EC [Ca2+]i was plotted against the vasorelaxation, the curves were almost identical for both acetylcholine and ionomycin treatments, in the presence or absence of various endothelial autacoid inhibitors. Calcium-free solution reduced basal EC [Ca2+]i and induced a drastic vasoconstriction. Endothelial autacoid inhibitors reduced EC [Ca2+]i changes and abolished both agonist-induced vasodilatation and calcium-free solution-induced vessel contraction. When the EC [Ca2+]i was completely chelated by 40 μmol/L BAPTA, the acetylcholine-evoked vasorelaxation could be abolished as well. However, when the EC [Ca2+]i was partially chelated by 20 μmol/L BAPTA, the acetylcholine-evoked vasorelaxation was almost unaffected.These results indicate that vascular tone is modulated by subtle changes of EC [Ca2+]i level, which seems to serve as an integrating signal in both basal and stimulated states.Vascular endothelium plays an important role in controlling vascular tone by secreting a variety of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (endothelial autacoids), namely NO, prostacyclin (PGI2), and L-NNA/indomethacin-insensitive relaxing factor [1,2,3]. In response to various chemical and physical stimuli, an elevation of endothelial cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration (EC [Ca2+]i) followed by the activation of calcium-dependent enzymes/channels and the consequent production of endothelial autacoids [4]. Although EC [Ca2+]i appears to mediate the release of endothelial autacoids, the direct relationship between EC [Ca2+]i and vascular contractility in intact vessels remains to be esta
Blood Pressure Variations Real-Time Reflect the Conditioned Fear Learning and Memory
Yuan-Chang Hsu, Lung Yu, Hsiun-ing Chen, Hui-Ling Lee, Yu-Min Kuo, Chauying J. Jen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032855
Abstract: The conditioned fear learning and memory occurs when a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). This process is critically dependent on the amygdala and inevitably involves blood pressure (BP) alterations. We hypothesized that BP variations could instantaneously reveal individual steps during conditioned fear learning and memory. An implanted telemetric probe was used to monitor the BP real-time in rats during training and testing sessions of the fear-potentiated startle. Our results showed that (i) the conditioned fear learning during the training sessions was reflected by light (CS)-induced rapid BP elevations and by electric shock (US)-evoked sympathetic tone elevations; (ii) these two BP-related parameters were not only negatively correlated with each other but also coupled to each other in the training session trials; (iii) both parameters closely predicted the performance of fear-potentiated startle on the next day; and (iv) although local blocking of one of the two fear-conditioned pathways in the training session partially inhibited fear learning, the fear memory retrieval still used both pathways. Altogether, real-time blood pressure variations faithfully revealed the critical steps involved in conditioned fear learning and memory, and our results supported a coupling between the cued learning and the post-shock calmness.
Modulation of Fatty Acid Oxidation and Glucose Uptake by Oxytocin in Adipocytes  [PDF]
Han-Jen Lin, Yu-Shan Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Yuan-Yu Lin, Harry J. Mersmann, Shih-Torng Ding
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2017.102005
Abstract: Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide synthesized and secreted by OT neurons. In addition to its conventional role in reproductive physiology, central OT also regulates various social behaviors, such as care, trust, and emotions. Central and subcutaneous OT infusions stimulate lipid metabolism in mice and rats when fed standard or high fat diets. Mice lacking the OT receptor (OTR) or OT peptide develop late-onset obesity with greater fat pad weights, larger adipocyte size and elevated plasma levels of leptin. To study the effects of OT on lipid metabolism, we examined the effects of serial OT doses (0, 10, 30, 100, 150, 300 nM) on 3T3L1 adipocytes, together with long (144 hours, 6 days) and short (24 hours, 1 day) term treatments. The short-term treatment with 150 nM OT increased triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation and decreased mRNA expressions of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α (CPT-1α) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). After long-term incubation with 150 nM OT, only the CPT-1α mRNA was decreased. In differentiated adipocytes derived from pig adipose tissue stem cells, only hormone sensitive lipase mRNA was decreased after short- or long-term treatment with OT. To obtain further insight into the underlying mechanism of OT induction, we tested the involvement of the AKT/PKB pathway; however, AKT phosphorylation was decreased after treatment with 150 nM OT, suggesting that OT effects may be independent from the AKT/PKB pathway. Taken together, OT effects on adipocyte glucose and lipid metabolism are probably through mechanisms other than the AKT/PKB pathway.
Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve: detection and mechanism by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Jen Li Looi,Andrew J. Kerr
Clinics and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/cp.2011.e72
Abstract: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) demonstrated a sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) with severe dilatation of the right coronary sinus in association with a congenital bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and subaortic membrane. The SVA had not been apparent on echocardiography as the dilatation was outside standard echo image planes. On both CMR and echo, blood flow was eccentrically directed into the right coronary sinus by the domed posterior leaflet of the BAV. The impact of the aortic jet on the wall of the right coronary sinus is probably important in the aetiology of the sinus dilatation. CMR proved valuable in demonstrating the SVA and understanding its aetiology.
Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve: detection and mechanism by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Jen Li Looi,Andrew J. Kerr
Clinics and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/cp.2011.e72
Abstract: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) demonstrated a sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) with severe dilatation of the right coronary sinus in association with a congenital bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and subaortic membrane. The SVA had not been apparent on echocardiography as the dilatation was outside standard echo image planes. On both CMR and echo, blood flow was eccentrically directed into the right coronary sinus by the domed posterior leaflet of the BAV. The impact of the aortic jet on the wall of the right coronary sinus is probably important in the aetiology of the sinus dilatation. CMR proved valuable in demonstrating the SVA and understanding its aetiology.
Epigenetic Methylation of TIMP-3 May Play a Role in HBV-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Huey-Jen Lai,Szecheng J. Lo
Chang Gung Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly correlated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) andmany molecular mechanisms have been proposed. Based on the new data that HCC cell lines containingthe HBV genome mostly show tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) repression onboth mRNA and protein levels, and on the result of computer analysis of TIMP-3 gene structure, weproposed an alternative model to explain HBV-induced HCC: TIMP-3 transcription might be silencedby epigenetic methylation.
A Major Change in the Stratigraphy of the Santorini Volcano in Greece  [PDF]
Walter L. Friedrich, Annette H?jen S?rensen, J. Richard Wilson, Michael Fytikas, Spyridon Pavlides, Samson Katsipis
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2017.86043
Abstract: Two prominent and similar pumice series were described on Thera in 1879— the Upper and Lower Pumice Series (UPS and LPS). Since then, geologists have treated the two series separately because they seemingly occurred at distinct levels and had different ages. Here we show that these two pumice series are identical; there is no LPS on Santorini. All stratigraphic conclusions based on the LPS from Santorini should therefore be discarded. The water-filled Santorini caldera with its steep inner slopes existed before the eruption. Volcano-tectonic effects in connection with caldera formation created concentric terraces that were mantled by the products of the Late Bronze Age (LBA) eruption. Subsequent erosion only left remnants of the mantle behind. Topographic effects followed by slumping during sedimentation caused confusion of the stratigraphy on the caldera wall. Our results are supported by geological, paleontological and archaeological evidence. Furthermore, the caldera with its minerals, pigments, harbours and hot springs was accessible for the Thereans. This reinterpretation opens new perspectives for archaeological research. The catastrophic LBA eruption (previously called the Minoan eruption) destroyed a flourishing culture on Santorini and impacted neighbouring cultures around 1613 BC.
Spatial analysis of tuberculosis in four main ethnic communities in Taiwan during 2005 to 2009  [PDF]
Pui-Jen Tsai
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2011.13017
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess spatial features of tuberculosis prevalence and their relationships with four main ethnic communities in Taiwan. Methods of spatial analysis were clustering pattern determination (such as global version of Moran’s test and local version of Gi*(d) statistic), using logistic regression calculations to identify spatial distributions over a contiguous five years and identify significant similarities, discriminant analysis to classify variables, and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to determine the strength of relationships between tuberculosis prevalence and ethnic variables in spatial features. Tuberculosis demonstrated decreasing trends in prevalence in both genders during 2005 to 2009. All results of the global Moran’s tests indicated spatial heterogeneity and clusters in the plain and mountainous Aboriginal townships. The Gi*(d) statistic calculated z-score outcomes, categorized as clusters or non-clusters, at at 5% significance level. According to the stepwise Wilks’ lambda discriminant analysis, in the Aborigines and Hoklo communities townships with clusters of tuberculosis cases differentiated from townships without cluster cases, to a greater extent than in the other communities. In the GWR models, the explanatory variables demonstrated significant and positive signs of parameter estimates in clusters occurring in plain and mountainous aboriginal townships. The explanatory variables of both the Hoklo and Hakka communities demonstrated significant, but negative, signs of parameter estimates. The Mainlander community did not significantly associate with cluster patterns of tuberculosis in Taiwan. Results indicated that locations of high tuberculosis prevalence closely related to areas containing higher proportions of the Aboriginal community in Taiwan. This information is relevant for assessment of spatial risk factors, which, in turn, can facilitate the planning of the most advantageous types of health care policies, and implementation of effective health care services.
Taking Gene Therapy into the Clinic
Daniel H. Palmer,Ming-Jen Chen,David J. Kerr
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/s111072430320913x
Abstract: Gene therapy represents a promising novel treatment strategy for colorectal cancer. Preclinical data has been encouraging and several clinical trials are underway. Many phase 1 trials have proven the safety of the reagents but have yet to demonstrate significant therapeutic benefit. Ongoing efforts are being made to improve the efficiency of gene delivery and accuracy of gene targeting with the aim of enhancing antitumor potency. It is envisaged that gene therapy will be used in combination with other therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy to facilitate the improvements in cancer treatments in the future.
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