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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10182 matches for " Charles Moomaw "
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Predicting Mortality and Functional Outcomes after Ischemic Stroke: External Validation of a Prognostic Model  [PDF]
Achala Vagal, Heidi Sucharewv, Christopher Lindsell, Dawn Kleindorfer, Kathleen Alwell, Charles J. Moomaw, Daniel Woo, Matthew Flaherty, Pooja Khatri, Opeolu Adeoye, Simona Ferioli, Jason Mackey, Sharyl Martini, Felipe De Los Rios La Rosa F., Brett Kissela
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.810036
Abstract: Background: We previously developed predictive models for 3-month mortality and modified Rankin Score (mRS) after ischemic stroke. Aim: The aim was to test model validity for 3-month mortality and mRS after ischemic stroke in two independent data sets. Methods: Our derivation models used data from 451 subjects with ischemic stroke in 1999 enrolled in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study (GCKNSS). We utilized two separate cohorts of ischemic strokes through GCKNSS (460 in 2005 and 504 in 2010) to assess external validity by utilizing measures of agreement between predicted and observed values, calibration, and discrimination using Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis or Diagnosis. Results: The 3-month mortality model performed well in the validation datasets with an average prediction error (Brier score) of 0.045 for 2005 and 0.053 for 2010 and excellent discrimination with an area under the curve of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.93) for 2005 and 0.84 (0.76, 0.92) for 2010. Predicted 3-month mRS also performed well in the validation datasets with R2 of 0.57 for 2005 and 0.50 for 2010 and a root mean square error of 0.85 for 2005 and 1.05 for 2010. Predicted mRS tended to be higher than actual in both validation datasets. Re-estimation of the model parameters for age and severe white matter hyperintensity in both 2005 and 2010, and for diabetes in 2005, improved predictive accuracy. Conclusions: Our previously developed stroke models performed well in two study periods, suggesting validity of the model predictions.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage: tests of association with apolipoprotein E and elastin genes
Ritesh Kaushal, Daniel Woo, Prodipto Pal, Mary Haverbusch, Huifeng Xi, Charles Moomaw, Padmini Sekar, Brett Kissela, Dawn Kleindorfer, Matthew Flaherty, Laura Sauerbeck, Ranajit Chakraborty, Joseph Broderick, Ranjan Deka
BMC Medical Genetics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-8-49
Abstract: At the APOE locus, no individual SNP was associated with SAH after correction for multiple comparisons. Haplotype analysis revealed significant association of the major haplotype (Hap1) in APOE with SAH (p = 0.001). The association stemmed from both the 5' promoter and the 3' region of the APOE gene. APOE ε2 and ε 4 were not significantly associated with SAH. No association was observed for ELN at genotype, allele, or haplotype level and our study failed to confirm previous reports of ELN association with aneurysmal SAH.This study suggests a role of the APOE gene in the etiology of aneurysmal SAH.Non-traumatic, spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects 16,000 to 17,000 individuals each year in the United States [1-3]. SAH has a 30-day mortality rate exceeding 40%, and surviving patients often demonstrate significant morbidity [2,4]. Over 80% of SAH can be attributed to intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture. Familial aggregation studies of SAH have consistently identified an increased risk of a first-degree relative with SAH or family history of SAH independent of smoking and hypertension [5].Variants of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene have been associated with Alzheimer's disease, lipid disorders and cardiovascular disease [6-8]. Previous studies have demonstrated that APOE ε4 and/or APOE ε2 are associated with lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) [9,10]. We recently reported that haplotypes which include polymorphisms in the 5' untranslated region of the APOE gene are risk factors for lobar ICH [11]. Specific to SAH, Kokubo et al. [12] found significant association of APOE ε4 with SAH in a Japanese population. Niskakangas et al. [13] reported association of APOE ε4 with adverse outcome after aneurysmal SAH. No study on other polymorphisms of APOE with regard to risk of SAH has yet been reported.In addition to APOE, the elastin (ELN) gene emerged as a putative gene for IA after linkage was found on 7q11, where ELN is located [14]. However, prior association st
Protein Similarity Networks Reveal Relationships among Sequence, Structure, and Function within the Cupin Superfamily
Richard Uberto, Ellen W. Moomaw
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074477
Abstract: The cupin superfamily is extremely diverse and includes catalytically inactive seed storage proteins, sugar-binding metal-independent epimerases, and metal-dependent enzymes possessing dioxygenase, decarboxylase, and other activities. Although numerous proteins of this superfamily have been structurally characterized, the functions of many of them have not been experimentally determined. We report the first use of protein similarity networks (PSNs) to visualize trends of sequence and structure in order to make functional inferences in this remarkably diverse superfamily. PSNs provide a way to visualize relatedness of structure and sequence among a given set of proteins. Structure- and sequence-based clustering of cupin members reflects functional clustering. Networks based only on cupin domains and networks based on the whole proteins provide complementary information. Domain-clustering supports phylogenetic conclusions that the N- and C-terminal domains of bicupin proteins evolved independently. Interestingly, although many functionally similar enzymatic cupin members bind the same active site metal ion, the structure and sequence clustering does not correlate with the identity of the bound metal. It is anticipated that the application of PSNs to this superfamily will inform experimental work and influence the functional annotation of databases.
Cascading costs: An economic nitrogen cycle
William R. Moomaw,Melissa B. L. Birch
Science China Life Sciences , 2005, DOI: 10.1007/BF03187109
Abstract: The chemical nitrogen cycle is becoming better characterized in terms of fluxes and reservoirs on a variety of scales. Galloway has demonstrated that reactive nitrogen can cascade through multiple ecosystems causing environmental damage at each stage before being denitrified to N2. We propose to construct a parallel economic nitrogen cascade (ENC) in which economic impacts of nitrogen fluxes can be estimated by the costs associated with each stage of the chemical cascade. Using economic data for the benefits of damage avoided and costs of mitigation in the Chesapeake Bay basin, we have constructed an economic nitrogen cascade for the region. Since a single tonne of nitrogen can cascade through the system, the costs also cascade. Therefore evaluating the benefits of mitigating a tonne of reactive nitrogen released needs to consider the damage avoided in all of the ecosystems through which that tonne would cascade. The analysis reveals that it is most cost effective to remove a tonne of nitrogen coming from combustion since it has the greatest impact on human health and creates cascading damage through the atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic and coastal ecosystems. We will discuss the implications of this analysis for determining the most cost effective policy option for achieving environmental quality goals.
Efficacy of a synbiotic chewable tablet in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea  [PDF]
Charles Spielholz
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.32020
Abstract: Infection by Clostridium difficile, a complication of treatment with antibiotics, causes antibiotic- associated diarrhea (AAD) and can lead to colitis and pseudomembranous colitis. Incidence of C. difficile infection is increasing among the elderly undergoing antibiotics therapy confined to health care facilities, conditions that are expensive to treat, decrease the quality of life and are life threatening. Use of probiotics has been proposed as a method to decrease the incidence of AAD in health care facilities. To examine the efficacy of using probiotics, 120 nursing home residents undergoing antibiotic therapy were provided with a synbiotic tablet containing two probiotics, Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus coagulans, and a prebiotic, fructooligosaccharide. Residents were evaluated retrospectively for AAD and C. difficile infection. It was found that 95% of residents treated with antibiotics and taking the synbiotic tablet were free of AAD. More than 97% of the residents did not become infected with C. difficile. No adverse effects were reported. Minor side effects, gastrointestinal upset and nausea, were reported by less than 6% of the residents. The cause of the minor side effects was not known. Only 2.5% of the residents stopped taking the synbiotic tablet because of the gastrointestinal upset. These Results suggest that use of the synbiotic tablet prevents AAD and C. difficile infection in nursing home residents undergoing antibiotic therapy. It is concluded that this synbiotic tablet provides an easy to administer and safe approach to controlling AAD and C. difficile infection in residents in nursing homes.
Towards a Global Carbon Integrity System: Learning from the GFC1 and avoiding a GCC2  [PDF]
Charles Sampford
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.24026
Abstract: This paper examines some of the central globalethical and governance challenges of climate change and carbon emissions reduction in relation to globalization, the ‘global financial crisis’ (GFC), and unsustainable conceptions of the ‘good life’,and argues in favour ofthe development of a global carbon ‘integrity system’. It is argued that a fundamental driver of our climate problems is the incipient spread of an unsustainable Western version of the ‘good life’, whereresource-intensive, high-carbon western lifestyles,although frequently criticized as unsustainable and deeply unsatisfying, appear to have established anunearned ethical legitimacy.While the ultimate solution to climate change is the development of low carbon lifestyles, the paper argues that it is also important that economic incentives support and stimulate that search: the sustainable versions of the good life provide an ethical pull, whilst the incentives provide an economic push. Yet, if we are going to secure sustainable low carbon lifestyles, it is argued, we need more than the ethical pull and the economic push. Each needs to be institutionalized – built into the governance of global, regional, national, sub-regional, corporate and professional institutions. Where currently weakness in each exacerbates the weaknesses in others,it is argued that governance reform is required in all areas supporting sustainable, low carbon versions of the good life.
Belief Structures, Common Policy Space and Health Care Reform: A Q Methodology Study  [PDF]
Charles Wilf
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.29143
Abstract: Debate on the merits of health care reform continues even after passage of the Affordable Care Act of 2010. Poll results confirm a split along political party and associated ideological lines with democrats more supportive and republicans generally opposed to the law. As parts of the law are now subject to increasing scrutiny, it may be instructive to question whether a party-centered or surrogate liberal/conservative dichotomy is the best representation of positions in the health care debate. Q Methodology reveals a more complex set of belief structures, suggesting that a simple dichotomy is misleading in terms of the values that underlie the role of health care in society. Five distinct belief structures were found, each with different concerns as to the purpose and potential benefits of various health care initiatives. In addition, Q Methodology allows for the formation of a common policy space within which all belief structures are independently in agreement in four specific areas. It is argued that this empirically derived consensus can serve as a basis for effective political engagement and policy implementation.
A Novel Operational Partition between Neural Network Classifiers on Vulnerability to Data Mining Bias  [PDF]
Charles Wong
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.74027

It is difficult if not impossible to appropriately and effectively select from among the vast pool of existing neural network machine learning predictive models for industrial incorporation or academic research exploration and enhancement. When all models outperform all the others under disparate circumstances, none of the models do. Selecting the ideal model becomes a matter of ill-supported opinion ungrounded on the extant real world environment. This paper proposes a novel grouping of the model pool grounded along a non-stationary real world data line into two groups: Permanent Data Learning and Reversible Data Learning. This paper further proposes a novel approach towards qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrating their significant differences based on how they alternatively approach dynamic and raw real world data vs static and prescient data mining biased laboratory data. The results across 2040 separate simulation runs using 15,600 data points in realistically operationally controlled data environments show that the two-group division is effective and significant with clear qualitative, quantitative and theoretical support. Results across the empirical and theoretical spectrum are internally and externally consistent yet demonstrative of why and how this result is non-obvious.

Exploring the Pedagogical Meaning and Implications of the 4Cs “Super Skills” for the 21st Century through Bruner’s 5E Lenses of Knowledge Construction to Improve Pedagogies of the New Learning Paradigm  [PDF]
Charles Kivunja
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.62021
Abstract: As economies increasingly globalize and digital technologies assume ubiquitous presence and functional utility in peoples’ lives outside educational contexts, there is an increasing realization among pedagogues that education designed to equip graduates of the Digital Economy requires the teaching of new skills rather than the traditional core subjects. This realization has led to the emergence of what is called the New Learning Paradigm which postulates that students now need to be taught the skills most in demand in the 21st century. Those skills are epitomized in what The Partnership for 21st Century Skills calls the Framework for 21st Century Skills. Keys among those skills are what The Partnership characterizes as the 4Cs super skills.. What are those skills? Why are they essential for successful learning, teaching, assessment, working and living in today’s Digital Economy? How do they align with the full set of 21st century skills? What are the pedagogical implications of these 4Cs super skills? This paper answers these questions in four steps. Firstly, it articulates the 4Cs super skills. Secondly, it explains the “Rainbow” framework of the full set of essential 21st century skills as conceptualized by The Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Thirdly, it outlines Bruner’s 5E Instructional Model and explains how it provides an excellent lens through which to approach learning, teaching, assessment and curriculum development for the 4Cs super skills in Kivunja’s New Learning Paradigm.
Using De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Model to Teach Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills Essential for Success in the 21st Century Economy  [PDF]
Charles Kivunja
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.63037
Abstract: It is understood that although critical thinking and problem solving are recognized as skills that are essential for success, particularly in the 21st century Digital Economy, they are not explicitly taught as part of the curriculum in many educational institutions. To make a contribution to an understanding of how critical thinking and problem solving can be taught effectively, the present paper draws upon the work of one of the leaders in critical thinking and problem solving to illustrate how these skills could be taught using De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats Model. Following an exposition of the key tenets of De Bono’s Model, the paper discusses how each of the Six Thinking Hats could be used in an effective pedagogy.
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