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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12026 matches for " Cellulose Adequacy index (CAI) "
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BIODEGRADATION OF CELLULOSE BY WOOD DECAYING FUNGI
JAGRATI PARIHAR,C.K.TIWARI,AKHILESH AYACHI,R.K. VERMA
Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation , 2012,
Abstract: In the present study 212 specimens of wood decaying fungi were collected from Chhattisgarh, India, during survey in rainy season, 2009- 2010. These were identified, brought in pure culture by tissue culture method on Potato dextrose agar medium. Out of these, 33 species were screened and tested for cellulose degradation capability using filter paper cellulose. The ability of host fungus to utilize insoluble form of cellulose was measured. It was found that, all the 33 wood decaying fungi were able to decompose cellulose at varying degree. Biodegradation of cellulose and CAI were observed maximum with Navisporus floccosus whereas, Pyrofomes tricolor showing minimum biodegradation of cellulose and Flavodon flavus show minimum CAI. It is concluded that cellulose decomposition pattern was vary not only among the genera but also between the species of same genus.
Assessment of the Mediterranean Diet Adequacy Index of a collective of young cyclists
Sánchez-Benito,J. L.; Sánchez-Soriano,E.; Ginart Suárez,J.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2009,
Abstract: objective: to assess, the degree of adequacy to mediterranean diet (md), by young cyclists team, and its comparison with the one of young spanish males of the "enkid study". background: now days it has been observed that, the abandoning of the md, together with sedentary lifestyle, provokes a rapid increase of obesity among the spanish youth. the progressive abandoning of the md was firstly evident, in longitudinal studies of the "seven counties", involving active rural populations in italy. methods: the mediterranean adequacy index (mai), is computed by dividing the sum of the percentage of total energy from typical mediterranean food groups (cereals, legumes, fruits, fish), by the sum of the percentage of total energy from non-typical mediterranean food groups (meats, eggs, cookies, industrial dishes). the collective under the study was 45 young cyclists in the area of madrid, and homologous young spanish males of the "enkid study". results: the average value of mai of the collective of male cyclists was 2,31(modest value); and the mai of homologous young males of the "enkid study" is 1.51 (low value). the mai in italy several decades ago was 7.2 (very good), when the adequacy to the md was high; those results demonstrate that unfortunately the spanish young people are abandoning the adherence to the mediterranean diet. around 20% of the cyclists have almost null adequacy to the md, as their mai was 1.08 (very low value). the quality of the diet index(dqi) of the cyclists team was 67 over 100, which means that their diet was "good, but it needs to be improved". the lipid profile (measured by the cocient of intake of mufa and pufa divided by sfa) of the cyclists team was 1,71 (lower than the recommended value which should be > 2), quite similar to the cocient of homologous young males of the enkid study diet which was 1,69. this illustrates the poor lipid profile of young people diets. discussion and conclusions: spanish youth are abandoning the traditional md. the
Posidonia oceanica as a Renewable Lignocellulosic Biomass for the Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate and Glycidyl Methacrylate Grafted Cellulose
Alessia Coletti,Antonio Valerio,Elena Vismara
Materials , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ma6052043
Abstract: High-grade cellulose (97% α-cellulose content) of 48% crystallinity index was extracted from the renewable marine biomass waste Posidonia oceanica using H 2O 2 and organic peracids following an environmentally friendly and chlorine-free process. This cellulose appeared as a new high-grade cellulose of waste origin quite similar to the high-grade cellulose extracted from more noble starting materials like wood and cotton linters. The benefits of α-cellulose recovery from P. oceanica were enhanced by its transformation into cellulose acetate CA and cellulose derivative GMA-C. Fully acetylated CA was prepared by conventional acetylation method and easily transformed into a transparent film. GMA-C with a molar substitution (MS) of 0.72 was produced by quenching Fenton’s reagent (H 2O 2/FeSO 4) generated cellulose radicals with GMA. GMA grafting endowed high-grade cellulose from Posidonia with adsorption capability. GMA-C removes β-naphthol from water with an efficiency of 47%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. After hydrolysis of the glycidyl group to glycerol group, the modified GMA-C was able to remove p-nitrophenol from water with an efficiency of 92%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. α-cellulose and GMA-Cs from Posidonia waste can be considered as new materials of potential industrial and environmental interest.
Challenges Facing Techinical Training in Kenya  [PDF]
Antony K. Sang, George M. Muthaa, Zacharia K. Mbugua
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31018
Abstract: Technical education is necessary if Kenya is to industrialize by the year 2030. Relevant skills have to be given in Technical training institutions. The training in T.T.Is should therefore be market driven. The current study was designed to investigate on challenges facing skill training in T.T.Is. This study focused on the adequacy of training facilities, relevance of facilities, relevance of curriculum and the trainers’ level of qualifications. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Snowball sampling technique was used to identify T.T.I graduates and their employers became automatic respondents. A sample size of one hundred and sixty eight respondents was used for the study. The study found out that training facilities used by T.T.Is are inferior to facilities used in industries and business organizations Majority of respondents indicated that T.T.I graduates posses’ very irrelevant skills in relation to skill needs in industries and business organizations. This implies that training policies need to be urgently reviewed to ensure that training is market driven. The study recommends an urgent overhaul of the training curriculum to enhance adequacy of skill training to skill needs in industries and business organizations.
Association of Comorbidity with Depression Treatment Adequacy among Privately Insured Patients Initiating Depression Treatment  [PDF]
Yong Joo Rhee, Mara Gustafson, Michael Ziffra, David C. Mohr, Neil Jordan
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2015.42002
Abstract: This study examined the association among comorbidity, type of depression treatment, and depression treatment adequacy among privately insured depression patients using claims data from 165,569 employees. Individuals newly diagnosed with depression (n = 2364) were identified using ICD-9 diagnosis codes. Logistic regression models were used to determine if certain medical and psychiatric comorbidities were associated with depression treatment type (medication only, psychotherapy only, or combined treatment) and treatment adequacy. Approximately half of the sample (56.7%) received medication only, 26.8% received psychotherapy and medication, and 16.5% received psychotherapy only. The medication only group had the highest rate (50.2%) of receiving minimally adequate treatment, while those who received the combined treatment had the lowest rate (21.0%). Patients with comorbid anxiety disorders were significantly more likely to receive combined treatment or psychotherapy alone. Those who had comorbid musculoskeletal pain were significantly more likely to receive combined treatment. After controlling for treatment type, patients with comorbid diabetes and asthma had higher rates of receiving adequate treatment than patients with other comorbid conditions. There is a continous need for practice-system level interventions to improve the proportion of privately insured patients with new depressive episodes who receive adequate depression treatment.
Spectral Reflectance of Wheat Residue during Decomposition and Remotely Sensed Estimates of Residue Cover
Craig S. T. Daughtry,Guy Serbin,James B. Reeves,Paul C. Doraiswamy,Earle Raymond Hunt
Remote Sensing , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/rs2020416
Abstract: Remotely sensed estimates of crop residue cover (fR) are required to assess the extent of conservation tillage over large areas; the impact of decay processes on estimates of residue cover is unknown. Changes in wheat straw composition and spectral reflectance were measured during the decay process and their impact on estimates of fR were assessed. Proportions of cellulose and hemicellulose declined, while lignin increased. Spectral features associated with cellulose diminished during decomposition. Narrow-band spectral residue indices robustly estimated fR, while broad-band indices were inconsistent. Advanced multi-spectral sensors or hyperspectral sensors are required to assess fR reliably over diverse agricultural landscapes.
INVESTIGATION OF THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF CARBOXYLATED AND CARBOXYMETHYLATED FIBERS FROM WASTE PAPER VIA XRD AND FTIR ANALYSIS
Mohammad Mohkami Mail,Mohammad Talaeipour
BioResources , 2011,
Abstract: This paper describes preparation of carboxymethylated and carboxylated cellulosic fibers from waste paper. Chemical properties of the product were distinguished by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectral analysis. To produce carboxylated and crosslinked fibers and also to increase the anionic surface charge of the fibers, maleic anhydride was used in three different batches; 0, 1%, and 5%. The treatment condition for producing carboxymethylated fibers also involved the use of isopropanol, sodium hydroxide solution, and monochloroacetic acid. The product was purified with 70/30 methanol/ water. Then one sample was neutralized with acetic acid and the other was considered as a sample without having been neutralized. Effects of these treatments were evaluated by FTIR and XRD analysis. The results of FTIR analysis indicated that the carboxyl and methyl functional groups had increased in the carboxymethylated fibers and that just carboxyl groups had increased in carboxylated fibers. The results of XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of cellulose had decreased in both the carboxymethylated and carboxylated fibers.
Development Program of Chemical Industry Based Computer Assisted Instruction for Students of Industrial Engineering Department in Indonesia  [PDF]
Leola Dewiyani, Anwar Ilmar Ramadhan, Ery Diniardi
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.66033
Abstract: This study aims to improve the competence of students of the Department of Industrial Engineering in Indonesia in the subject of Chemical Industry, in particular through the model-based teaching materials CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) in the form of an interactive CD. In particular, the study was carried out for the purposes of: 1) designing and developing models of devices based learning CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) systematically in prototype form, 2) producing an interactive CD as a model learning devices Chemical Industry based CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) to improve the competence of students of the Department of Industrial Engineering in Industrial chemistry courses. The benefits of this research are: 1) for the government, the results of this study can be used as a reference in implementing educational policies, especially to enhance the nation’s competitiveness in the era of informatics; and 2) for the Department of Industrial Engineering in Indonesia, the results of this research can be used to enhance learning that can improve the competence of students in the subject of Chemical Industry, which in turn can be passed with high achievement. Products produced in the first year are a design-based teaching materials CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) in prototype form, with the following steps: 1) pre- production which includes needs analysis, identifying and analyzing the needs based on the content of curriculum and learning model based CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction), the development of a concept related to Chemical Industry, the development of multimedia content that includes developing materials, animation, and evaluation related to industrial chemicals, gathering material to make the recording sound, shooting, and editing with regard to the development of teaching materials chemical Industry based CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction), as well as developing the storyboard as the layout of the multimedia contents by involving experts multimedia; 2) production process that includes design/design and conduct of programming a prototype which means at this stage of the design and development of teaching materials based CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction); and 3) post-production which includes the evaluation justification experts, conducted trials on stakeholders, being revised based on input from experts, and doing packing and labeling.
Mass Transfer in a Centrifugal Turbine Agitator-Pump  [PDF]
Valery Katz, Gedalya Mazor
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.65046
Abstract:

This article is a continuation of the research, centering on a vacuum-filtration system, which is designed to reduce the concentration of calcium in water; a process is also known as—water softening. The problem of solving the concentration distribution of the initial (embryonic) particles of CaCO3-particles, which were introduced into the limited volume of the apparatus with a turbine agitator-pump, is addressed through the use of diffusion and deterministic-stochastic models of mass transfer. The solution of the extreme problem allows determining the most important process parameters, such as time of dispersions homogenization and the dispersion mass flow rate to the surface of a special filter. For these parameters a comparative analysis of the adequacy of the theory was found through experiments, performed in the study. We found that uniform distribution of concentrations along the height of the apparatus is achieved by the angular velocity of the rotation 400 rpm for the turbine with 6 - 7 blades at the time of homogenization 14s. In this case, the dispersion mass flow to the surface of the cylindrical filter is 3 50 mg/s at an average concentration of the introduced CaCO3 particles, which is equal to 10 g/L. We determined that the accuracy of the results depends on: the coordinates of the material input in the apparatus volume, the surface shape of the filter and the volumetric flow rate of the liquid (water), being discarded by the turbine blades in the normal direction to their surface.

A quantitative study of the influence of coprocessing of binders on the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets
Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope;Alebiowu, Gbenga;
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-82502010000200006
Abstract: a 23 factorial experimental design has been used to quantitatively study individual and interaction effects of the nature of binder (n), concentration of binder (c) and the applied pressure (p) on two mechanical properties, namely, tensile strength (ts) and brittle fracture index (bfi), of paracetamol tablets. the factorial design was also used to study the quantitative effects of coprocessing of binders on the mechanical properties. the results obtained from this study suggest that the nature (i.e. plastic/elastic) and ratio of binders coprocessed together alter the influence of c and p on ts and bfi.
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