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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 33844 matches for " Chaobo Zhou "
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Literature Review of the Study of Carbon Emission Rights  [PDF]
Huan Peng, Rui Jiang, Chaobo Zhou
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2017.84011
Abstract: The importance of green development, namely environment-friendly development is recognized world wild today. As integral parts of green development, carbon finance and carbon trading are expected to have huge market potential, which justifies the academic significance of a literature study in this area. The study of trading of the carbon emission rights mainly focuses on the following three aspects: the classification of carbon emission rights, the influencing factors of carbon emission rights and the price features of carbon emission rights.
International Experiences in the Development of Green Finance  [PDF]
Huan Peng, Ting Feng, Chaobo Zhou
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.82024
Abstract: Green finance is rapidly developing around the world in recent years and has become a new means of environmental governance. The development of green finance in China is particularly flat and the improvement of market mechanisms becomes the key to it. After analyzing the trading markets of many developed countries, this paper gives corresponding suggestions for China’s development of green finance.
Introduction to China’s Green Finance System  [PDF]
Huan Peng, Xiaoqing Lu, Chaobo Zhou
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2018.111009
In China, green finance has become a bright spot in the development of the financial industry. The pace of building a green financial system is accelerating. Relevant systems are gradually being established and perfected. China’s green finance business has achieved initial development in the past decade. Some policies such as green credit, green insurance and green securities have been issued one after another. This paper analyzes the current situation of China’s green financial system, the problems encountered in developing green finance and how to develop green finance better.
Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE
Chaobo Tong, Xiaoni Gan, Shunping He
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-115
Abstract: Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp) from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV), which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms.Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies) of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this perspective, HAmo SINE should provide useful phylogenetic makers for future analyses of the evolutionary relationships among species in the family Cyprinidae.Retrotransposons are widely distributed among eukaryotic genomes and occupy a substantial fraction of genome. These repeats increase in number by retroposition, which involves transcription of their genomic copies followed by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate and results in cDNAs reintegration into the genome host [2-4]. Retrotransposons are divided into LTR e
Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation
Chaobo Tong, Baocheng Guo, Shunping He
BMC Genomics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-83
Abstract: A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members), designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts.The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp fishes, which strengthened the hypotheses containing the slippage model for initiation of reverse transcription, retropositional parasitism of SINEs on LINEs, the formation of the stem loop structure in 3'tail region of some SINEs and LINEs and the mechanism of template switching in generating new SINE family.SINE and LINE are interspersed nucleotide repeats distributed widely in eukaryotic genomes and occupy a substantial fraction of genome. For example, Alu and LINE1 constitute more than 13% and 20% of human genome, respectively [1]. They proliferate and replicate themselves through a "copy and paste" mechanism called retroposit
Research on Next Generation Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol and Security of Application
Ziqian Xiao,Jingyou Chen,Chaobo Yang
Modern Applied Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v3n11p44
Abstract: In this paper, the author studies on next generation of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCPv6), expounds the principle of DHCPv6 and its message exchange process. And also point out that the security issues may exist, hence several strategies have been put forward to improve the safety of message exchange, as well as the security of network. The author discusses DHCPv6 as being independent of its interaction with Neighbor Discovery in this paper.
Silicon Nitride Film by Inline PECVD for Black Silicon Solar Cells
Bangwu Liu,Sihua Zhong,Jinhu Liu,Yang Xia,Chaobo Li
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/971093
Abstract: The passivation process is of significant importance to produce high-efficiency black silicon solar cell due to its unique microstructure. The black silicon has been produced by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process. And the Silicon nitride films were deposited by inline plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to be used as the passivation layer for black silicon solar cell. The microstructure and physical properties of silicon nitride films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), spectroscopic ellipsometry, and the microwave photoconductance decay (μ-PCD) method. With optimizing the PECVD parameters, the conversion efficiency of black silicon solar cell can reach as high as 16.25%. 1. Introduction Black silicon is an effective method to reduce the surface reflectivity for optoelectronic devices and solar cells application. Many black silicon methods have been developed, including reactive ion etching [1], metal-assisted chemical etching [2], and irradiating the silicon surface with femtosecond laser pulses [3]. In our previous study [4, 5], plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) process has been put forward to produce black silicon with advantages of low cost and high throughput. During the PIII process, the reactive ions are injected into the silicon lattice and react with silicon, and then black silicon with various microstructures can be formed. Although the black silicon has very low surface reflectivity, the conversion efficiency can not be improved significantly when the black silicon is used for solar cells application. In order to produce high-efficiency black silicon solar cell, the matching process (e.g., Phosphorus diffusion process, PECVD film process, and cofiring process) should be improved. Due to the unique microstructure of the black silicon, the passivation process is of significant importance to produce high-efficiency solar cell. PECVD film is widely used in photovoltaic industry, which cannot only be used as antireflective coating (ARC) but also provide surface passivation effect and excellent bulk passivation for multicrystalline silicon solar cell due to a large amount of hydrogen originating from plasma gas dissociation and incorporated in the film [6]. In the present study, PECVD film is used to passivate the black silicon for solar cells. A detailed study on the physical properties of the as-grown films as functions of the PECVD parameters will be carried out. The passivation effects of the film on the black silicon solar cell will also be
Characterization and Comparative Profiling of MiRNA Transcriptomes in Bighead Carp and Silver Carp
Wei Chi, Chaobo Tong, Xiaoni Gan, Shunping He
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023549
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large ‘hairpin’ precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes.
Cloning and sequence analysis of Sox genes in a tetraploid cyprinid fish, Tor douronensis
BaoCheng Guo,JunBing Li,ChaoBo Tong,ShunPing He
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-008-0277-6
Abstract: A PCR survey for Sox genes in a young tetraploid fish Tor douronensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) was performed to access the evolutionary fates of important functional genes after genome duplication caused by polyploidization event. Totally 13 Sox genes were obtained in Tor douronensis, which represent SoxB, SoxC and SoxE groups. Phylogenetic analysis of Sox genes in Tor douronensis provided evidence for fish-specific genome duplication, and suggested that Sox19 might be a teleost specific Sox gene member. Sequence analysis revealed most of the nucleotide substitutions between duplicated copies of Sox genes caused by tetraploidization event or their orthologues in other species are silent substitutions. It would appear that the sequences are under purifying selective pressure, strongly suggesting that they represent functional genes and supporting selection against all null allele at either of two duplicated loci of Sox4a, Sox9a and Sox9b. Surprising variations of the intron length and similarities of two duplicated copies of Sox9a and Sox9b, suggest that Tor douronensis might be an allotetraploidy.
Development of a method for the measurement of primary cilia length in 3D
Taryn Saggese, Alistair A Young, Chaobo Huang, Kevin Braeckmans, Susan R McGlashan
Cilia , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2046-2530-1-11
Abstract: Point spread functions and experimental resolutions were calculated from subresolution microspheres embedded in 3D agarose gels for both wide-field fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopes. The degree of axial smearing and spherical aberration was calculated from xy:xz diameter ratios of 3D image data sets of 4 μm microspheres that had undergone deconvolution and/or Gaussian blurring. Custom-made 18 and 50 μm fluorescent microfibers were also used as calibration objects to test the suitability of processed image sets for 3D skeletonization. Microfiber length in 2D was first measured to establish an original population mean. Fibers were then embedded in 3D agarose gels to act as ciliary models. 3D image sets of microfibers underwent deconvolution and Gaussian blurring. Length measurements within 1 standard deviation of the original 2D population mean were deemed accurate. Finally, the combined method of deconvolution, Gaussian blurring and skeletonization was compared to previously published methods using images of immunofluorescently labeled renal and chondrocyte primary cilia.Deconvolution significantly improved contrast and resolution but did not restore the xy:xz diameter ratio (0.80). Only the additional step of Gaussian blurring equalized xy and xz resolutions and yielded a diameter ratio of 1.02. Following image processing, skeletonization successfully estimated microfiber boundaries and allowed reliable and repeatable measurement of fiber lengths in 3D. We also found that the previously published method of calculating length from 2D maximum projection images significantly underestimated ciliary length.This study used commercial and public domain image processing software to rectify a long-standing problem of 3D microscopy. We have shown that a combination of deconvolution and Gaussian blurring rectifies optical distortions inherent in 3D images and allows accurate skeletonization and length measurement of microfibers and primary cilia that are ben
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