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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 410506 matches for " Charles M. Cooper "
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Small Mammal Habitat Use within Restored Riparian Habitats Adjacent to Channelized Streams in Mississippi  [PDF]
Peter C. Smiley Jr., Charles M. Cooper
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.411149
Abstract:

Riparian zones of channelized agricultural streams in northwestern Mississippi typically consist of narrow vegetative corridors low in habitat diversity and lacking riparian wetlands. Land clearing practices and stream channelization have led to the development of gully erosion and further fragmentation of these degraded riparian zones. Currently, installation of a gully erosion control structure (drop pipe) at the riparian zone-agricultural field interface leads to the incidental establishment of four riparian habitat types that differ in habitat area, vegetative structure, and pool size. Small mammals were sampled within four sites of each habitat type from June 1994 to July 1995. Small mammal diversity, abundance, and hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) weight were the least within smallest Type I habitats with the least vegetative structural diversity and were the greatest within the larger Type II, III, or IV habitats having greater vegetative structural diversity and pool size. Small mammal diversity and abundance were the least in the summer 1994, increased in the fall 1994, and then declined later in our study. Hispid cotton rat abundance was the least in summer 1994, winter 1994, and spring 1995 and was the greatest in fall 1994 and summer 1995. Our results suggest that modifying the drop pipe installation design to facilitate the development of larger riparian habitats with greater vegetative structural diversity will provide the greatest benefits for small mammals.

Host Longevity and Parasite Species Richness in Mammals
Natalie Cooper, Jason M. Kamilar, Charles L. Nunn
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042190
Abstract: Hosts and parasites co-evolve, with each lineage exerting selective pressures on the other. Thus, parasites may influence host life-history characteristics, such as longevity, and simultaneously host life-history may influence parasite diversity. If parasite burden causes increased mortality, we expect a negative association between host longevity and parasite species richness. Alternatively, if long-lived species represent a more stable environment for parasite establishment, host longevity and parasite species richness may show a positive association. We tested these two opposing predictions in carnivores, primates and terrestrial ungulates using phylogenetic comparative methods and controlling for the potentially confounding effects of sampling effort and body mass. We also tested whether increased host longevity is associated with increased immunity, using white blood cell counts as a proxy for immune investment. Our analyses revealed weak relationships between parasite species richness and longevity. We found a significant negative relationship between longevity and parasite species richness for ungulates, but no significant associations in carnivores or primates. We also found no evidence for a relationship between immune investment and host longevity in any of our three groups. Our results suggest that greater parasite burden is linked to higher host mortality in ungulates. Thus, shorter-lived ungulates may be more vulnerable to disease outbreaks, which has implications for ungulate conservation, and may be applicable to other short-lived mammals.
Web-based data collection: detailed methods of a questionnaire and data gathering tool
Cooper Charles J,Cooper Sharon P,del Junco Deborah J,Shipp Eva M
Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-5573-3-1
Abstract: There have been dramatic advances in the development of web-based data collection instruments. This paper outlines a systematic web-based approach to facilitate this process through locally developed code and to describe the results of using this process after two years of data collection. We provide a detailed example of a web-based method that we developed for a study in Starr County, Texas, assessing high school students' work and health status. This web-based application includes data instrument design, data entry and management, and data tables needed to store the results that attempt to maximize the advantages of this data collection method. The software also efficiently produces a coding manual, web-based statistical summary and crosstab reports, as well as input templates for use by statistical packages. Overall, web-based data entry using a dynamic approach proved to be a very efficient and effective data collection system. This data collection method expedited data processing and analysis and eliminated the need for cumbersome and expensive transfer and tracking of forms, data entry, and verification. The code has been made available for non-profit use only to the public health research community as a free download 1.
International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D), a randomized clinical trial: rationale and protocol
Leanne M Williams, A Rush, Stephen H Koslow, Stephen R Wisniewski, Nicholas J Cooper, Charles B Nemeroff, Alan F Schatzberg, Evian Gordon
Trials , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-12-4
Abstract: The International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) is a multi-centre, international, randomized, prospective, open-label trial. It is enrolling 2016 MDD outpatients (ages 18-65) from primary or specialty care practices (672 per treatment arm; 672 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls). Study-eligible patients are antidepressant medication (ADM) na?ve or willing to undergo a one-week wash-out of any non-protocol ADM, and cannot have had an inadequate response to protocol ADM. Baseline assessments include symptoms; distress; daily function; cognitive performance; electroencephalogram and event-related potentials; heart rate and genetic measures. A subset of these baseline assessments are repeated after eight weeks of treatment. Outcomes include the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (primary) and self-reported depressive symptoms, social functioning, quality of life, emotional regulation, and side-effect burden (secondary). Participants may then enter a naturalistic telephone follow-up at weeks 12, 16, 24 and 52. The first half of the sample will be used to identify potential predictors and moderators, and the second half to replicate and confirm.First enrolment was in December 2008, and is ongoing. iSPOT-D evaluates clinical and biological predictors of treatment response in the largest known sample of MDD collected worldwide.International Study to Predict Optimised Treatment - in Depression (iSPOT-D) ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00693849URL: http:/ / clinicaltrials.gov/ ct2/ show/ NCT00693849?term=International+Stud y+to+Predict+Optimized+Treatment+fo r+Depression&rank=1 webciteMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is the fourth most disabling medical condition worldwide (based on disability-adjusted lifeyears) and is expected to be ranked second by year 2020 [1,2]. MDD is typically recurrent, often chronic and disabling, with a lifetime prevalence rate of over 15% [3]. Women are approximately twice as likely to dev
Trends in the Population Prevalence of People Who Inject Drugs in US Metropolitan Areas 1992–2007
Barbara Tempalski, Enrique R. Pouget, Charles M. Cleland, Joanne E. Brady, Hannah L. F. Cooper, H. Irene Hall, Amy Lansky, Brooke S. West, Samuel R. Friedman
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064789
Abstract: Background People who inject drugs (PWID) have increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We update and present estimates and trends of the prevalence of current PWID and PWID subpopulations in 96 US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 1992–2007. Current estimates of PWID and PWID subpopulations will help target services and help to understand long-term health trends among PWID populations. Methodology We calculated the number of PWID in the US annually from 1992–2007 and apportioned estimates to MSAs using multiplier methods. We used four types of data indicating drug injection to allocate national annual totals to MSAs, creating four distinct series of component estimates of PWID in each MSA and year. The four component estimates are averaged to create the best estimate of PWID for each MSA and year. We estimated PWID prevalence rates for three subpopulations defined by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. We evaluated trends using multi-level polynomial models. Results PWID per 10,000 persons aged 15–64 years varied across MSAs from 31 to 345 in 1992 (median 104.4) to 34 to 324 in 2007 (median 91.5). Trend analysis indicates that this rate declined during the early period and then was relatively stable in 2002–2007. Overall prevalence rates for non-Hispanic black PWID increased in 2005 as compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Hispanic prevalence, in contrast, declined across time. Importantly, results show a worrisome trend in young PWID prevalence since HAART was initiated – the mean prevalence was 90 to 100 per 10,000 youth in 1992–1996, but increased to >120 PWID per 10,000 youth in 2006–2007. Conclusions Overall, PWID rates remained constant since 2002, but increased for two subpopulations: non-Hispanic black PWID and young PWID. Estimates of PWID are important for planning and evaluating public health programs to reduce harm among PWID and for understanding related trends in social and health outcomes.
Lymphatic and Angiogenic Candidate Genes Predict the Development of Secondary Lymphedema following Breast Cancer Surgery
Christine Miaskowski, Marylin Dodd, Steven M. Paul, Claudia West, Deborah Hamolsky, Gary Abrams, Bruce A. Cooper, Charles Elboim, John Neuhaus, Brian L. Schmidt, Betty Smoot, Bradley E. Aouizerat
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060164
Abstract: The purposes of this study were to evaluate for differences in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics in women who did and did not develop lymphedema (LE) following breast cancer treatment. Breast cancer patients completed a number of self-report questionnaires. LE was evaluated using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Genotyping was done using a custom genotyping array. No differences were found between patients with (n = 155) and without LE (n = 387) for the majority of the demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients with LE had a significantly higher body mass index, more advanced disease and a higher number of lymph nodes removed. Genetic associations were identified for four genes (i.e., lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 (rs315721), neuropilin-2 (rs849530), protein tyrosine kinase (rs158689), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (rs3176861)) and three haplotypes (i.e., Forkhead box protein C2 (haplotype A03), neuropilin-2 (haplotype F03), vascular endothelial growth factor-C (haplotype B03)) involved in lymphangiogensis and angiogenesis. These genetic associations suggest a role for a number of lymphatic and angiogenic genes in the development of LE following breast cancer treatment.
A Massive Progenitor of the Luminous Type IIn Supernova 2010jl
Nathan Smith,Weidong Li,Adam A. Miller,Jeffrey M. Silverman,Alexei V. Filippenko,Jean-Charles Cuillandre,Michael C. Cooper,Thomas Matheson,Schuyler D. Van Dyk
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/732/2/63
Abstract: The bright, nearby, recently discovered supernova SN2010jl is a member of the rare class of relatively luminous Type~IIn events. Here we report archival HST observations of its host galaxy UGC5189A taken roughly 10yr prior to explosion, as well as early-time optical spectra of the SN. The HST images reveal a bright, blue point source at the position of the SN, with an absolute magnitude of -12.0 in the F300W filter. If it is not just a chance alignment, the source at the SN position could be (1) a massive young (less than 6 Myr) star cluster in which the SN resided, (2) a quiescent, luminous blue star with an apparent temperature around 14,000K, (3) a star caught during a bright outburst akin to those of LBVs, or (4) a combination of option 1 and options 2 or 3. Although we cannot confidently choose between these possibilities with the present data, any of them imply that the progenitor of SN2010jl had an initial mass above 30Msun. This reinforces mounting evidence that many SNe IIn result from very massive stars, that massive stars can produce visible SNe without collapsing quietly to black holes, and that massive stars can retain their H envelopes until shortly before explosion. Standard stellar evolution models fail to account for these observed properties.
Heart and ventilatory measures in crayfish during copulation  [PDF]
Richard M. Cooper, Heidi Schapker Finucane, Megan Adami, Robin L. Cooper
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology (OJMIP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojmip.2011.13006
Abstract: Monitoring heart rate (HR) and ventilatory rate (VR) during defined sensory stimuli and during aggressive and submissive social interactions has provided additional information of a crayfish's physiological state which is not achieved by behavioral observations. In this study, the HR and VR of crayfish were monitored before, during and after the act of copulation in both heterosexual partners. The female crayfish abruptly reduces HR and VR during copulation but the male maintains HR and VR. After separation from copulation the female HR and VR are elevated, potentially paying back the O2 debt. The tight relationship with HR and VR in direction of change indicates a potential neural coupling. These physiological changes in cardiac and respiratory systems suggest an autonomic-like regulation of HR and VR. How these neuronal functions are driven and regulated remains to be determined. Olfactory cues from the female to the male during copulation may be reduced by the reduction in VR in the female. These studies offer experimental paradigms for future neuronal and pharmacological investigations into autonomic regulation of HR and VR as well as the neural circuitry involved.
The acute and chronic effect of low temperature on survival, heart rate and neural function in crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) species  [PDF]
Yoo Sun Chung, Richard M. Cooper, Justin Graff, Robin L. Cooper
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology (OJMIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmip.2012.23011
Abstract: The effect of acute and chronic cold exposure on heart rate (HR) and neuronal function in crayfish Procambarus clarkii and prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii was addressed. This is particularly important since prawn farms of this species are used for aquaculture in varied climates world wide. The success of P. clarkii as an invasive species throughout the world may in part be due to their ability to acclimate to cold and warm habitats. A set of experiments was devised to address the physiological abilities of these species in managing rapid changes to cold environments as well as their ability to respond to sensory stimuli by using behavior and a bioindex of HR. Prawns died within 2 hrs when moved from 21℃ to 5℃. Crayfish reduced their HR but survived for at least a week with this rapid change. Changes in temperature of 5℃ each week resulted in death of the prawns when 10℃ was reached. Some died at 16℃ and some lasted at 10℃ for 1 day before dying. Crayfish remained responsive to sensory stimuli and survived with either rapid or slow changes in temperature from 21℃ to 5℃. Primary sensory neurons were rapidly inhibited in prawns with an acute change to 5℃, where as in crayfish the activity was reduced but not completely inhibited. An induced sensory-CNS-motor circuit elicited activity at neuromuscular junctions in prawns and crayfish at 21℃ but with acute changes to 5℃only in crayfish was the circuit functionally intact. The ability to survive rapid environmental temperature changes will impact survival and in time the distribution of a species. The significance of these findings is that they may account, in part, for the wide ecological distribution of P. clarkii as compared to M. rosenbergii. The invasiveness of organisms, as for P. clarkii, is likely linked to the physiological robustness to acute and chronic temperature changes of habitats.
Alhacen's Theory of Visual Perception: A Critical Edition, with English Translation and Commentary, of the First Three Books of Alhacen's De Aspectibus, the Medieval Latin Version of Ibn al-Haytham's Kitab al-Manadzir by A. Mark Smith
Glen M. Cooper
Aestimatio : Critical Reviews in the History of Science , 2004,
Abstract:
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