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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 217436 matches for " Charles L Daley "
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Factors associated with mortality in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis
Payam Nahid, Leah G Jarlsberg, Irina Rudoy, Bouke C de Jong, Alon Unger, L Masae Kawamura, Dennis H Osmond, Philip C Hopewell, Charles L Daley
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-1
Abstract: Retrospective chart review of patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis reported to the San Francisco Tuberculosis Control Program from 1990-2001.Of 565 patients meeting eligibility criteria, 37 (6.6%) died during the study period. Of 37 deaths, 12 (32.4%) had tuberculosis listed as a contributing factor. In multivariate analysis controlling for follow-up time, four characteristics were independently associated with mortality: HIV co-infection (HR = 2.57, p = 0.02), older age at tuberculosis diagnosis (HR = 1.52 per 10 years, p = 0.001); initial sputum smear positive for acid fast bacilli (HR = 3.07, p = 0.004); and experiencing an interruption in tuberculosis therapy (HR = 3.15, p = 0.002). The association between treatment interruption and risk of death was due to non-adherence during the intensive phase of treatment (HR = 3.20, p = 0.001). The median duration of treatment interruption did not differ significantly in either intensive or continuation phases between those who died and survived (23 versus 18 days, and 37 versus 29 days, respectively). No deaths were directly attributed to adverse drug reactions.In addition to advanced age, HIV and characteristics of advanced tuberculosis, experiencing an interruption in anti-tuberculosis therapy, primarily due to non-adherence, was also independently associated with increased risk of death. Improving adherence early during treatment for tuberculosis may both improve tuberculosis outcomes as well as decrease mortality.Tuberculosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) over 1.7 million people with tuberculosis died in 2008 [1]. Advanced age, male gender, delays in diagnosis and treatment, drug resistance, and co-morbid conditions including HIV co-infection, diabetes, renal disease and COPD, have been associated with increased risk of death in patients with active tuberculosis [2-8]. A substantial proportion of deaths occur during tuberculosis treatment despite patient
The Genome Sequence of ‘Mycobacterium massiliense’ Strain CIP 108297 Suggests the Independent Taxonomic Status of the Mycobacterium abscessus Complex at the Subspecies Level
Yong-Joon Cho, Hana Yi, Jongsik Chun, Sang-Nae Cho, Charles L. Daley, Won-Jung Koh, Sung Jae Shin
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081560
Abstract: Members of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex are rapidly growing mycobacteria that are emerging as human pathogens. The M. abscessus complex was previously composed of three species, namely M. abscessus sensu stricto, ‘M. massiliense’, and ‘M. bolletii’. In 2011, ‘M. massiliense’ and ‘M. bolletii’ were united and reclassified as a single subspecies within M. abscessus: M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. However, the placement of ‘M. massiliense’ within the boundary of M. abscessus subsp. bolletii remains highly controversial with regard to clinical aspects. In this study, we revisited the taxonomic status of members of the M. abscessus complex based on comparative analysis of the whole-genome sequences of 53 strains. The genome sequence of the previous type strain of ‘Mycobacterium massiliense’ (CIP 108297) was determined using next-generation sequencing. The genome tree based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) values supported the differentiation of ‘M. bolletii’ and ‘M. massiliense’ at the subspecies level. The genome tree also clearly illustrated that ‘M. bolletii’ and ‘M. massiliense’ form a distinct phylogenetic clade within the radiation of the M. abscessus complex. The genomic distances observed in this study suggest that the current M. abscessus subsp. bolletii taxon should be divided into two subspecies, M. abscessus subsp. massiliense subsp. nov. and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii, to correspondingly accommodate the previously known ‘M. massiliense’ and ‘M. bolletii’ strains.
Moment estimation of customer loss rates from transactional data
D. J. Daley,L. D. Servi
International Journal of Stochastic Analysis , 1998, DOI: 10.1155/s1048953398000252
Abstract: Moment estimators are proposed for the arrival and customer loss rates of a many-server queueing system with a Poisson arrival process with customer loss via balking or reneging. These estimators are based on the lengths {Sj1} of the initial inter-departure intervals of the busy periods j=1,…,M observed in a dataset consisting of service starting and finishing times and encompassing both busy and idle periods of the process, and whether those busy periods are of length 1 or >1. The estimators are compared with maximum likelihood and parametric model-based estimators found previously.
A further study of an approximation for last-exit and first-passage probabilities of a random walk
D. J. Daley,L. D. Servi
International Journal of Stochastic Analysis , 1994, DOI: 10.1155/s104895339400033x
Abstract: Identities between first-passage or last-exit probabilities and unrestricted transition probabilities that hold for left- or right-continuous lattice-valued random walks form the basis of an intuitively based approximation that is demonstrated by computation to hold for certain random walks without either the left- or right-continuity properties. The argument centers on the use of ladder variables; the identities are known to hold asymptotically from work of Iglehart leading to Brownian meanders.
Multiple Cytokines Are Released When Blood from Patients with Tuberculosis Is Stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens
Kathryn L. Kellar, Jennifer Gehrke, Stephen E. Weis, Aida Mahmutovic-Mayhew, Blachy Davila, Margan J. Zajdowicz, Robin Scarborough, Philip A. LoBue, Alfred A. Lardizabal, Charles L. Daley, Randall R. Reves, John Bernardo, Brandon H. Campbell, William C. Whitworth, Gerald H. Mazurek
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026545
Abstract: Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection may cause overt disease or remain latent. Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) detect Mtb infection, both latent infection and infection manifesting as overt disease, by measuring whole-blood interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses to Mtb antigens such as early secreted antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6), culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10), and TB7.7. Due to a lack of adequate diagnostic standards for confirming latent Mtb infection, IGRA sensitivity for detecting Mtb infection has been estimated using patients with culture-confirmed tuberculosis (CCTB) for whom recovery of Mtb confirms the infection. In this study, cytokines in addition to IFN-γ were assessed for potential to provide robust measures of Mtb infection. Methods Cytokine responses to ESAT-6, CFP-10, TB7.7, or combinations of these Mtb antigens, for patients with CCTB were compared with responses for subjects at low risk for Mtb infection (controls). Three different multiplexed immunoassays were used to measure concentrations of 9 to 20 different cytokines. Responses were calculated by subtracting background cytokine concentrations from cytokine concentrations in plasma from blood stimulated with Mtb antigens. Results Two assays demonstrated that ESAT-6, CFP-10, ESAT-6+CFP-10, and ESAT-6+CFP-10+TB7.7 stimulated the release of significantly greater amounts of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-8, MCP-1 and MIP-1β for CCTB patients than for controls. Responses to combination antigens were, or tended to be, greater than responses to individual antigens. A third assay, using whole blood stimulation with ESAT-6+CFP-10+TB7.7, revealed significantly greater IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1β, and TNF-α responses among patients compared with controls. One CCTB patient with a falsely negative IFN-γ response had elevated responses with other cytokines. Conclusions Multiple cytokines are released when whole blood from patients with CCTB is stimulated with Mtb antigens. Measurement of multiple cytokine responses may improve diagnostic sensitivity for Mtb infection compared with assessment of IFN-γ alone.
The impact of HIV infection on the clinical presentation of severe malnutrition in children at QECH
L Kessler, H Daley, G Malenga, SM Graham
Malawi Medical Journal , 2001,
Abstract: A study was undertaken in a central nutritional rehabilitation unit (NRU) in southern Malawi to assess the impact of HIV infection on clinical presentation and case fatality rate. The HIV seroprevalence for 250 severely malnourished children over 1 year of age was 34.4% and the overall mortality was 28%. HIV infection was significantly more associated with marasmus (62.2%) than with kwashiorkor (21.7%) [p<0.0001]. Clinical and radiological features were not helpful in distinguishing HIV infected from non HIV infected children. The in-hospital case fatality rate was significantly higher for HIV infected children (38.4%) compared to severely malnourished children without HIV infection (22.7%) [p<0.05]. Though HIV infection contributes to the high mortality experienced in NRU's in Malawi, we argue that more remediable contributing factors still need to be addressed. Malawi Medical Journal Vol 13, No.3 (Sept 2001): pp30-33
Semi-classical properties of geometric quantization with metaplectic correction
L. Charles
Mathematics , 2006, DOI: 10.1007/s00220-006-0155-5
Abstract: The geometric quantization of a symplectic manifold endowed with a prequantum bundle and a metaplectic structure is defined by means of an integrable complex structure. We prove that its semi-classical limit does not depend on the choice of the complex structure. We show this in two ways. First, by introducing unitary identifications between the quantum spaces associated to the various complex polarizations and second, by defining an asymptotically flat connection in the bundle of quantum spaces over the space of complex structures. Furthermore Berezin-Toeplitz operators are intertwined by these identifications and have principal and subprincipal symbols defined independently of the complex structure. The relation with Schrodinger equation and the group of prequantum bundle automorphisms is considered as well.
Symbolic calculus for Toeplitz operators with half-forms
L. Charles
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the use of half-form bundles in the symbolic calculus of Berezin-Toeplitz operators on Kahler manifolds. We state the Bohr-Sommerfeld conditions and relate them to the functional calculus of Toeplitz operators, a trace formula and the characteristic classes in deformation quantization. We also develop the symbolic calculus of Lagrangian sections, with the crucial estimate of the subprincipal terms.
Toeplitz operators and Hamiltonian torus action
L. Charles
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: This paper is devoted to semi-classical aspects of symplectic reduction. Consider a compact prequantizable Kahler manifold M with a Hamiltonian torus action. Guillemin and Sternberg introduced an isomorphism between the invariant part of the quantum space associated to M and the quantum space associated to the symplectic quotient of M, provided this quotient is non-singular. We prove that this isomorphism is a Fourier integral operator and that the Toeplitz operators of M descend to Toeplitz operators of the reduced phase space. We also extend these results to the case where the symplectic quotient is an orbifold and estimate the spectral density of a reduced Toeplitz operator, a result related to the Riemann-Roch-Kawazaki theorem.
Expandindo o conceito de letramento
Daley, Elizabeth;
Trabalhos em Linguística Aplicada , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-18132010000200010
Abstract: this paper presents and discusses four arguments to expand the definition of literacy as follows: (1) the multimedia language of the screen has become the current vernacular; (2) the multimedia language of the screen is capable of constructing complex meanings independent of text; (3) the multimedia language of the screen enables modes of thought, ways of communicating and conducting research, and methods of publication and teaching that are essentially different from those of text; (4) those who are fully literate in the twenty-first century will be those who learn to both read and write the multimedia language of the screen.
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