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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 21250 matches for " Charmaine Kim-Sing "
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Women's constructions of the 'right time' to consider decisions about risk-reducing mastectomy and risk-reducing oophorectomy
A Fuchsia Howard, Joan L Bottorff, Lynda G Balneaves, Charmaine Kim-Sing
BMC Women's Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-10-24
Abstract: In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 BRCA1/2 carrier women and analyzed using qualitative, constant comparative methods.The time that lapsed between receipt of genetic test results and receipt of RRM or RRO ranged from three months to nine years. The findings highlighted the importance of considering decisions about RRM and RRO one at a time. The women constructed the 'right time' to consider these decisions to be when: (1) decisions fit into their lives, (2) they had enough time to think about decisions, (3) they were ready emotionally to deal with the decisions and the consequences, (4) all the issues and conflicts were sorted out, (5) there were better options available, and (6) the health care system was ready for them.These findings offer novel insights relevant to health care professionals who provide decision support to women considering RRM and RRO.Genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes has increasingly become available to individuals since the discovery of these genes over 14 years ago [1,2]. Those women found to carry BRCA1/2 mutations are at markedly increased probability of developing hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC), with their lifetime risk of breast cancer between 45% and 88%, and their risk of ovarian cancer ranging from 11% to 65% [3-5]. When unaffected women are notified that they have a BRCA1/2 mutation, they are presented with a range of HBOC risk-reducing options including risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) and risk-reducing oophorectomy (RRO). However, there is growing evidence that a sub-group of women do not make decisions about RRM or RRO immediately after genetic testing, but rather, prolong these decisions for months or years [6-9]. Women's experiences with RRM and RRO have begun to be described [10-12], but their perspectives on the timing of these decisions are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to describe how women who carry BRCA1/2 mutations construct the 'right time' to consider decisi
Changes in body weight and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers
Joanne Kotsopoulos, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Parviz Ghadirian, Jan Lubinski, Henry T Lynch, Claudine Isaacs, Barbara Weber, Charmaine Kim-Sing, Peter Ainsworth, William D Foulkes, Andrea Eisen, Ping Sun, Steven A Narod
Breast Cancer Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1293
Abstract: A matched case–control study was conducted in 1,073 pairs of women carrying a deleterious mutation in either BRCA1 (n = 797 pairs) or BRCA2 (n = 276 pairs). Women diagnosed with breast cancer were matched to control subjects by year of birth, mutation, country of residence, and history of ovarian cancer. Information about weight was derived from a questionnaire routinely administered to women who were carriers of a mutation in either gene. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between weight gain or loss and the risk of breast cancer, stratified by age at diagnosis or menopausal status.A loss of at least 10 pounds in the period from age 18 to 30 years was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer between age 30 and 49 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28–0.79); weight gain during the same interval did not influence the overall risk. Among the subgroup of BRCA1 mutation carriers who had at least two children, weight gain of more than 10 pounds between age 18 and 30 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer diagnosed between age 30 and 40 (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.01–2.04). Change in body weight later in life (at age 30 to 40) did not influence the risk of either premenopausal or postmenopausal breast cancer.The results from this study suggest that weight loss in early adult life (age 18 to 30) protects against early-onset BRCA-associated breast cancers. Weight gain should also be avoided, particularly among BRCA1 mutation carriers who elect to have at least two pregnancies.The inheritance of a deleterious mutation in either of the two breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 or BRCA2, has been associated with a lifetime risk of breast cancer of 45% to 87% [1,2]. Reports of increasing penetrance among women born in recent cohorts in comparison with those born in earlier years has prompted the search for factors that may influence the risk of cancer in genetically susceptible women [2-5]. To date, bo
Breastfeeding and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers
Joanne Kotsopoulos, Jan Lubinski, Leonardo Salmena, Henry T Lynch, Charmaine Kim-Sing, William D Foulkes, Parviz Ghadirian, Susan L Neuhausen, Rochelle Demsky, Nadine Tung, Peter Ainsworth, Leigha Senter, Andrea Eisen, Charis Eng, Christian Singer, Ophira Ginsburg, Joanne Blum, Tomasz Huzarski, Aletta Poll, Ping Sun, Steven A Narod, the Hereditary Breast Cancer Clinical Study Group
Breast Cancer Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/bcr3138
Abstract: We conducted a case-control study of 1,665 pairs of women with a deleterious mutation in either BRCA1 (n = 1,243 pairs) or BRCA2 (n = 422 pairs). Breast cancer cases and unaffected controls were matched on year of birth, mutation status, country of residence and parity. Information about reproductive factors, including breastfeeding for each live birth, was collected from a routinely administered questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between ever having breastfed, as well as total duration of breastfeeding, and the risk of breast cancer.Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, breastfeeding for at least one year was associated with a 32% reduction in risk (OR = 0.68; 95% CI 0.52 to 0.91; P = 0.008); breastfeeding for two or more years conferred a greater reduction in risk (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.74). Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, there was no significant association between breastfeeding for at least one year and breast cancer risk (OR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.31; P = 0.43).These data extend our previous findings that breastfeeding protects against BRCA1-, but not BRCA2-associated breast cancer. BRCA mutation carriers should be advised of the benefit of breastfeeding in terms of reducing breast cancer risk.In the general population, reproductive factors, including late age at menarche, parity and breastfeeding, have been shown to protect against the development of breast cancer [1-3]. Various proposed mechanisms include reducing lifetime exposure to ovarian hormones, reducing the cumulative number of ovulatory cycles and differentiation of the breast lobules [4,5]. We and others have evaluated the impact of reproductive factors in the etiology of BRCA-associated breast cancer, although the results are conflicting and vary by BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation [6-8]. With respect to breastfeeding and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers, two previous studies reported no relationship [9,10] and three studies reported a protectiv
Spontaneous and therapeutic abortions and the risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers
Eitan Friedman, Joanne Kotsopoulos, Jan Lubinski, Henry T Lynch, Parviz Ghadirian, Susan L Neuhausen, Claudine Isaacs, Barbara Weber, William D Foulkes, Pal Moller, Barry Rosen, Charmaine Kim-Sing, Ruth Gershoni-Baruch, Peter Ainsworth, Mary Daly, Nadine Tung, Andrea Eisen, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Beth Karlan, Howard M Saal, Judy E Garber, Gad Rennert, Dawna Gilchrist, Charis Eng, Kenneth Offit, Michael Osborne, Ping Sun, Steven A Narod, the Hereditary Breast Cancer Clinical Study Group
Breast Cancer Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1387
Abstract: In a matched case-control study, the frequencies of spontaneous abortions were compared among 1,878 BRCA1 mutation carriers, 950 BRCA2 mutation carriers and 657 related non-carrier controls. The rates of spontaneous and therapeutic abortions were compared for carriers with and without breast cancer.There was no difference in the rate of spontaneous abortions between carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and non-carriers. The number of spontaneous abortions was not associated with breast cancer risk among BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. However, BRCA2 carriers who had two or more therapeutic abortions faced a 64% decrease in the risk of breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval 0.16–0.83; p = 0.02).Carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is not a risk factor for spontaneous abortions and spontaneous abortions do not appear to influence the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. However, having two or more therapeutic abortions may be associated with a lowered risk of breast cancer among BRCA2 carriers.Germline mutations in BRCA1 (MIM # 113705) and BRCA2 (MIM # 600185) are estimated to account for about 80% of breast/ovarian cancer families and 20% to 50% of site-specific breast cancer families [1-3]. Mutation carriers face substantially increased risks of developing both breast and ovarian cancer; the lifetime risk for developing breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is estimated to be 40% to 85% (4 to 7-fold greater risk than the general population) and for ovarian cancer to be 16% to 64% (a 30-fold increase) [3-5]. Reproductive factors have been shown to modify the risk of breast cancer risk in both mutation carriers [6] and the general population [7,8]. However, the relationships between induced or spontaneous abortions and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers have not been well studied. A recent study from Israel suggested that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers might be at increased risk for recurrent spontaneous abortion
Oral Administration Following Subcutaneous Administration of FCV Vaccines Enhances Vaccine Efficacy against Challenge of a Highly Virulent Vs Feline Calicivirus  [PDF]
Sing Rong, Kim Floyd-Hawkins, Vicki King
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2014.42010

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of upper respiratory and oral disease in cats. Highly virulent systemic strains of FCV (vs FCV) have been described. These vs FCV isolates cause characteristic edema, cutaneous ulcers and other clinical signs typically associated with FCV infection. Vs FCV isolates also cause high mortality even in previously vaccinated cats. We reported previously that the FCV serum cross-neutralization profile of cat serum generated using the oralnasal route of administration is broader than with subcutaneous administration (SC), as measured with a 26-FCV viral panel (Rong et al., Virus Research 122:95-108, 2006). In this report, we tested the in vivo ef- ficacy of the FCV vaccine, in a 4-way (FCV-FHV-FPV-FCp) format, by using a highly virulent vs FCV- 33585 as the challenge virus. Vaccines were administered as 2-dose subcutaneouly (SC/SC), or subcutaneously followed by orally (SC/Oral). The mortality induced by vs FCV-33585 in unvaccinated control cats was 78% (7 out of 9 cats). The mortality decreased to 44% (4 out of 9 cats) with cats vaccinated with the 4-way vaccine given SC/SC. However, when this vaccine was given SC/Oral, the mortality decreased to 10% (1 out of 10 cats). The clinical scores, calculated based on frequency and severity of various clinical signs, correlated with mortality data. These results demonstrated that oral administration of FCV vaccines, as the second dose following the first dose of subcutaneious administration, ehances FCV efficacy against challenge of a highly virulent vs FCV. We propose that not only oral vaccination offers convenience and needle-free inoculation, it also enhances FCV vaccine efficacy.

Heptane-1,7-diaminium sulfate monohydrate
Charmaine Arderne
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811030030
Abstract: The crystal structure of the title compound, C7H20N22+·SO42 ·H2O, is presented, with particular focus on the packing arrangement in the crystal structure and selected hydrogen-bonding interactions that the compound forms. The crystal structure exhibits parallel stacking of the diammonium dication in its packing arrangement, together with inorganic–organic layering that is typical of these n-alkyldiammonium salts. An intricate three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network exists in the crystal structure where the hydrogen bonds link the cation and anion layers together through the sulfate anions and the water molecules.
Heptane-1,7-diaminium dinitrate
Charmaine Arderne
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811042917
Abstract: In the title molecular salt, C7H20N22+·2NO3 , the crystal structure exhibits an unusual back-to-back paired double-stacked packing arrangement culminating in an overall double zigzag pattern of the dications. The nitrate anions form a ring around one pair of double-stacked dications. An intricate three-dimensional N—H...O and N—H...(O,O) hydrogen-bonding network exists in the crystal structure.
Decane-1,10-diaminium dinitrate
Charmaine Arderne
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811042929
Abstract: The crystal structure of the title compound, C10H26N22+·2NO3 , exhibits a back-to-back paired double-stacked packing arrangement culminating in an overall double zigzag pattern of the dications. Each pair of double-stacked dications is surrounded by a ring of ten nitrate anions. An intricate three-dimensional N---H...O and N---H...(O,O) hydrogen-bonding network exists in the crystal structure.
E-government: The Canadian Experience
Charmaine Fraser
Dalhousie Journal of Interdisciplinary Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5931/djim.v5i1.44
Abstract: The Canadian government was one of the first administrations to adapt to an online service delivery model and was distinguished early on as one of the most innovative in the development of its e-government tool. This article explores the Canadian government's experience with going online and utilizing an e-government tool to deliver government services. This paper will reflect on the birth and evolution of the e-government tool in the Canadian context and will also investigate the initial forecasts and promises made by the Government of Canada in terms of reducing costs of service delivery, increased accessibility for citizens, improved information retrieval, and security concerns of users, to determine what the Government of Canada's e-government initiative has accomplished.
Reliability issues in human brain temperature measurement
Charmaine Childs, Graham Machin
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7943
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the performance and measurement uncertainty of body and brain temperature sensors currently in use in neurocritical care. Two organic fixed-point, ultra stable temperature sources were used as the temperature references. Two different types of brain sensor (brain type 1 and brain type 2) and one body type sensor were tested under rigorous laboratory conditions and at the bedside. Measurement uncertainty was calculated using internationally recognised methods.Average differences between the 26°C reference temperature source and the clinical temperature sensors were +0.11°C (brain type 1), +0.24°C (brain type 2) and -0.15°C (body type), respectively. For the 36°C temperature reference source, average differences between the reference source and clinical thermometers were -0.02°C, +0.09°C and -0.03°C for brain type 1, brain type 2 and body type sensor, respectively. Repeat calibrations the following day confirmed that these results were within the calculated uncertainties. The results of the immersion tests revealed that the reading of the body type sensor was sensitive to position, with differences in temperature of -0.5°C to -1.4°C observed on withdrawing the thermometer from the base of the isothermal environment by 4 cm and 8 cm, respectively. Taking into account all the factors tested during the calibration experiments, the measurement uncertainty of the clinical sensors against the (nominal) 26°C and 36°C temperature reference sources for the brain type 1, brain type 2 and body type sensors were ± 0.18°C, ± 0.10°C and ± 0.12°C respectively.The results show that brain temperature sensors are fundamentally accurate and the measurements are precise to within 0.1 to 0.2°C. Subtle dissociation between brain and body temperature in excess of 0.1 to 0.2°C is likely to be real. Body temperature sensors need to be secured in position to ensure that measurements are reliable.In rodent models of cerebral ischaemia, small (1° to 2°C) incre
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