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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 131104 matches for " Chantal V Zinga "
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High prevalence of undiagnosed chronic kidney disease among at-risk population in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo
Ernest K Sumaili, Eric P Cohen, Chantal V Zinga, Jean-Marie Krzesinski, Nestor M Pakasa, Nazaire M Nseka
BMC Nephrology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-10-18
Abstract: In a cross-sectional study, 527 people from primary and secondary health care areas in the city of Kinshasa were studied from a random sample of at-risk out-patients with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, or HIV+. We measured blood pressure (BP), blood glucose level, proteinuria, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by MDRD equation) using calibrated creatinine levels based on one random measurement. The associations between health characteristics, indicators of kidney damage (proteinuria) and kidney function (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) were also examined.The prevalence of CKD in this study was 36%, but only 12% were aware of their condition. 4% of patients had stage 1 CKD, 6% stage 2, 18% stage 3, 2% stage 4, and 6% had stage 5. 24 hour quantitative proteinuria (>300 mg/day) was found in 19%. In those with the at-risk conditions, the % of CKD was: 44% in patients with hypertension, 39% in those with diabetes; 16% in the obese and 12% in those who were HIV+. 82% of those with a history of diabetes had elevated serum glucose levels at screening (≥ 126 mg/dl). Only 6% of individuals with hypertension having CKD had reduced BP to lower than 130/80 mmHg. In multivariate analysis, diabetes, proteinuria and hypertension were the strongest determinants of CKD 3+.It appears that one out of three people in this at-risk population has undiagnosed CKD and poorly controlled CKD risk factors. This growing problem poses clear challenges to this developing country. Therefore, CKD should be addressed through the development of multidisciplinary teams and improved communication between traditional health care givers and nephrology services. Attention to CKD risk factors must become a priority.Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem [1]. Indeed, the incidence and prevalence of CKD has increased in recent years in both developed and developing countries [2] including in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) [3]. In SSA, CKD affects mainly young adults in their
Blood Pressure Patterns and Factors Associated with Relative Hypertension among Steady State Sickle Cell Disease Patients in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
P. I. Mboliasa, F. B. Lepira, J. R. Makulo, A. Nkodila, E. K. Sumaili, J. B. Bukabau, V. M. Mokoli, A. L. Longo, C. V. Zinga, F. M. P. Kanjingulu, Y. M. Nlandu, Y. M. Engole, M. M. Mukendi, E. M. Kadima, C. K. Ilunga, P. M. Ekulu, N. M. N. Nseka
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2018.83021
Abstract: Background: Although systemic hypertension is rarely seen in steady state sickle cell disease (SCD), relative hypertension has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and renal complications. Objective: To determine the prevalence of BP patterns and assess factors associated with relative hypertension insickle cell anemia (SCA) adult patients. Methods: Clinical data and office BP were obtained from 103 consecutive steady-state SCA adult patients (mean age 26 ± 7.9 years, 66% females, 22.3% on hydroxyurea) attending four healthcare centers providing SCD-specific care in Kinshasa. Seated BP was measured using an automated electronic device. Three consecutive blood pressure measurements were taken with 2 minutes interval between readings and the average of the 2 last readings was considered for the analyses. Normal BP, relative hypertension and systemic hypertension were defined as BP < 120/70 mmHg, 120 - 139/70 - 89 mmHg and ≥140/90 mmHg, respectively. Results: Normal BP, relative hypertension and systemic hypertension were observed in 56 (54%), 43(42%) and 4 (4%) of SCA patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with relative hypertension were leg ulcer (aOR 2.05; 95%CI 1.77 -
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome
Chantal Loirat, Véronique Frémeaux-Bacchi
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1172-6-60
Abstract: A classification of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)--the two main variants of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA)-and related disorders according to etiology has been proposed by the European Pediatric Research Group for HUS [1]. In common medical language, the names typical or post-diarrheal (D+) HUS describe the most frequent form of HUS in children, due to Shiga-toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC), mostly E coli 0157:H7. By opposition, the name atypical HUS (aHUS) has been historically used to describe any HUS not due to STEC, thus including:i) "Secondary" aHUS, due to a variety of causes, including infectious agents different from STEC, mostly Streptococcus pneumoniae (S pneumoniae) (via neuraminidase of S pneumoniae and T antigen exposure), human immunodeficiency virus and H1N1 influenza A, malignancy, cancer chemotherapy and ionizing radiation, bone marrow or solid organ transplantation, calcineurin inhibitors, sirolimus or anti vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents, pregnancy, HELLP (Hemolytic anemia, elevated Liver enzymes, and Low Platelets) syndrome, malignant hypertension, glomerulopathies, systemic diseases (systemic lupus erythematous and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, sclerodermia) or, in children, methyl malonic aciduria with homocystinuria, cblC type, a rare hereditary defect of cobalamine metabolism [1-14]. Of note, it is now acknowledged that using the aHUS terminology rather than an etiological-based denomination (e.g. S pneumoniae-HUS) is inadequate [1].ii) aHUS classified as "primary", at least until the years 2000, as no exogenous cause was identified and the mechanism was unknown. However, it was recognized nearly four decades ago that this form of HUS could be familial, touching members of the family several years apart [15]. This is why it is also described as hereditary HUS. During the last decade, this form of aHUS has been demonstrated to be a disease of complement dys
Une intervention en centres d’hébergement et de soins de longue durée visant à réduire les problèmes de santé mentale liés au travail
Michel Vézina,Renée Bourbonnais,Nathalie Gauthier,Chantal Viens
Perspectives Interdisciplinaires sur le Travail et la Santé , 2005,
Abstract: Une intervention visant la diminution des contraintes de l’environnement psychosocial du travail et de leurs effets sur la santé mentale a été mise en place à l’hiver 2002. Cette intervention se résume en cinq étapes : l’engagement du milieu et la constitution d’une équipe d’intervention, l’identification des contraintes, l’élaboration des plans d’action, l’actualisation des plans d’action et l’évaluation de l’intervention. La recherche se déroule dans douze centres d’hébergement et de soins de longue durée (CHSLD) et inclut l’ensemble du personnel soignant en contact direct avec la clientèle (N = 493). Un devis quasi-expérimental avec quatre groupes expérimentaux, huit groupes témoins et des mesures avant et après l’intervention a été utilisé.La description des phases de développement et d’implantation de la démarche d’intervention est présentée ainsi que l’évaluation à 12 mois des effets de l’intervention sur la prévalence des contraintes psychosociales au travail et des problèmes de santé mentale. An intervention aimed at reducing adverse occupational psychosocial factors and their mental health effects was begun during the winter of 2002. This intervention can be summarized in five steps: commitment of stakeholders and setting up of an intervention team, identification of adverse occupational psychosocial factors, development of an action plan, implementation of the action plans, and evaluation of the intervention. The study was conducted in twelve residential and extended care centres (CHSLD) and included all care-giving staff in direct contact with patients (N= 493). A quasi-experimental design was used with four experimental groups and eight control groups, and with pre- and post-intervention measurements.The description of the intervention’s development and implementation phases and the evaluation at 12 months of the effects of the intervention on the prevalence of occupational psychosocial factors and mental health problems are presented.
Postpartum depression: we know the risks, can it be prevented?
Zinga, Dawn;Phillips, Shauna Dae;Born, Leslie;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462005000600005
Abstract: in the past 20 years, there has been increasing recognition that for some women, pregnancy may be burdened with mood problems, in particular depression, that may impact both mother and child. with identification of risk factors for postpartum depression and a growing knowledge about a biologic vulnerability for mood change following delivery, research has accumulated on attempts to prevent postpartum depression using various psychosocial, psychopharmacologic, and hormonal strategies. the majority of psychosocial and hormonal strategies have shown little effect on postpartum depression. notwithstanding, results from preliminary trials of interpersonal therapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and antidepressants indicate that these strategies may be of benefit. information on prevention of postpartum depression using dietary supplements is sparse and the available evidence is inconclusive. although a few studies show promising results, more rigorous trials are required. the abounding negative evidence in the literature indicates that postpartum depression cannot be easily prevented, yet.
Detection and Serological Characterization of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus in Central African Republic  [PDF]
Régis Dimitri Sokpé Longué, Innocent Zinga, Silla Semballa, Nicolas Barro, Oumar Traoré
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/as.2016.712082
Abstract:
Serological and biological detection of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) in leaf samples belonging from cultivated rice species and wild grasses revealed 201 positive detections. All these isolates occurred exclusively on cultivated rice species (Oryza sativa L. and O. glaberrima Steud). A relationship was found between cultural practices and presence of RYMV in fields (X2 = 108.83, df = 1, P < 0.001). The serological characterization using Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs A and D), showed homogenous reaction with Mabs A alone. These results indicated that Ser1 serotype is present in the south of Central African Republic.
Occurrence and Distribution of Banana bunchy top virus Related Agro-Ecosystem in South Western, Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Lyna Fama Tongo Mukwa, M. Muengula, I. Zinga, A. Kalonji, M. L. Iskra-Caruana, C. Bragard
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.55079
Abstract:

Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most severe and widespread virus limiting production and distribution of planting material of banana (Musa spp.) crops in the world. In Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), these crops play a major role in daily life of almost 70% of citizen. Many factors influence banana production negatively such as Banana bunchy top disease. Epidemiological survey was conducted in experimental stations and farmers’ fields for two consecutive seasons covering 72 sites in five provinces of south western of RDC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of the Banana bunchy top virus in five provinces of South Western of DRC, with emphasis on the agro-ecological factors. A total of 174 Musa spp. leaves samples were collected and analyzed by PCR. The results revealed the presence of BBTV in all provinces investigated. The frequency of BBTV was 6.3% in Bandundu, 12.1% in Kasa?Oriental, 17.8% Bas Congo, 1.1% in Katanga and 7.5% Kinshasa Urban and Peri-urban. Results also revealed that BBTV occurred in experimental station and farmers’ fields, both having all cooking and dessert bananas. The high prevalence of BBTV seemed to be linked to multiple introductions of planting materials in the Bas Congo province during 1990 and 2002. However, the province of Katanga had not experienced the introduction of planting material. This factor would explain the lowest prevalence of Banana bunchy top virus in this province. The results indicated that there was a real need to facilitate access to genetically improved and healthy certified planting material in these provinces.

Global Responses to Chronic Diseases: What Lessons Can Political Science Offer?
Chantal Blouin
Administrative Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/admsci2010120
Abstract: Designing and adopting a global response to address the rise of chronic diseases in both the industrial and developing world requires policymakers to engage in global health diplomacy. In the context of the recent United Nations’ High-Level Summit on Non-Communicable Diseases, the paper first reviews the rationale for collective action at the global level to address the rise of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), given the perceived limited cross-border dimensions of NCDs. Secondly, based on the social sciences literature studying policymaking at the domestic and international level, this article highlights recommendations on how to engage during the main phases of the policy process: agenda-setting, policy development and adoption.
Trade policy and health: from conflicting interests to policy coherence
Blouin,Chantal;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862007000300008
Abstract: policy incoherence at the interface between trade policy and health can take many forms, such as international trade commitments that strengthen protection of pharmaceutical patents, or promotion of health tourism that exacerbates the shortage of physicians in rural areas. focusing on the national policy-making process, we make recommendations regarding five conditions that are necessary, but not sufficient, to ensure that international trade policies are coherent with national health objectives. these conditions are: space for dialogue and joint fact-finding; leadership by ministries of health; institutional mechanisms for coordination; meaningful engagement with stakeholders; and a strong evidence base.
Por um modelo agonístico de democracia
Mouffe, Chantal;
Revista de Sociologia e Política , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-44782005000200003
Abstract: this article proposes a new description of the fundamental principles of democracy that allow for conflict, passion and politics. initially, a critique of the most commonly propagated forms of deliberative democracy is carried out, focusing on the way that they neutralize and reduce political pluralism and abuse the democratic goals of legitimacy and rationality. we then go on to analyze insights belong to carl schmitt's understanding of the concept of the political. finally, the concept of the political is critically appropriated within the realm of a proposal for an agonistic model of democracy in which there is no longer a naturalization of the boundaries of democracy and of the clashes among actors; those who within a democratic society are seen as enemies should take on the role of adversaries that share a set of values and ethical and political principles, the interpretation of which then become the object of dispute.
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