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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 405528 matches for " Charnita M Zeigler-Johnson "
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Prostate Cancer Severity Associations with Neighborhood Deprivation
Charnita M. Zeigler-Johnson,Ann Tierney,Timothy R. Rebbeck,Andrew Rundle
Prostate Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/846263
Abstract: Background. The goal of this paper was to examine neighborhood deprivation and prostate cancer severity. Methods. We studied African American and Caucasian prostate cancer cases from the Pennsylvania State Cancer Registry. Census tract-level variables and deprivation scores were examined in relation to diagnosis stage, grade, and tumor aggressiveness. Results. We observed associations of low SES with high Gleason score among African Americans residing in neighborhoods with low educational attainment (OR?=?1.34, 95% CI?=?1.13–1.60), high poverty (OR?=?1.39, 95% CI?=?1.15–1.67), low car ownership (OR?=?1.46, 95% CI?=?1.20–1.78), and higher percentage of residents on public assistance (OR?=?1.32, 95%?=?1.08–1.62). The highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was also associated with high Gleason score. For both Caucasians and African Americans, the highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was associated with high Gleason score at diagnosis (OR?=?1.34, 95% CI?=?1.19–1.52; OR?=?1.71, 95% CI?=?1.21–2.40, resp.). Conclusion. Using a neighborhood deprivation index, we observed associations between high-grade prostate cancer and neighborhood deprivation in Caucasians and African-Americans. 1. Introduction Prostate cancer is the most prevalent malignant cancer among men in the U.S. 217,730 incident cases were expected in 2010 [1]. The advent of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) testing has driven large increases in diagnoses with dramatic increases observed between 1988 and 1993, coinciding with the advent of widespread PSA testing [2–4]. African Americans have a significantly higher risk of disease than Caucasian men, tend to be diagnosed with more aggressive disease, and suffer the greatest mortality associated with prostate cancer [5]. In spite of its common occurrence and strong racial disparities, modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer have not been confirmed. These disparities are believed to be a result of interactions among genes, health behaviors, and environmental factors. Economic, physical, and social characteristics of residential neighborhoods may influence health-related behaviors, screening behaviors and health conditions. Disadvantaged neighborhoods are often correlated with higher levels of environmental pollutants, overcrowding, violence, less social cohesion, and less access to services [6]. Of particular importance for diseases such as prostate cancer in which screening practices have had large effects on incidence, low-income neighborhoods often have fewer medical facilities and these facilities are often stressed due to higher
What stresses men? predictors of perceived stress in a population-based multi-ethnic cross sectional cohort
Timothy R Rebbeck, Anita L Weber, Elaine Spangler, Charnita M Zeigler-Johnson
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-113
Abstract: We used a population-based survey of 6,773 White, 1,681 Black, and 617 Hispanic men in Southeastern Pennsylvania to evaluate the relationship of self-reported PS and financial security, health status, social factors, and health behaviors. Interactions across levels of age and ethnicity were tested using logistic regression models adjusted for overall health status, education, and household poverty.High PS decreased significantly with age (p<0.0001) and varied by ethnicity (p=0.0001). Exposure to health-related and economic factors were more consistently associated with elevated PS in all ethnicities and ages, while social factors and health behaviors were less strongly or not at all associated with PS in most groups. Significant differences in the relationship of high PS by age and ethnicity were observed among men who are medically uninsured (p=0.0002), reported missing a meal due to cost (p<0.0001), or had spent a night in the hospital (p=0.020). In contrast, not filling a prescription due to cost and diagnosed with a mental health condition were associated with high PS but did not differ by age and ethnicity subgroup.These data suggest that some, but not all, factors associated with high PS differ by age and/or ethnicity. Research, clinical, or public health initiatives that involve social stressors should consider differences by age and ethnicity.
Androgen Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms, Associations with Prostate Cancer Risk and Pathological Characteristics: A Comparative Analysis between South African and Senegalese Men
Pedro Fernandez,Charnita M. Zeigler-Johnson,Elaine Spangler,André van der Merwe,Mohamed Jalloh,Serigne M. Gueye,Timothy R. Rebbeck
Prostate Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/798634
Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries and the leading cause of mortality in males in less developed countries. African ethnicity is one of the major risk factors for developing prostate cancer. Pathways involved in androgen metabolism have been implicated in the etiology of the disease. Analyses of clinical data and CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and SRD5A2 genotypes were performed in South African White (120 cases; 134 controls), Mixed Ancestry (207 cases; 167 controls), and Black (25 cases; 20 controls) men, as well as in Senegalese men (86 cases; 300 controls). Senegalese men were diagnosed earlier with prostate cancer and had higher median PSA levels compared to South African men. Metastasis occurred more frequently in Senegalese men. Gene polymorphism frequencies differed significantly between South African and Senegalese men. The CYP3A4 rs2740574 polymorphism was associated with prostate cancer risk and tumor aggressiveness in South African men, after correction for population stratification, and the SRD5A2 rs523349 CG genotype was inversely associated with high-stage disease in Senegalese men. These data suggest that variants previously associated with prostate cancer in other populations may also affect prostate cancer risk in African men. 1. Introduction Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men from industrialized developed countries, and worldwide, the second most common of all malignancies in men [1–3]. The highest rates of prostate cancer are observed in African-American men in the United States of America (USA) and Caribbean men of African descent [1, 4], while the highest disease-associated mortality rates are observed in less developed countries that include regions of the Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South America [3]. These data lend support to the suggestion that the African ethnicity is one of the major risk factors for prostate cancer [5, 6]. Although comprehensive cancer registries are limited in Africa, available data indicate that prostate cancer accounts for approximately 10.6% and 4.8% of all cancers in males in Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa, respectively [7]. In Southern Africa (South Africa) and Western Africa (Nigeria and Cameroon), prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males; however, the incidence of prostate cancer in Southern Africa is double that observed in Western Africa [8]. The reported age-standardized rate of histologically diagnosed prostate cancer in South Africa is 74.4 per 100000 males in the White population (European ancestry), 48 per 100000 males in
Evaluation of Group Genetic Ancestry of Populations from Philadelphia and Dakar in the Context of Sex-Biased Admixture in the Americas
Klara Stefflova,Matthew C. Dulik,Athma A. Pai,Amy H. Walker,Charnita M. Zeigler-Johnson,Serigne M. Gueye,Theodore G. Schurr,Timothy R. Rebbeck
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007842
Abstract: Population history can be reflected in group genetic ancestry, where genomic variation captured by the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) can separate female- and male-specific admixture processes. Genetic ancestry may influence genetic association studies due to differences in individual admixture within recently admixed populations like African Americans.
Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent
Timothy R. Rebbeck,Susan S. Devesa,Bao-Li Chang,Clareann H. Bunker,Iona Cheng,Kathleen Cooney,Rosalind Eeles,Pedro Fernandez,Veda N. Giri,Serigne M. Gueye,Christopher A. Haiman,Brian E. Henderson,Chris F. Heyns,Jennifer J. Hu,Sue Ann Ingles,William Isaacs,Mohamed Jalloh,Esther M. John,Adam S. Kibel,LaCreis R. Kidd,Penelope Layne,Robin J. Leach,Christine Neslund-Dudas,Michael N. Okobia,Elaine A. Ostrander,Jong Y. Park,Alan L. Patrick,Catherine M. Phelan,Camille Ragin,Robin A. Roberts,Benjamin A. Rybicki,Janet L. Stanford,Sara Strom,Ian M. Thompson,John Witte,Jianfeng Xu,Edward Yeboah,Ann W. Hsing,Charnita M. Zeigler-Johnson
Prostate Cancer , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/560857
Abstract: Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world. 1. Introduction Little is known about the epidemiology of CaP among men in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) [1]. However, men of SSA descent around the world appear to suffer disproportionately from CaP compared to men of other races or ethnicities [2]. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) estimates that CaP is the leading cancer in terms of incidence and mortality in men from Africa and the Caribbean [3]. IARC also estimates that CaP is a growing problem in Africa with approximately 28,006 deaths from CaP in 2010, and approximately 57,048 deaths in 2030 [4]. This represents a 104% increase in the number of CaP deaths in Africa over the next two decades. However, CaP incidence and mortality rates that may be underestimated in SSA and possibly the Caribbean were compared to USA rates due to lack of screening, limited population-based cancer registry data, and underdiagnosis or treatment. Comparisons of CaP incidence, prevalence, aggressiveness, and mortality in men of SSA descent are limited [5, 6]. Jackson et al. [7] reported that the age-adjusted incidence rate in a combined West African (Accra and Ibadan) series (36.7 per 1000) was almost equal to the rate in the Washington, DC series (40.6 per 1000). Although comparable prevalence data for Senegal are not available, Gueye et al. [8] compared clinical characteristics of CaP in African American (AA) and Senegalese men diagnosed between
Dietary intake of Senegalese adults
Cheryl AM Anderson, Scarlett Bellamy, Mindy Figures, Charnita Zeigler-Johnson, Mohamed Jalloh, Elaine Spangler, Margerie Coomes, Serigne Gueye, Timothy R Rebbeck
Nutrition Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-9-7
Abstract: Diet-related diseases and conditions such as certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes are prevalent worldwide. Research on the role of diet in disease prevention is strongly linked to the conduct of precise dietary assessment in populations. Critical elements of dietary assessment include knowledge of the type, frequency, and amount of foods consumed; as well as the expected diversity in dietary intake patterns of a study population. Given the high prevalence of diet related disorders in populations, dietary assessment efforts are needed for the conduct of nutritional epidemiological studies and for treating diet related diseases and conditions. In Senegal, little is known about the modern diet of adults as most studies of nutrition in this population have focused on malnutrition and growth retardation in childhood [1-6].The lack of nutritional epidemiological studies in Senegal is related to lack of standardized dietary assessment tools. The creation of these tools may have been hindered by a hypothesized low variability in dietary intake for foods or food groups that are associated with chronic diseases. However, there are no empirical data to support this notion. In fact, it is possible that there has been an epidemiologic transition [7] and an accompanying nutrition transition [8] resulting from an increase in non-traditional lifestyles and a concomitant increase in intake of non-traditional foods by Senegalese. This would result in greater heterogeneity of intake in the modern diet, and it has been predicted that a dramatic shift in causes of mortality from nutrition-related chronic diseases will occur in developing countries, including the Sub-Sahara [9]. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to describe the Senegalese diet. Although we are unable to examine diet-disease relationships in this study, this work will serve as a prelude to a more formal examination of dietary influences on the health of Senegalese.Participan
Prostate Cancer Screening, Detection and Treatment Practices, Among Sub-Saharan African Urologists
TR Rebbeck, CM Zeigler-Johnson, CF Heyns, SM Gueye
African Journal of Urology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Prostate cancer is reported to be the leading cancer in men in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the number of prostate cancer deaths is expected to double in the next 20 years. Despite the importance of this public health issue in SSA, there remains relatively limited information about practices related to prostate cancer treatment in this population. Objective: We conducted a survey of 28 urology practices in SSA to evaluate the scope of available screening, detection and treatment. Materials and Methods: Screening was more commonly reported as a part of general medical care in South Africa (SA) compared with East or West (EW) Africa. However, use of digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) were used at similar rates for screening in all locations. Screening is primarily focused in men over age 50 and those with symptoms. Routine screening was the primary reason for screening use in SA, while symptoms were the primary reason for screening use in EW. Financial and cultural barriers to screening were more commonly reported in EW than SA. Similar detection approaches were used in all regions, with free PSA and PSA velocity being more commonly used in SA than EW. Six core biopsies were more commonly used in EW and 12 core biopsies were more common in SA. Trans urethral ultrasounds and bone scans were more commonly used in SA than EW. Treatment options were similar in all regions, with brachytherapy less likely to be used in EW than SA. Results: The descriptive data suggest that differences in patterns of screening, detection and treatment exist across Africa. Differences by geography may also reflect differences in SES and racial composition of the populations in each region. Key Words: Prostate cancer, Screening and Detection, Practice guidelines, Sub-Saharan Africa
Notes on the Tension Between Privacy and Surveillance in Nursing
Johnson, M
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2005,
Abstract: Given their 24 hour responsibility for care in many settings, nurses are the main arbiters of the privacy afforded or denied to patients. In this article the author delineates four aspects of privacy, namely: bodily privacy, space privacy, information privacy, and privacy of individual behaviour. He draws on a range of recent evidence that points to people's experiences of health care being unsatisfactory in terms of privacy, and offers explanations as to why much patient privacy is impossible. He argues that the patients’ need for privacy is to a large extent in competition with the professional need for surveillance, noting that while nurses and others do maintain some patient expectations of privacy, these expectations are artificially low on the part of nurses, who are predisposed to invade privacy as an unconscious aspect of their maintenance of professional power. The author provides a discussion of the theoretical basis of this viewpoint, drawing on importa nt insights from Foucault and Goffman, and concludes that an awareness of these issues can help to re-balance the tension between the need for privacy and the need for surveillance.
Differential expression of Isoesterases in leaves and roots of Vigna unguiculata L. in response to saline stress
Johnson M.
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was intended to reveal the differential isoesterase expression in leaves and roots of Vigna unguiculata L. in response to saline stress. Influence of NaCl (0, 3, 5, 7 and10 %) on seedlings of Vigna unguiculata L. was analyzed. The seedlings were grown in the centre for a period of 30 days. The randomly collected whole plants were used as a source for isoesterase isolation. The seedlings showed the maximum tolerance up to 10% of NaCl. The Poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed by Anbalagan method. The staining and fixation of the enzyme was performed by the Sadasivam and Manickam method. Seedlings treated with various concentrations of NaCl showed different banding profile based on the concentration (0-10%) and duration (5-30 days) of salt treatment as follows: 32 bands with five active regions, 56 bands with eight active regions, 102 bands with eight active regions, 47 bands with seven active regions, 64 bands with nine active regions and 84 bands with nine active regions on 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th and 30th day respectively. The changing pattern of isozymes during development may be interpreted as evidence for differential timing of gene expression correlated with the physiological stress. The results of the present study concluded that the isoesterase patterns could serve as a useful biochemical marker of salinity.
The Effects of Vestibular Rehabilitation after Bilateral Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence: A Case Report  [PDF]
Connor L. Naccarato, Kristen M. Johnson
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2017.86042
Abstract: Background and Purpose: Despite the strong body of evidence for vestibular rehabilitation, research is lacking for effective clinical management of patients with superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) and endolymphatic hydrops (EH). The purpose of this case report is to describe the effects of physical therapy in the treatment of a patient diagnosed with bilateral SSCD. Case Description: The patient was a 56-year-old woman with a long-standing otologic history involving bilateral SSCD and EH. The patient’s body structure and function impairments include constant headaches, dizziness with head rotation and eye movements, sensitivity to sounds and lights, and instability during gait. Her activity limitations include lower extremity dressing, driving, and playing her flute. Her participation restrictions include taking part in social gatherings, going to church, driving longer than 30 minutes, playing with her dogs, and teaching flute lessons. Interventions: Specific interventions included vestibular habituation and adaptation exercises, balance and gait training, and patient education. Physical therapy services were provided for approximately 11 weeks with a frequency of two times per week. Outcomes: After eleven weeks of physical therapy, the patient made improvements on the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (43/80 to 52/80), the Dynamic Gait Index (19/24 to 24/24), the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (86/100 to 68/100), and the Sharpened Romberg (2 seconds to >30 seconds). The patient improved in all her activity limitations and participation restrictions. She was able to play her flute for 20-minute intervals, play with her dogs, partake in social gatherings, and drive for 5 hours without symptoms. The patient had plans to pursue surgical intervention within the next year. Discussion: For a patient with a complex otologic history and a current diagnosis of bilateral SSCD, vestibular rehabilitation was an effective management option. The information from this case can be used to guide the effective treatment of similar patients diagnosed with vestibular dysfunction.
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