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Estimation of Carbon Emission Reductions by Managing Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest: Case Study in Popa Mountain Park  [PDF]
Yu Ya Aye, Savent Pampasit, Chanin Umponstira, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas, Nophea Sasaki
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2014.52009

Global efforts in mitigating climate change are increasingly important as more evidence of climate change impact is apparent. Reducing carbon emissions under the United Nations’ reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conservation of carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) have multiple implications for climate change mitigation and sustainable development. However, implementing REDD+ project requires understanding of the magnitude of emissions in the absence of project activities (baseline) and vice versa (projectline). This study attempted to estimate carbon emission reductions by reducing deforestation in dry mixed deciduous forests in Popa Mountain Park in Myanmar. Baseline deforestation was determined using the 1989-2005 forest cover data, while carbon stocks were derived from forest inventory data. Our results show that about 25% to 63% of forest area in the study site will be lost between 2013 and 2043 if no REDD+ project is implemented. Our study results suggest that managing4220 haof dry mixed deciduous forest in Popa Mountain Park could reduce emissions of about 104023.8 - 241991.0 tCO2 over a 30-year project cycle or about 3467 - 8066 tCO2 annually depending on deforestation rates. In terms of carbon revenues, the project would generate about US $349503.3 - $846968.6 per 30 years or US $11650.1 - $28232.3 annually depending on the assumption of carbon price. It is therefore important that carbon financing be made available to protect the forests in the Popa Mountain Park as well as other parts in Myanmar.

Floristic Composition, Diversity and Stand Structure of Tropical Forests in Popa Mountain Park  [PDF]
Yu Ya Aye, Savent Pampasit, Chanin Umponstira, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas, Nophea Sasaki
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.517150
Abstract: Safeguarding biodiversity is an important component of the REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Information on tree species and their distribution is therefore needed for successful implementation of forestry carbon projects. Forest inventory data were collected in four natural forests located in Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. Based on the data from 4-ha sample plots, average stem density ranges from 1293 trees ha-1 in dry dipterocarp forest to 804 tree ha-1 in dry evergreen forest. According to the Jackknife estimator for species richness (trees with DBH ≥ 5 cm), the highest number of species was recorded in dry mixed deciduous forest—74 species ha-1, and the lowest number of species recorded in dry forest—40 species ha-1. Dry mixed deciduous forest occupied the highest value on the Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson diversity index while the lowest was in dry forest, indicating that dry mixed deciduous forest is the most complex whereas dry forest is the simplest community. Not only does this study provide useful information on the current status of vegetation type but the information is important for designing forestry management systems that could result in biodiversity conservation and carbon emission reductions.
Physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) to ozone
Chanin Umponstira,Warin Pimpa,Suckaluck Nanegrungsun
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2006,
Abstract: The aim of this research was to investigate physiological and biochemical responses of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) to ozone. There were two main factors of the experiment; level of ozone concentration at 40 and 70 ppb and plant ages at 7 and 21 days. Plants were grown in fumigation chambers in which inlet air was filtered by a charcoal filter. Additional ozone was given 8 hours/day for 7 days in ozone fumigating chambers. The ozone concentration in the control chambers was less than 10 ppb. The results showed the biomass of ozone-fumigated plants was significantly lower and leaf injury of ozone fumigated plants was significantly greater compared to the control group. The major visible-injury symptom appeared as chlorosis on the upper surface of the leaves. Antioxidant levels in the charcoal filtered (CF) plants and ozoned plants had significant differences because of their detoxification role in removing ozone and its derivatives. The ozone treatment of 7-day-old plants showed superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) levels significantly higher than in 21-day-old plants and total ascorbate concentrations significantly lower than 21-day-old plants. These results showed that different ozone concentrations exhibit different effects on antioxidant production. Analysis of antioxidants daily for 7 days found that antioxidant levels rapidly changed. Notably, SOD and total ascorbate could be selected as indicators for ozone-effect monitoring in plants. This indicates that cowpea is sensitive to ozone and may be usable as an ozone bioindicator. In conclusion, plant age, ozone concentration and the duration to exposure to ozone were the main physiological or biochemical responses of cowpea. An efficient defense system was generated from a combination of antioxidants.
Otter road casualties
Paul Chanin
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 2006, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-17.1-4366
Abstract: Many otters (Lutra lutra) are killed on roads each year. At present, it is not possible to determine whether or not this has an impact on otter populations, whether they are declining, recovering or stable. New roads should be designed with the needs of otters in mind in areas which otters are likely to recolonise as well as those where they are already present. It is possible to reduce the number of otters being killed on existing roads by appropriate mitigation but this may be expensive and it is important to consider the costs as well as the benefits. Dead otters are a valuable resource for population studies and there is great value in collecting carcases for post mortem studies. It is also important to record the sites of all road deaths to inform priorities for mitigation. Riassunto Incidenza del traffico veicolare sulla mortalità della Lontra. Molte lontre (Lutra lutra) sono uccise sulle strade ogni anno. Attualmente, è impossibile valutare se tale fattore ha un impatto sulle popolazioni di Lontra e se tali popolazioni sono in declino, in recupero o stabili. Le nuove strade dovrebbero essere tracciate tenendo conto delle necessità della Lontra sia in aree probabilmente soggette alla ricolonizzazione sia in aree dove la specie è già presente. E’ possibile ridurre la mortalità della Lontra sulla rete viaria esistente mediante appropriati interventi di mitigazione, per i quali è importante valutarne i costi e i benefici. Le carcasse delle lontre morte sono particolarmente utili per studi di popolazione e i loro siti di rinvenimento consentono di definire le aree prioritarie in cui adottare misure di mitigazione.
In Utero Bipolar Diathermy to Salvage a Phenotypically Normal Fetus in 45,X/46,XY Heterokaryotypic Monochorionic Twins  [PDF]
Tuangsit Wataganara, Poomporn Uschararattanasopon, Chayawat Phatihattakorn, Chanin Limwongse, Sommai Viboonchart, Katika Nawapun
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.32020
Abstract: Heterokaryotypic monozygotic twins are rare. We report a set of monochorionic diamniotic twins complicated with lethal malformations and hydrops in one fetus at menstrual age of 16 weeks’. Sonographic appearances and genetic am-niocentesis result suggested for 45,X and 46,XY heterokaryotypic twins. Coexisting polyhydramnios found in the sac of severely malformed 45,X fetus threatened miscarriage and premature delivery. To salvage the phenotypically normal male fetus, the hydropic 45,X co-twin was selectively terminated by occlusion of its umbilical cord with bipolar dia-thermy. Complete cessation of funicular flow was achieved, resulting in normalization of total amniotic fluid volume. A healthy 2200-gram baby boy was born at 38 weeks’. His neurodevelopment was intact at 2 years of age. His physical examination was significant for slight growth delay (15 percentiles), with 6% of 45,X mosaicism found in his peripheral blood. Owing to the rarity of the cases, limited data is available regarding an optimal treatment for heterokaryotypic monochorionic twins with discordant lethal malformation. Intrauterine intervention may be offered should demise or permanent disabilities are imminent to the apparently normal fetus.
Interannual variability and long term changes in planetary wave activity in the middle atmosphere observed by lidar
A. Hauchecorne,P. Keckhut,M. L. Chanin
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: The upwelling planetary wave activity (PW) from the troposphere controls the intensity of the equator to pole transport of stratospheric ozone by the Brewer-Dobson circulation and thereby modulates the total ozone content at mid- and high-latitudes. Rayleigh lidar temperature data obtained from 1981 to 2001 at mid-latitude were used to study the interannual variability of PW activity in winter (October to April). The spectrum of stratospheric temperature fluctuations exhibits 2 peaks corresponding to 2 dominant modes of free travelling Rossby waves known as 16 day- and 12 day-waves. The 12 day-wave activity is shown to be anticorrelated with the equatorial QBO wind at 40 hPa. During the period 1981–2000 the global PW activity shows a negative trend for months October to January and a positive trend in March and April.
Molecular Modeling of the Human Hemoglobin-Haptoglobin Complex Sheds Light on the Protective Mechanisms of Haptoglobin
Chanin Nantasenamat, Virapong Prachayasittikul, Leif Bulow
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062996
Abstract: Hemoglobin (Hb) plays a critical role in human physiological function by transporting O2. Hb is safe and inert within the confinement of the red blood cell but becomes reactive and toxic upon hemolysis. Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute-phase serum protein that scavenges Hb and the resulting Hb-Hp complex is subjected to CD163-mediated endocytosis by macrophages. The interaction between Hb and Hp is extraordinarily strong and largely irreversible. As the structural details of the human Hb-Hp complex are not yet available, this study reports for the first time on insights of the binding modalities and molecular details of the human Hb-Hp interaction by means of protein-protein docking. Furthermore, residues that are pertinent for complex formation were identified by computational alanine scanning mutagenesis. Results revealed that the surface of the binding interface of Hb-Hp is not flat and protrudes into each binding partner. It was also observed that the secondary structures at the Hb-Hp interface are oriented as coils and α-helices. When dissecting the interface in more detail, it is obvious that several tyrosine residues of Hb, particularly β145Tyr, α42Tyr and α140Tyr, are buried in the complex and protected from further oxidative reactions. Such finding opens up new avenues for the design of Hp mimics which may be used as alternative clinical Hb scavengers.
Xyloccensin E
Chanin Sarigaputi,Thapong Teerawatananond,Somchai Pengpreecha,Nongnuj Muangsin
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2010, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536810016582
Abstract: The title compound (also known as phragmalin triacetate), C35H42O14, is a phragmalin-type limonoid extracted from X. rumphii. The molecule consists of eight rings with the orthoacetate group bridged at positions 1, 8 and 9. The two five-carbocyclic rings (A1 and A2) and the dioxolane ring (G) adopt a distorted envelope conformation. The 1,3-dioxane ring (E) exists in a chair conformation. The six-carbocyclic rings (B and C) exhibit a twisted-boat conformation. The lactone ring has a half-chair conformation and the furan ring is planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.002 ). Rings A1/B, A2/B, B/C, C/D and C/G are all cis-fused. The two acetoxy groups attached to ring B and the furan ring attached to the lactone ring are in equatorial positions. The porous crystal packing exhibits voids of 688 3 and weak intermolecular C—H...O interactions. The absolute configuration was assigned on the basis of literature data.
Activation of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase in Patients with Scrub Typhus and Its Role in Growth Restriction of Orientia tsutsugamushi
Thanavadee Prachason,Kanittha Konhan,Piyapat Pongnarin,Somruedee Chatsiricharoenkul,Yupin Suputtamongkol,Chanin Limwongse
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001731
Abstract: Background Our earlier genome-wide expression study revealed up-regulation of a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), in patients with scrub typhus. This gene has been previously reported to have anti-microbial activity in a variety of infectious diseases; therefore, we aimed to prove whether it is also involved in host defense against Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Using LC-MS, we observed an increased ratio of serum L-kynurenine to serum L-tryptophan in patients with scrub typhus, which suggests an active catalytic function of this enzyme upon the illness. To evaluate the effect of IDO1 activation on OT infection, a human macrophage-like cell line THP-1 was used as a study model. Although transcription of IDO1 was induced by OT infection, its functional activity was not significantly enhanced unless the cells were pretreated with IFN-γ, a potent inducer of IDO1. When the degree of infection was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, the relative number of OT 47 kDa gene per host genes, or infection index, was markedly reduced by IFN-γ treatment as compared to the untreated cultures at five days post-infection. Inhibition of IDO1 activity in IFN-γ treated cultures by 1-methyl-L-tryptophan, a competitive inhibitor of IDO1, resulted in partial restoration of infection index; while excessive supplementation of L-tryptophan in IFN-γ treated cultures raised the index to an even higher level than that of the untreated ones. Altogether, these data implied that IDO1 was partly involved in restriction of OT growth caused by IFN-γ through deprivation of tryptophan. Conclusions/Significance Activation of IDO1 appeared to be a defensive mechanism downstream of IFN-γ that limited intracellular expansion of OT via tryptophan depletion. Our work provided not only the first link of in vivo activation of IDO1 and IFN-γ-mediated protection against OT infection but also highlighted the promise of this multifaceted gene in scrub typhus research.
Copper Complexes of Nicotinic-Aromatic Carboxylic Acids as Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics
Thummaruk Suksrichavalit,Supaluk Prachayasittikul,Theeraphon Piacham,Chartchalerm Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya,Chanin Nantasenamat,Virapong Prachayasittikul
Molecules , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/molecules13123040
Abstract: Nicotinic acid (also known as vitamin B3) is a dietary element essential for physiological and antihyperlipidemic functions. This study reports the synthesis of novel mixed ligand complexes of copper with nicotinic and other select carboxylic acids (phthalic, salicylic and anthranilic acids). The tested copper complexes exhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity and antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, with a minimum inhibition concentration of 256 μg/mL. Copper complex of nicotinic-phthalic acids (CuNA/Ph) was the most potent with a SOD mimetic activity of IC50 34.42 μM. The SOD activities were observed to correlate well with the theoretical parameters as calculated using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. Interestingly, the SOD activity of the copper complex CuNA/Ph was positively correlated with the electron affinity (EA) value. The two quantum chemical parameters, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), were shown to be appropriate for understanding the mechanism of the metal complexes as their calculated energies show good correlation with the SOD activity. Moreover, copper complex with the highest SOD activity were shown to possess the lowest HOMO energy. These findings demonstrate a great potential for the development of value-added metallovitamin-based therapeutics.
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