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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 469299 matches for " Charles A. "
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Current State of Nanoemulsions in Drug Delivery  [PDF]
Charles Lovelyn, Anthony A. Attama
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2011.225075
Abstract: Nanoemulsions have attracted great attention in research, dosage form design and pharmacotherapy. This is as a result of a number of attributes peculiar to nanoemulsions such as optical clarity, ease of preparation, thermodynamic stability and increased surface area. Nanoemulsions also known as submicron emulsions serve as vehicles for the delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as other bioactives. They are designed to address some of the problems associated with conventional drug delivery systems such as low bioavailability and noncompliance. The importance of design and development of emulsion nanocarrier systems aimed at controlling and/or improving required bioavailability levels of therapeutic agents cannot be overemphasized. Reducing droplet sizes to the nanoscale leads to some very interesting physical properties, such as optical transparency and unusual elastic behaviour. This review sheds light on the current state of nanoemulsions in the delivery of drugs and other bioactives. The morphology, formulation, characteristics and characterization of nanoemulsions were also addressed.
Thermal Stress in HFEF Hot Cell Windows Due to an In-Cell Metal Fire  [PDF]
Charles W. Solbrig, Stephen A. Warmann
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2016.61003
Abstract: This work investigates an accident during the pyrochemical extraction of Uranium and Plutonium from PWR spent fuel in an argon atmosphere hot cell. In the accident, the heavy metals (U and Pu) being extracted are accidently exposed to air from a leaky instrument penetration which goes through the cell walls. The extracted pin size pieces of U and Pu metal readily burn when exposed to air. Technicians perform the electrochemical extraction using manipulators through a 4 foot thick hot cell concrete wall which protects them from the radioactivity of the spent fuel. Four foot thick windows placed in the wall allow the technicians to visually control the manipulators. These windows would be exposed to the heat of the metal fire. This analysis determines if the thermal stress caused by the fire would crack the windows and if the heat would degrade the window seals allowing radioactivity to escape from the cell.
Small Heat Shock Protein Responses Differ between Chaparral Shrubs from Contrasting Microclimates
Charles A. Knight
Journal of Botany , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/171435
Abstract: Small heat shock protein (sHsp) responses were studied for two evergreen perennial shrubs in the northern California chaparral; one common on warm, south-facing slopes (Ceanothus cuneatus), and the other on cooler, north-facing slopes (Prunus ilicifolia). Small Hsp expression was induced experimentally for field collected leaves. Leaf collections were made where the species co-occur. Small Hsp expression was quantified using two antibodies, one specific to a chloroplast 22?kD sHsp and another that detects a broad range of sHsps. Differences between chloroplast sHsp accumulation, which protects thermally labile proteins in PSII, and the general sHsp response were examined. The species from the cooler microclimate, Prunus, had a lower induction temperature and accumulated greater levels of sHsps at low temperatures. Both Prunus and Ceanothus reached peak sHsp expression at . The species from the warmer microclimate, Ceanothus, had greater sHsp expression at higher temperatures. Chloroplast sHsp expression generally tracked sHsp expression in Ceanothus, but in Prunus general Hsps were elevated before chloroplast sHsps. Variation between species for sHsp expression (induction temperatures, accumulation levels, and the duration of expression) coupled with the costs of Hsp synthesis, may contribute to differences in the abundance and distribution of plants across environmental gradients. 1. Introduction There have been hundreds of biochemical studies of the heat shock protein (Hsp) response in plants (see [1, 2] for recent reviews), but previous studies have almost exclusively involved experimentally grown plants in controlled environments. Therefore, while our knowledge of the functional roles of Hsps has been rapidly expanding, there is still relatively little information concerning Hsp expression for plants growing in their natural environments. Of the few studies that have examined Hsp expression in the field, three made no report of Hsp expression in leaves [3–5], and the others examined Hsp expression agricultural fields [6, 7]. In addition, a lack of comparative studies has precluded a general synthesis of how genetic differentiation for the Hsp response might contribute to adaptive evolution. Leaf temperatures in the field can easily exceed those that lead to increased Hsp expression in artificial environments. Short duration temperature extremes (~15 minutes) can lead to increased Hsp expression [8]. Correlated abiotic stresses such as decreased water availability, high light, or low nutrients can also affect Hsp expression [9]. Plastic changes in
Centrosomes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio): a review including the related basal body
Charles A Lessman
Cilia , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2046-2530-1-9
Abstract: According to EB Wilson in his classic text, The Cell in Development and Heredity [1], Van Beneden first described the "polar corpuscle" in 1876 and Boveri later named it the "centrosome" in 1888. For more than a century, the centrosome has intrigued scientists and continues to do so today. Although much is now known about the centrosome, it remains somewhat mysterious, with many secrets left to reveal about its function and regulation. The zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small tropical freshwater teleost, has emerged as a model for cell and developmental biology because of its high fecundity, short generation time and rapid development of the externally fertilized and translucent embryos [2] (see also [3]). As a relatively new model organism, the zebrafish has attracted considerable attention in the scientific community due to its genetic tractability, speed of embryonic development and optical clarity. Many scientists espouse the hope that the advantages of the zebrafish model system will allow solutions to long-standing questions. For example, how is the centrosome regulated? Exactly what does it do in cell division? What is its relationship to basal bodies and ciliogenesis? It is the purpose of this review to summarize and outline the current state of knowledge about the centrosome and its relative, the basal body, in zebrafish.Centrosomes in animal cells usually consist of γ-tubulin ring complexes (γ-TuRCs), centrioles, pericentriolar material and tubulins, along with a number of other centrosome-associated proteins. A previous proteomic analysis of isolated human centrosomes indicated about 70 protein components and revealed the complexity of the centrosome [4]. The major components are briefly reviewed regarding our knowledge of most animal cells and then those of the zebrafish in particular. Centrosomes and the related basal bodies of cilia are important microtubule (MT)-organizing centers (MTOCs) of animal cells. A number of serious diseases have been linked to t
Fragile X Allelemorphism among the Mentally Retarded and Affected Families
A. Latunji Charles
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The fragile X mental retardation allele was investigated in Ibadan, south west Nigeria. Blood specimens from a population of 659 Mentally Retarded individuals (MRs) were screened for the fragile X mutation using cytogenetic and molecular methods. It was observed that 235 (35.7%) individuals had chromosomal aetiologies to their mental impairment. The Down syndrome was highest occurring in 146 (21.2%) individuals, followed by the fragile X karyotype with 45 (6.83%) individuals expressing the 46, Xq 27.3 fragility. Of the fragile X individuals, there were 13 (2.0%) fragile X females, 2 of which were 45, XO/46, XX and 45, XO/46, XX/47, XXX mosaics, respectively. Molecular methods confirmed the cytogenetic findings, where affected individuals expressed the of trinucleotide repeat amplification in the order of >200 CGG repeats in the fragile X allele region. Triplet repeat bands ranged between 200 and 2000 CGGs. Eight pedigrees comprising 70 normal relatives of 8 fragile X mentally retarded propositi were permissible to investigations for the determination of interfamilial transmission of the fragile X alleles. Blood samples were equally obtained from them and analysed, using cytogenetic and molecular methods likewise. Two normal sisters of a male propositus exhibited the 45, XO/47, XXX and 46, Xr(X)/45, XO mosaicisms, respectively. Molecular analysis revealed 26 (33.3%) female permutation carriers and 11 (14.1%) normal transmitting males. Eighteen (23.1%) males had normal alleles thus non-transmitting males and 15(19.2%) females were normal. The proportions observed in this survey, has implications for the general population and should prove significantly useful for clinicians and genetic counsellors.
A New Kind of Weak-Coupling in Top-Quark Physics ?
Nelson, Charles A.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008,
Abstract: In the standard model, for the t --> W b decay mode, the relative phase is 0-degrees between the dominant A(0,-1/2) and A(-1, -1/2) helicity amplitudes. However, in the case of an additional large t_R --> b_L chiral weak-transition moment, there is instead a 180-degree relative phase and three theoretical numerical puzzles. This phase can be measured at the Tevatron or LHC in top-antitop pair production by use of W-boson longitudinal-transverse interference in beam-referenced stage-two spin-correlation functions. Indeed, this is a new type of weak-coupling for it is directly associated with E_W, the W-boson energy in the top quark rest frame, instead of with a canonical effective mass scale. For most 2 --> 2 reactions, the simple off-shell continuation of this additional coupling is found to have good high energy properties, i.e. it does not destroy 1-loop unitarity of the SM. In a subset of processes, additional third-generation couplings are required.
The 9/11 Decade: Social Imaginary and Healing Virtual Community Fracture
Charles A. Hays
Global Media Journal : Canadian Edition , 2011,
Abstract: The initial events of 9/11 broke upon the awareness of people who turned first to traditional media for information, then to their networks of distant others when traditional media could not meet their needs. This study looks at two online community groups on Usenet. Though other technologies have supplanted Usenet to some degree, it provided a vibrant means of asynchronously connecting people interested in online discussion. As community members expressed their shock and horror, they also acted out the process of repairing the radical fracture to their virtual communal identity. The process by which they enacted this repair embodies a social imaginary, and is generally called “community repair”. This study finds that the process of community repair is very much driven by the culture inherent in the sodality represented by the participants to each newsgroup, reflecting the values that participants have communally agreed to hold valuable.
Indigenous traditional knowledge protection:prospects in South Africa’s intellectual property framework?
Charles A. Masango
South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science , 2010, DOI: 10.7553/76-1-88
Abstract: This article examines indigenous traditional knowledge and intellectual property rights. It examines whether it is possible for South Africa’s intellectual property framework to protect all types of indigenous traditional knowledge against exploitation since financial considerations are the basis for the protection of indigenous traditional knowledge. The rationale for the examination stems from a draft policy and bill for public comment published by the South African Minister of Trade and Industry on ‘policy framework for the protection of indigenous traditional knowledge through the intellectual property system and the intellectual property laws amendment bill, 2008’. The article attempts to propose elements within indigenous traditional knowledge that may and may not possibly be protected against exploitation within intellectual property rights. Finally, the article attempts to propose possible measures that could be implemented for indigenous traditional knowledge to be protected within South Africa’s intellectual property framework.
Kongre Kütüphanesi S n flama Sistemi Geli mesi, zellikleri, Yap s
Charles A. Bead
Türk Kütüphanecili?i , 1970,
Abstract:
Mechanics of Static Slip and Energy Dissipation in Sandwich Structures: Case of Homogeneous Elastic Beams in Transverse Magnetic Fields
Charles A. Osheku
ISRN Mechanical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/372019
Abstract:
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