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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 74 matches for " Charlotta Pisinger "
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Smoking reduction did not promote future smoking cessation in a general population  [PDF]
Charlotta Pisinger, Mette Aadahl, Ulla Toft, Torben J?rgensen
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2011.13011
Abstract: Introduction: Smoking reduction (SR) has been introduced as a strategy for smokers who are unwilling or unable to quit. We wanted to investi tigate whether SR at one-year follow-up increased the probability of abstinence from smoking at three and five-year follow-up. Methods: we included a random sample from a general population, the Inter99 study, Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 1975 participants were daily smokers (from both the intervention and the control group) with information on tobacco consumption at both baseline and one-year follow-up (year 1999 to 2001). Of these, 112 had reduced their tobacco consumption substantially, by minimum 50%, at one-year follow-up. Information on tobacco consumption and smoking status was available on 1441 and 1308 participants at three-year and five-year follow-up, respectively. Outcome was self-reported point abstinence at three and five-year follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for confounders. Results: One out of five smokers (20.5%) had maintained their reduced tobacco consumption at five-year follow-up. About twice as many reducers as non-reducers reported that they had tried to quit since baseline (p < 0.05). In adjusted logistic regression analyses we found no association between SR at one-year follow- up and being point abstinent at three-year (OR: 0.57; CI: 0.28 - 1.15) or five-year follow-up (OR: 1.08;CI: 0.56 - 2.09). Conclusions: Our study, including smokers from a general population found no association between substantial SR and future smoking cessation at three- and five-year follow-up. No studies so far have reported that SR undermines smoking cessation, but it is still controversial whether SR significantly increases future smoking cessation.
Does a population-based multi-factorial lifestyle intervention increase social inequality in smoking? The Inter99 study  [PDF]
Charlotta Pisinger, Mette Aadahl, Ulla Toft, Anne Helms Andreasen, Torben Jorgensen
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.23057
Abstract: Introduction: The social inequality in smoking in the Western countries has been increasing. It has been suggested that the most important strategy to reduce health inequalities related to socio economic status (SEP) is to promote smoking cessation in persons with low SEP. One could fear that a smoking cessation intervention might benefit smokers with high SEP more, and thereby increase the social inequality in smoking. We wanted to investigate whether the effect differed across SEP. Methods: The study was an individual multi-factorial lifestyle intervention study with a control group, Inter99 (1999-2006), Copenhagen, Denmark. We included 1991 daily-smokers with self-reported information on education in the intervention group, and 1135 in the control group. Smokers in the intervention group were repeatedly offered individual life-style-counselling and group-based smoking cessation. We used generalised linear mixed models under the assumption of missing at random, including interaction term between intervention effect and SEP. Results: The gap in self-reported abstinence rates increased over time between persons with high and low education. Probability of abstinence was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group, at all follow-up-visits but the effect of the intervention changed over time. The differences in quit-rates across educational groups were not significantly different in the intervention than in the control group at any time. Conclusion: In this randomised population-based intervention study we found that smokers across all educational levels benefited from the anti-smoking intervention, and that the intervention did not increase the social inequality in smoking, as one could have feared.
The effect of sustained, long-term changes in alcohol intake on cardiovascular risk  [PDF]
Ulla Toft, Charlotta Pisinger, Mette Aadahl, Allan Linneberg, Cathrine Lau, Torben J?rgensen
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.24063
Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether sustained long-term changes in alcohol intake are predictive of cardiovascular risk. Methods: The study population was a subpopulation of the five-year intervention study, Inter99 study, (1999-2006), Copenhagen, Denmark (n = 2117; 30 - 60 years). Alcohol intake was assessed by questionnaires at baseline, one-, three- and five-year follow-up. The associations between sustained long-term changes in alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk factors (HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP); the absolute risk of ischemic heart disease (CRS)) at five-year follow-up were explored by linear regression models. The alcohol variables were tested for linear association with the response variable. Results: Sustained increased alcohol intake was significantly associated with increased CRS (β = 0.0028; P = 0.006) and a decreased HDL cholesterol (β = -0.0028; P = 0.005). Among participants with a moderate overall alcohol in-take at baseline increased alcohol intake was significantly associated with an increased plasma triglyceride (β = 0.0069; P = 0.04). No association with triglyceride was found for participants with a high alcohol intake. Change in wine intake was significantly negatively associated with changes in diastolic BP (β = 0.0015; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Sustained increase in the long-term intake of alcohol was a significant risk factor for an increased CRS, increased triglyceride level and decreased HDL cholesterol. Increased wine intake was associated with decreased diastolic BP.
Social disparities in children’s exposure to second hand smoke at home: a repeated cross-sectional survey
Pisinger Charlotta,Hammer-Helmich Lene,Andreasen Anne,J?rgensen Torben
Environmental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-65
Abstract: Background Exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. We hypothesised that there has been a growth in social inequality in children’s exposure to SHS at home over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate temporal change in smoking in homes including children, focusing on the socioeconomic differences. Methods Data is from a repeated cross-sectional survey, ‘Health Profiles of the Capital Region of Denmark’ conducted in 2007 and 2010, in 29 municipalities. The response rate was 52.3%, in both surveys. Our study included persons aged 25 to 64, living with children ≤15 years of age; N=9,289 in 2007 and 12,696 in 2010. Analyses were weighted for size of municipality and for non-response, which was higher among men and among persons who were younger, had a lower income, were living alone, were unemployed, and/or were of an ethnicity other than Danish. Regression analyses were used to investigate smoking in homes including children across parent/adult education levels, focusing on temporal changes. Results There were significant large socioeconomic differences in both 2007 and 2010. In 2010 it was more than 11 times more likely for a child to be exposed to SHS at home if the parent had very low education than if they were highly educated (p<0.001). Smoking in a home with children decreased from 16.2% in 2007 to 10.9% in 2010. The odds of a temporal decrease in domestic smoking did not differ significantly across parent education levels (p=0.40). Conclusions Marked social inequalities in children’s exposure to SHS and a significant temporal decrease in exposure, independent of the education level of the parent/adult, were found in repeated large cross-sectional population-based studies. Social disparities have persisted over time, but not increased. Both clinical and population policy interventions will be needed in order to control child SHS exposure. We call for legislative protection of children from tobacco smoke inside their home as a supplement to parental education and support for smoking cessation.
Vitamin D Status and Cause-Specific Mortality: A General Population Study
Tea Skaaby, Lise Lotte Nystrup Husemoen, Charlotta Pisinger, Torben J?rgensen, Betina Heinsb?k Thuesen, Mogens Fenger, Allan Linneberg
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052423
Abstract: Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in observational studies. The specific causes of death underlying this association lack clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality. Methods We included a total of 9,146 individuals from the two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, conducted in 1993–94 and 1999–2001, respectively. Vitamin D status was assessed as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Information on causes of death was obtained from The Danish Register of Causes of Death until 31 December 2009. There were a total of 832 deaths (median follow-up 10.3 years). Results Multivariable Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis and vitamin D quartiles showed significant associations between vitamin D status and death caused by diseases of the respiratory system, the digestive system, and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases with hazard ratios (HRs) 0.26 (ptrend = 0.0042), 0.28 (ptrend = 0.0040), and 0.21 (ptrend = 0.035), respectively, for the fourth vitamin D quartile compared to the first. We found non-significantly lower HRs for death caused by mental and behavioural diseases and diseases of the nervous system, but no association between vitamin D status and death caused by neoplasms or diseases of the circulatory system. Conclusion The associations of vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality suggest that we also look elsewhere (than to cardiovascular disease and cancer) to explain the inverse association between vitamin D status and mortality.
Vitamin D Status and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Prospective General Population Study
Tea Skaaby, Lise Lotte Nystrup Husemoen, Betina Heinsb?k Thuesen, Charlotta Pisinger, Torben J?rgensen, Runa Vavia Fenger, Allan Linneberg
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090654
Abstract: Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is common among persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether vitamin D affects the development and deterioration of COPD or is a consequence of the disease lacks clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and prevalent and incident COPD in the general population. Methods We included a total of 12,041 individuals from three general population studies conducted in 1993–94, 1999–2001, and 2006–2008, respectively, with vitamin D measurements. Information on COPD was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register and The Danish Registry of Causes of Death. Results There were 85 prevalent and 463 incident cases of COPD (median follow-up 9.7 years). We found a statistically significant inverse association between vitamin D status and prevalent COPD with odds ratio = 0.89 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.79, 1.0), but no statistically significant association with incident COPD with a hazard ratio = 0.98 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.0), respectively, per 10 nmol/l higher vitamin D status, when adjusted for possible confounders. Conclusions We found a statistically significant inverse cross-sectional association between vitamin D status and COPD, but no association between vitamin D status and incident COPD.
At the Margin of Educational Policy: Sámi/Indigenous Peoples in the Swedish National Curriculum 2011  [PDF]
Charlotta Svonni
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.69091
Abstract: According to international and national legislation, the Sámi people in Sweden have the right to self-determination; more specifically, they have the right to form their own education. Current compulsory education is guided by the national curricula, Lpo 11. Thus, the curricula heavily influence education in schools throughout the country. In this paper, a content analysis is performed to explore the Lpo 11 from an Indigenous perspective, and it scrutinizes if and how Sámi culture, values, traditions and knowledge are salient in the curricula. The results show that the Sámi thematic only has a minor place in the Lpo 11. Furthermore, there are no knowledge requirements including the Sámi thematic in the syllabi. In relation to expectations in international conventions and national legislation addressing Indigenous peoples and national minorities, there is a need of a higher degree of the Sámi thematic in the curriculum.
The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial
Ulla Toft, Lis Kristoffersen, Steen Ladelund, Lars Ovesen, Cathrine Lau, Charlotta Pisinger, Lisa Smith, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Torben J?rgensen
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-5-59
Abstract: The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301), two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; group B, n = 1,308). Subjects were invited for a health screening program. Participation rate was 52.5%. All participants received individual life-style counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease in group A were furthermore offered group-based life-style counselling. The intervention was repeated for high-risk individuals after one and three years. At five-year follow-up all participants were invited for a health examination. High risk individuals were included in this study (n = 2 356) and changes in dietary intake were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses.At one-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio compared to group B and in men a significantly greater decrease in saturated fat intake was found in group A compared to group B (net change: -1.13 E%; P = 0.003). No differences were found between group A and B at three-year follow-up. At five-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio (net change: 0.09; P = 0.01) and the fish intake compared to group B (net change: 5.4 g/day; P = 0.05). Further, in men a non-significant tendency of a greater decrease was found at five year follow-up in group A compared to group B (net change: -0.68 E%; P = 0.10). The intake of fibre and vegetables increased in both groups, however, no significant difference was found between the groups. No differences between groups were found for saturated fat intake in women.Offering group-based counselling in addition to individual counselling resulted in small, but significantly improved dietary habits at five-year follow-up and a tendency of better maintenance, compared to individual counselling alone.The Inter99 study was approved by the local Ethics Committee (KA 98 155) and is registered wit
Cause-Specific Mortality According to Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio in the General Population
Tea Skaaby, Lise Lotte Nystrup Husemoen, Tarunveer Singh Ahluwalia, Peter Rossing, Torben J?rgensen, Betina Heinsb?k Thuesen, Charlotta Pisinger, Knud Rasmussen, Allan Linneberg
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093212
Abstract: Background Urine albumin creatinine ratio, UACR, is positively associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in observational studies. Whether a high UACR is also associated with other causes of death is unclear. We investigated the association between UACR and cause-specific mortality. Methods We included a total of 9,125 individuals from two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, conducted in 1993–94 and 1999–2001, respectively. Urine albumin creatinine ratio was measured from spot urine samples by standard methods. Information on causes of death was obtained from The Danish Register of Causes of Death until 31 December 2010. There were a total of 920 deaths, and the median follow-up was 11.3 years. Results Multivariable Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis showed statistically significant positive associations between UACR status and risk of all-cause mortality, endocrine nutritional and metabolic diseases, mental and behavioural disorders, diseases of the circulatory system, and diseases of the respiratory system with hazard ratios 1.56, 6.98, 2.34, 2.03, and 1.91, for the fourth UACR compared with the first, respectively. Using UACR as a continuous variable, we also found a statistically significant positive association with risk of death caused by diseases of the digestive system with a hazard ratio of 1.02 per 10 mg/g higher UACR. Conclusion We found statistically significant positive associations between baseline UACR and death from all-cause mortality, endocrine nutritional and metabolic diseases, and diseases of the circulatory system and possibly mental and behavioural disorders, and diseases of the respiratory and digestive system.
The Type 2 Diabetes Associated Minor Allele of rs2237895 KCNQ1 Associates with Reduced Insulin Release Following an Oral Glucose Load
Johan Holmkvist, Karina Banasik, Gitte Andersen, Hiroyuki Unoki, Thomas Skot Jensen, Charlotta Pisinger, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Annelli Sandb?k, Torsten Lauritzen, S?ren Brunak, Shiro Maeda, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005872
Abstract: Background Polymorphisms in the potassium channel, voltage-gated, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) have recently been reported to associate with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the putative impact of these KCNQ1 polymorphisms (rs2283228, rs2237892, rs2237895, and rs2237897) on estimates of glucose stimulated insulin release. Methodology/Principal Findings Genotypes were examined for associations with serum insulin levels following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population-based sample of 6,039 middle-aged and treatment-na?ve individuals. Insulin release indices estimated from the OGTT and the interplay between insulin sensitivity and insulin release were investigated using linear regression and Hotelling T2 analyses. Applying an additive genetic model the minor C-allele of rs2237895 was associated with reduced serum insulin levels 30 min (mean±SD: (CC) 277±160 vs. (AC) 280±164 vs. (AA) 299±200 pmol/l, p = 0.008) after an oral glucose load, insulinogenic index (29.6±17.4 vs. 30.2±18.7vs. 32.2±22.1, p = 0.007), incremental area under the insulin curve (20,477±12,491 vs. 20,503±12,386 vs. 21,810±14,685, p = 0.02) among the 4,568 individuals who were glucose tolerant. Adjustment for the degree of insulin sensitivity had no effect on the measures of reduced insulin release. The rs2237895 genotype had a similar impact in the total sample of treatment-na?ve individuals. No association with measures of insulin release were identified for the less common diabetes risk alleles of rs2237892, rs2237897, or rs2283228. Conclusion The minor C-allele of rs2237895 of KCNQ1, which has a prevalence of about 42% among Caucasians was associated with reduced measures of insulin release following an oral glucose load suggesting that the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, previously reported for this variant, likely is mediated through an impaired beta cell function.
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