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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 154279 matches for " Charles F Lynch "
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Breast implants following mastectomy in women with early-stage breast cancer: prevalence and impact on survival
Gem M Le, Cynthia D O'Malley, Sally L Glaser, Charles F Lynch, Janet L Stanford, Theresa HM Keegan, Dee W West
Breast Cancer Research , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/bcr974
Abstract: We analyzed data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Breast Implant Surveillance Study conducted in San Francisco–Oakland, in Seattle–Puget Sound, and in Iowa. This population-based, retrospective cohort included women younger than 65 years when diagnosed with early or unstaged first primary breast cancer between 1983 and 1989, treated with mastectomy. The women were followed for a median of 12.4 years (n = 4968). Breast implant usage was validated by medical record review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard rate ratios for survival time until death due to breast cancer or other causes for women with and without breast implants, adjusted for relevant patient and tumor characteristics.Twenty percent of cases received postmastectomy breast implants, with silicone gel-filled implants comprising the most common type. Patients with implants were younger and more likely to have in situ disease than patients not receiving implants. Risks of breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.43–0.67) and nonbreast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.85) were lower in patients with implants than in those patients without implants, following adjustment for age and year of diagnosis, race/ethnicity, stage, tumor grade, histology, and radiation therapy. Implant type did not appear to influence long-term survival.In a large, population-representative sample, breast implants following mastectomy do not appear to confer any survival disadvantage following early-stage breast cancer in women younger than 65 years old.Over the past 30 years, an estimated 1.5–2 million women have received breast implants in the United States [1]. Starting in the 1980s, widespread public health concern arose regarding their potential adverse health effects [2]. Numerous epidemiologic investigations have focused on systemic complications, particularly cancer and connective tissue disease, but have found no s
Diagnostico de Coqueluche
Revista chilena de pediatría , 1975,
Investigation into Structural Changes of the Copper Binding Site in Lysyl Oxidase upon Substrate and Inhibitor Docking
M. Lynch,F. Ryvkin
ISRN Inorganic Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/971764
Abstract: The present paper reports a computational investigation of potential communication between the lysine tyrosylquinone (LTQ) and copper cofactors within lysyl oxidase (LOX). Various substrates and inhibitors of LOX were docked into the active site in our computer generated model of the enzyme. Conformational changes in the vicinity of the copper site as well as changes in the electrostatic environment were identified. The appearance of a canal-like structure involving tyrosine 35 (TYR35) and glutamine 104 (GLN104) residues was shown to be consistent upon docking of a variety of different compounds. Interactions between LOX and its natural substrate, collagen, were also explored through molecular dynamic simulations. The possibility of communication between the organic and inorganic cofactors in LOX was proposed, aiding the ongoing debate regarding the role of copper in the catalytic mechanism of this important enzyme. 1. Introduction Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper containing amine oxidase (EC that catalyzes the oxidation of lysine resulting in the formation of peptidyl α-aminoadipic-δ-semialdehyde. Once formed, this product can spontaneously condense to form intra- and inter-chain cross-links in connective tissue matrices [1, 2]. LOX is synthesized as a 50?kDa proenzyme, secreted into the extracellular environment, and then processed by proteolytic cleavage, resulting in a functional 32?kDa enzyme [3]. Within the LOX structure, two cofactors are of particular interest: a lysine tyrosylquinone (LTQ) and a bound Cu(II) ion. The copper site has been partially characterized and copper was shown to be coordinated with three specific histidines [4], while LTQ was shown to be formed in a self-processing, copper catalyzed reaction between specific sequential tyrosine and lysine residues in the presence of molecular oxygen [5–7]. Recent research shows developing evidence that the biological role of LOX may extend far beyond that of the structural maturation of elastin and collagen [8–12], demonstrating connections between LOX activity and cancer cell mobility and tumorgenesis [13–15]. Many aspects of LOX function are the subject of continuing investigations. Although it has been shown that Cu(II) is essential for the posttranslational formation of the LTQ cofactor during protein folding prior to proteolytic cleavage [5], whether or not it is imperative to the enzymes functionality has been debated. The first rational, supported by Gacheru et al. [16], presented evidence of copper playing a catalytic role in LOX. It was also reported there that upon
Antichaos in a Class of Random Boolean Cellular Automata
James F. Lynch
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1016/0167-2789(93)90190-C
Abstract: A variant of Kauffman's model of cellular metabolism is presented. It is a randomly generated network of boolean gates, identical to Kauffman's except for a small bias in favor of boolean gates that depend on at most one input. The bias is asymptotic to 0 as the number of gates increases. Upper bounds on the time until the network reaches a state cycle and the size of the state cycle, as functions of the number of gates $n$, are derived. If the bias approaches 0 slowly enough, the state cycles will be smaller than $n^c$ for some $c<1$. This lends support to Kauffman's claim that in his version of random network the average size of the state cycles is approximately $n^{1/2}$.
On the Threshold of Chaos in Random Boolean Cellular Automata
James F. Lynch
Physics , 1993,
Abstract: A random boolean cellular automaton is a network of boolean gates where the inputs, the boolean function, and the initial state of each gate are chosen randomly. In this article, each gate has two inputs. Let $a$ (respectively $c$) be the probability the the gate is assigned a constant function (respectively a non-canalyzing function, i.e., {\sc equivalence} or {\sc exclusive or}). Previous work has shown that when $a > c$, with probability asymptotic to 1, the random automaton exhibits very stable behavior: almost all of the gates stabilize, almost all of them are weak, i.e., they can be perturbed without affecting the state cycle that is entered, and the state cycle is bounded in size. This article gives evidence that the condition $a = c$ is a threshold of chaotic behavior: with probability asymptotic to 1, almost all of the gates are still stable and weak, but the state cycle size is unbounded. In fact, the average state cycle size is superpolynomial in the number of gates.
A Criterion for Stability in Random Boolean Cellular Automata
James F. Lynch
Physics , 1993,
Abstract: Random boolean cellular automata are investigated, where each gate has two randomly chosen inputs and is randomly assigned a boolean function of its inputs. The effect of non-uniform distributions on the choice of the boolean functions is considered. The main results are that if the gates are more likely to be assigned constant functions than non-canalyzing functions, then with very high probability, the automaton will exhibit very stable behavior: most of the gates will stabilize, and the state cycles will be bounded in size.
Critical Points for Random Boolean Networks
James F. Lynch
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0167-2789(02)00618-8
Abstract: A model of cellular metabolism due to S. Kauffman is analyzed. It consists of a network of Boolean gates randomly assembled according to a probability distribution. It is shown that the behavior of the network depends very critically on certain simple algebraic parameters of the distribution. In some cases, the analytic results support conclusions based on simulations of random Boolean networks, but in other cases, they do not.
Familial Pancreatic Cancer
Henry T. Lynch,Jane F. Lynch,Stephen J. Lanspa
Cancers , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/cancers2041861
Abstract: Pancreatic cancer’s high mortality rate equates closely with its incidence, thereby showing the need for development of biomarkers of its increased risk and a better understanding of its genetics, so that high-risk patients can be better targeted for screening and early potential lifesaving diagnosis. Its phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity is extensive and requires careful scrutiny of its pattern of cancer associations, such as malignant melanoma associated with pancreatic cancer, in the familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, due to the CDKN2A germline mutation. This review is designed to depict several of the hereditary pancreatic cancer syndromes with particular attention given to the clinical application of this knowledge into improved control of pancreatic cancer.
Surgical Management of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Penis
Donald F. Lynch,Paul F. Schellhammer
The Scientific World Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2004.66
How Rich Is Your Enrichment Program?  [PDF]
Michael F. Shaughnessy, Charles Waggoner
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.67066
Abstract: The term “enrichment” has been loosely applied to gifted children and gifted programs over the years. However, there is very little agreement as to this term, and there is minimal if any short term or long term evaluation over time regarding the benefits of this term and there is almost no long term research on the impact of various “enrichment” programs, nor can the average parent be assured of implementation with fidelity or integrity. In addition, “enrichment” varies from grade to grade, school to school and state to state, and the definition of enrichment varies from subject to subject and child to child. On-going objective evaluation is minimal at best. This paper will attempt to review the various programs that constitute “enrichment”. Some enrichment programs focus on higher order thinking skills, other critical thinking skills, other reasoning, other inferential and inductive and deductive reasoning. Some programs focus on “projects” while others examine community services. This paper explores this issue and examines some of these relevant, salient issues and discusses some of the issues regarding this term. Some “enrichment” processes and procedures will be addressed and concerns elaborated on.
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