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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10451 matches for " Charles Everett "
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Computer Science: The Third Pillar of Medical Education  [PDF]
Frank Lau, Lindsay Katona, Joseph M. Rosen, Charles Everett Koop
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326120
Abstract: In 2001, The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) attributed substantial problems in the quality of American medicine to four domains: growing complexity of science and technology; the increase in chronic conditions; a poorly organized delivery system; and constraints on exploiting the revolution in information technology (IT). Although all of these domains have been improved by IT systems within the last decade, the U.S. health care systems has been slow to adopt these developments. We propose one way to combat such quality problems by incorporating a medicine-specific computer science (CS) curriculum as the third of Abraham Flexner’s pillars of medical education.
NIRS measurement of peripheral fractional oxygen extraction (FOE) after cardiopulmonary bypass
Charles William Yoxall,Kusum Menon,Andrew John Macnab,Roy Everett Gagnon,Jacques Gerard LeBlanc
Spectroscopy: An International Journal , 2002, DOI: 10.1155/2002/915063
Abstract: Objectives: To compare peripheral fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), as measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), with conventional indicators of tissue perfusion in haemodynamically stable and unstable children after cardiopulmonary bypass. Design: Observational study. Setting: Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of a large teaching hospital. Patients: 17 children immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass. Male : female = 9 : 8, median age 7 months (range, newborn to 16 years). Methods: On admission, children were classified as “stable” or “unstable” based on the haemodynamic support they needed. Peripheral venous oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SvO2) was measured non-invasively using NIRS with venous occlusion. FOE was calculated from SvO2 and arterial saturation measured by pulse oximetry. Repeated measurements of peripheral SvO2 were made for up to 8 hours. In 5 children who had pulmonary artery catheters, simultaneous mixed SvO2 measurements were recorded. Results: Median FOE was 7.9% higher in the unstable group than in the stable group (p = 0.013). Peripheral SvO2 and mixed SvO2 were correlated (R2 = 0.65, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Peripheral FOE is higher in unstable children. Changes in peripheral SvO2 are related to changes in mixed SvO2. These measurements may provide useful information about haemodynamic status in critically ill children. Further evaluation of the technique is warranted.
Traditional Urban Aboriginal Religion
Kristina Everett
Coolabah , 2009,
Abstract: This paper represents a group of Aboriginal people who claim traditionalAboriginal ownership of a large Australian metropolis. They have struggled for at least thelast 25 to 30 years to articulate and represent their contemporary group identity to the widerAustralian society that very often does not take their expressions seriously. This is largelybecause dominant discourses claim that ‘authentic’ Aboriginal culture only exists inremote, pristine areas far away from western society and that urban Aboriginal traditions,especially urban religious traditions are, today, defunct. This paper is an account of oneoccasion on which such traditional Aboriginal religious practice was performed before theeyes of a group of tourists.
Urban Aboriginal Creation Stories and History: contesting the past and the present
Kristina Everett
Coolabah , 2011,
Evidence for Direct Geographic Influences on Linguistic Sounds: The Case of Ejectives
Caleb Everett
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065275
Abstract: We present evidence that the geographic context in which a language is spoken may directly impact its phonological form. We examined the geographic coordinates and elevations of 567 language locations represented in a worldwide phonetic database. Languages with phonemic ejective consonants were found to occur closer to inhabitable regions of high elevation, when contrasted to languages without this class of sounds. In addition, the mean and median elevations of the locations of languages with ejectives were found to be comparatively high. The patterns uncovered surface on all major world landmasses, and are not the result of the influence of particular language families. They reflect a significant and positive worldwide correlation between elevation and the likelihood that a language employs ejective phonemes. In addition to documenting this correlation in detail, we offer two plausible motivations for its existence. We suggest that ejective sounds might be facilitated at higher elevations due to the associated decrease in ambient air pressure, which reduces the physiological effort required for the compression of air in the pharyngeal cavity–a unique articulatory component of ejective sounds. In addition, we hypothesize that ejective sounds may help to mitigate rates of water vapor loss through exhaled air. These explications demonstrate how a reduction of ambient air density could promote the usage of ejective phonemes in a given language. Our results reveal the direct influence of a geographic factor on the basic sound inventories of human languages.
Time travel paradoxes, path integrals, and the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics
Allen Everett
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.69.124023
Abstract: We consider two approaches to evading paradoxes in quantum mechanics with closed timelike curves (CTCs). In a model similar to Politzer's, assuming pure states and using path integrals, we show that the problems of paradoxes and of unitarity violation are related; preserving unitarity avoids paradoxes by modifying the time evolution so that improbable events bewcome certain. Deutsch has argued, using the density matrix, that paradoxes do not occur in the "many worlds interpretation". We find that in this approach account must be taken of the resolution time of the device that detects objects emerging from a wormhole or other time machine. When this is done one finds that this approach is viable only if macroscopic objects traversing a wormhole interact with it so strongly that they are broken into microscopic fragments.
Three-Family Perturbative String Vacua: Flat Directions and Effective Couplings
Lisa Everett
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: The properties of a class of quasi-realistic three-family perturbative heterotic string vacua are addressed. String models in this class generically contain an anomalous U(1), such that the nonzero Fayet-Iliopoulos term triggers certain fields to acquire string scale VEV's along flat directions. This vacuum shift reduces the rank of the gauge group and generates effective mass terms and effective trilinear interactions. Techniques are discussed which yield a systematic classification of the flat directions of a given string model which can be proven to be F- flat to all orders. The effective superpotential along such flat directions can then be calculated to all orders in the string (genus) expansion.
Oral Antimicrobial Rinse to Reduce Mycobacterial Culture Contamination among Tuberculosis Suspects in Uganda: A Prospective Study
Nelson Kalema, Saskia Den Boon, Adithya Cattamanchi, J. Lucian Davis, Alfred Andama, Winceslaus Katagira, Charles Everett, Nicholas Walter, Patrick Byanyima, Sylvia Kaswabuli, William Worodria, Laurence Huang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038888
Abstract: Rationale Contamination by bacterial or fungal organisms reduces the effectiveness of mycobacterial culture for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the effect of an anti-microbial and an anti-fungal oral rinse prior to expectoration on culture-contamination rates. Methods We enrolled a consecutive random sample of adults with cough for ≥2 weeks and suspected TB admitted to Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) between October 2008 and June 2009. We randomly assigned patients to oral rinse (60 seconds with chlorhexidine followed by 60 seconds with nystatin) vs. no oral rinse prior to initial sputum collection. Uganda National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory technicians blinded to the method of sputum collection (with or without oral rinse) processed all sputum specimens for smear microscopy (direct Ziehl-Neelsen) and mycobacterial culture (Lowenstein-Jensen media). Results Of 220 patients enrolled, 177 (80%) were HIV-seropositive (median CD4-count 37 cells/uL, IQR 13–171 cells/uL). Baseline characteristics were similar between patients in the oral-rinse (N = 110) and no oral-rinse (N = 110) groups. The proportion of contaminated cultures was significantly lower in the oral-rinse group compared to the no oral-rinse group (4% vs. 15%, risk difference ?11%, 95% CI ?18 to ?3%, p = 0.005). Oral rinse significantly reduced the proportion of contaminated cultures among HIV-infected patients (3% vs. 18%, risk difference ?14%, 95% CI ?23 to ?6%, p = 0.002) but not HIV-uninfected (6% vs. 4%, risk difference 2%, 95% CI ?12 to +15%, p = 0.81) patients. However, the proportion of smear-positive specimens (25% vs. 35%, p = 0.10) and culture-positive specimens (48% vs. 56%, p = 0.24) were lower in the oral-rinse compared to the no oral-rinse group, although the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Oral rinse prior to sputum expectoration is a promising strategy to reduce mycobacterial culture contamination in areas with high HIV prevalence, if strategies can be devised to reduce the adverse impact of oral rinse on smear- and culture-positivity.
The Use of Fluorescence Microscopy to Study the Association Between Herpesviruses and Intrinsic Resistance Factors
Roger D. Everett
Viruses , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/v3122412
Abstract: Intrinsic antiviral resistance is a branch of antiviral defence that involves constitutively expressed cellular proteins that act within individual infected cells. In recent years it has been discovered that components of cellular nuclear structures known as ND10 or PML nuclear bodies contribute to intrinsic resistance against a variety of viruses, notably of the herpesvirus family. Several ND10 components are rapidly recruited to sites that are closely associated with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genomes during the earliest stages of infection, and this property correlates with the efficiency of ND10 mediated restriction of HSV-1 replication. Similar but distinct recruitment of certain DNA damage response proteins also occurs during infection. These recruitment events are inhibited in a normal wild type HSV-1 infection by the viral regulatory protein ICP0. HSV?1 mutants that do not express ICP0 are highly susceptible to repression through intrinsic resistance factors, but they replicate more efficiently in cells depleted of certain ND10 proteins or in which ND10 component recruitment is inefficient. This article presents the background to this recruitment phenomenon and summaries how it is conveniently studied by fluorescence microscopy.
Educational supervision and the impact of workplace-based assessments: a survey of psychiatry trainees and their supervisors
T Everett Julyan
BMC Medical Education , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-9-51
Abstract: All junior doctors and their educational supervisors in one UK psychiatry training scheme were surveyed both before and after the introduction of WPBAs. Frequency and duration of ES were established, and structure, content and process were ascertained. Opinions on usefulness and responsibility were sought. The usage of ES for WPBAs was also assessed.The response rate of 70% showed general agreement between trainees and supervisors, but some significant discrepancies. Around 60% reported 1 hour of ES taking place weekly or 3 times per month. Most agreed that responsibility for ES should be shared equally between trainees and supervisors, and ES was largely seen as useful. Around 50% of trainees and supervisors used 25–50% of ES time for WPBAs, and this did not appear to affect the usefulness of ES or the range of issues covered.ES continues to be an important component of psychiatric training. However, using ES for WPBAs introduces the potential for tension between trainees' education and their assessment by emphasising certain training issues at the expense of others. The impact of reduced training time, WPBAs and uncertainties over ES structure and content should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs.In the UK, the Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCPsych) has long considered educational supervision (ES) to be an essential component of basic specialist training in psychiatry, and has published detailed guidance for both trainees and their supervisors [1,2]. The purpose of ES is specifically educational rather than clinical, including both practical skills and theoretical learning, and must be provided for 1 hour weekly by a designated educational supervisor (usually the trainee's consultant). Moreover, this time belongs exclusively to the trainee, with a focus on their personal development and learning needs, although appraisal and assessment are also integral to the process [3]. Until recently, tr
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