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Knowledge and Rates of Use of Preschool Consultation by the Mothers in the Area of Health Tshitenge/Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Jean Christophe Bukasa Tshilonda, Augustin Kadiata Bukasa, Zelda Nkongolo Kitenge, Isaac Kalenda Ilunga, Cedrick Ilunga Bimpa, Jean Pierre Kufua Katukumbanyi, Dominique Kapitena Mangola, Astrid Kabanga, Benedicte Bileo, Axel Ngoyi, Therese Kapenga Mitanta, Olivier Ejiba Nyongonyi, Paulin Kabamba Lupueka, Alain Ngoyi Kibambe, Jean Felix Kabangu, Geremie Kazadi, Alexis Ntambwe Mayombo, Andre Kazadi Mukendi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105064
Abstract:
Introduction: The postponement of the preventive activities of the Provincial Division of Health of East Kasai 2016 revealed que le level of attendance of the preschool consultation is decreasing less and less in the Health Area Tshitenge. Thus, this study set the goal of determining the knowledge and use of maternal pre-school counseling in the Health Area Tshitenge. Methods: The survey method was used by means of a questionnary administered to mothers in this region, but more specifically, we collected data from 422 mothers responsible for randomly selected children aged 0 to 5 in the four health. Results: After analysis and analysis of the data with the computer tool, we obtained the following results: the rate of use of the preschool consultation service is 60.7%; the level of education, occupation and the number of children under 5 years of age have a strong influence on the use of preschool counseling; lack of knowledge about the most important activity of preschool counseling has a negative influence on its use. There is a link between the use of the preschool consultation and the most important activity of the preschool consultation for the respondent; there is also a link between this and an appointment on the map; and finally, the cost judgment of SPC strongly influences its use. Conclusion: In order to raise this activity, the revitalization of preschool consultation activities in the Tshitenge health area, the reinforcement of the parents’ awareness on the use of preschool counseling from 0 to 59 months, and the revival of visits to homes for children whose mothers drop out of preschool counseling sufficient are a basis.
Risk Factors of Low Birth Weight in Mbujimayi City, Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Kanyiki Katala Moise, Banza Ndala Deca Blood, Mukendi Mukendi Jean René, Ciamala Mukendi Paul, Mukendi Ntumba Kennedy, Kaya Tompa Brigitte, Ilunga Bimpa Cedric, Kolela Kolela Alain, Mulewu Ngandu Hypolitte, Kabamba Nzaji Michel
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103501
Abstract:
The objective of this study was to identify and explain the factors influencing the birth of underweight children in the city of Mbuji-Mayi. Methods: This is not a paired case-control study of births registered from 1 to June 30, 2015 in maternity hospitals in three health zones selected for this study, cases are all children born with low weight and witnesses are all children born with a normal weight is 2500 g and more. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: The proportion of LBW was 14.5%. The risk factors identified in this study are: Unmarried women [ORa = 2.92 (1.41 to 5.61)], not Luba Tribal origin [ORa = 1.71 (1.02 to 2.872)], anemia of pregnancy [ORa = 2.92 (1.79 to 4.75)], the non-attendance of the CPN [ORa = 1.92 (1.16 to 3.17)], preterm labor [ORa = 3, 11 (1.79 to 5.41)], diabetic mothers [ORa = 3.44 (1.91 to 6.21)], the history of malaria [ORa = 2 (1.23 to 3.26) ], multiparity [ORa = 2 (1.23 to 3.26)] and threatened abortion histories [ORa = 6.17 (2.82 to 13.52)] had statistical significantly associated with links é FPN.
Frequency and Causes of Vaginal Hemorrhage outside Pregnancy in Women of Reproductive Age at Bonzola Hospital, Mbuji-Mayi, DRC  [PDF]
Kaya Tompa Brigitte, Ciamala Mukendi Paul, Nzembu Kabwasa Peter, Kanyiki Katala Moses, Ntumba Mukendi Kennedy, Jean Mukendi Mukendi Rene, Kolela Kolela Alain, Ilunga Bimpa Cedric, Cibangu Muana Wamuenyi Franck, Kaseka Ciswaka Jeanne, Amuli Jiwe Jean-Pierre
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104940
Abstract:
Vaginal haemorrhages outside pregnancy in women of childbearing age are a major public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and causes of vaginal haemorrhage outside pregnancy. This is a descriptive study conducted in the city of Mbuji-Mayi at Bonzola General Hospital, registered from 01 to 31 December 2017; the data were collected transversally. The following observations were made during the study period; 174 women of childbearing age were registered. After analyzing the data, the incidence of vaginal haemorrhage in women of childbearing age was 15.8% and the main causes were: cervical cancer: 32.7% and uterine myoma 22.5%.
Infilling annual rainfall data using feedforward back-propagation Artificial Neural Networks (ANN): application of the standard and generalised back-propagation techniques
M Ilunga
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: Water resource planning and management require long time series of hydrological data (e.g. rainfall, river flow). However, sometimes hydrological time series have missing values or are incomplete. This paper describes feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) techniques used to infill rainfall data, specifically annual total rainfall data. The standard back-propagation (BP) technique and the generalised BP technique were both used and evaluated. The root mean square error of predictions (RMSEp) was used to evaluate the performance of these techniques. A preliminary case study in South Africa was done using the Bleskop rainfall station as the control and the Luckhoff-Pol rainfall station as the target. It was shown that the generalised BP technique generally performed slightly better than the standard BP technique when applied to annual total rainfall data. It was also observed that the RMSEp increased with the proportion of missing values in both techniques. The results were similar when other rainfall stations were used. It is recommended for further study that these techniques be applied to other rainfall data (e.g. annual maximum series, etc) and to rainfall data from other climatic regions.
Neuromuscular blockade and outcome in cardiac anesthesia
Hemmerling Thomas,Zaouter Cedrick
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia , 2010,
Abstract:
Infilling streamflow data using feed-forward back-propagation (BP) artificial neural networks: Application of standard BP and pseudo Mac Laurin power series BP techniques
M Ilunga, D Stephenson
Water SA , 2005,
Abstract: Hydrological data (e.g. rainfall, river flow data) are used in water resource planning and management. Sometimes hydrological time series have gaps or are incomplete, or are not of good quality or are not of sufficient length. This problem seems to be more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. In this paper, feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANNs) techniques are used for streamflow data infilling. The standard back-propagation (BP) technique with a sigmoid activation function is used. Besides this technique, the BP technique with an approximation of the sigmoid function by pseudo Mac Laurin power series Order 1 and Order 2 derivatives, as introduced in this paper, is also used. Empirical comparisons of the predictive accuracy, in terms of root mean square error of predictions (RMSEp), are then made. A preliminary case study in South Africa (i.e. using the Diepkloof (control) gauge on the Wonderboomspruit River and the Molteno (target) gauge on Stormbergspruit River in the River summer rainfall catchment) was then done. Generally, this demonstrated that the standard BP technique performed just slightly better than the pseudo BP Mac Laurin Orders 1 and 2 techniques when using mean values of seasonal data. However, the pseudo Mac Laurin approximation power series of the sigmoid function did not show any substantial impact on the accuracy of the estimated missing values at the Molteno gauge. Thus, all three the standard BP and pseudo BP Mac Laurin orders 1 and 2 techniques could be used to fill in the missing values at the Molteno gauge. It was also observed that a linear regression could describe a strong relationship between the gap size (0 to 30 %) and the expected RMSEp (thus accuracy) for the three techniques used here. Recommendations for further work on these techniques include their application to other flow regimes (e.g. 4-month seasons, mean annual extreme, etc) and to streamflow series of a winter rainfall region. Water SA Vol. 31 (2) 2005: pp.171-176
Knowledge, Attitude, Practice of the Kamina City Population in the Democratic Republic of Congo on Voluntary Screening of HIV/Aids  [PDF]
Ilunga Masuku Anany
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104479
Abstract:
HIV/AIDS infection, although of particular gravity in developing countries, today affects all countries of the world. Among the means used to combat this pathology is voluntary testing, which is both an effective and economical strategy for facilitating behavior change. This study allowed us to contribute to the improvement of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the population on voluntary HIV/AIDS testing. This is a cross-sectional study of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the Kamina population on voluntary testing for HIV infection. A total of 384 people from 82 Ward in Kamina was interviewed using a pre-established questionnaire. Ninety-six respondents (25%) said they knew about voluntary testing; Of these, 79% or 82.3% thought knowing their HIV status was the only benefit of voluntary testing. The level of knowledge about voluntary testing appears to be low among the population studied; there are still misunderstandings about the benefits of voluntary testing and the means of prevention. This result could be used as reference data in the revitalization of a voluntary testing center and the protection of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in our environment.
Assessing the resistance and bioremediation ability of selected bacterial and protozoan species to heavy metals in metal-rich industrial wastewater
Kamika Ilunga,Momba Maggy NB
BMC Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-28
Abstract: Background Heavy-metals exert considerable stress on the environment worldwide. This study assessed the resistance to and bioremediation of heavy-metals by selected protozoan and bacterial species in highly polluted industrial-wastewater. Specific variables (i.e. chemical oxygen demand, pH, dissolved oxygen) and the growth/die-off-rates of test organisms were measured using standard methods. Heavy-metal removals were determined in biomass and supernatant by the Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. A parallel experiment was performed with dead microbial cells to assess the biosorption ability of test isolates. Results The results revealed that the industrial-wastewater samples were highly polluted with heavy-metal concentrations exceeding by far the maximum limits (in mg/l) of 0.05-Co, 0.2-Ni, 0.1-Mn, 0.1-V, 0.01-Pb, 0.01-Cu, 0.1-Zn and 0.005-Cd, prescribed by the UN-FAO. Industrial-wastewater had no major effects on Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus licheniformis and Peranema sp. (growth rates up to 1.81, 1.45 and 1.43 d-1, respectively) compared to other test isolates. This was also revealed with significant COD increases (p < 0.05) in culture media inoculated with living bacterial isolates (over 100%) compared to protozoan isolates (up to 24% increase). Living Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the highest removal rates of heavy metals (Co-71%, Ni-51%, Mn-45%, V-83%, Pb-96%, Ti-100% and Cu-49%) followed by Bacillus licheniformis (Al-23% and Zn-53%) and Peranema sp. (Cd-42%). None of the dead cells were able to remove more than 25% of the heavy metals. Bacterial isolates contained the genes copC, chrB, cnrA3 and nccA encoding the resistance to Cu, Cr, Co-Ni and Cd-Ni-Co, respectively. Protozoan isolates contained only the genes encoding Cu and Cr resistance (copC and chrB genes). Peranema sp. was the only protozoan isolate which had an additional resistant gene cnrA3 encoding Co-Ni resistance. Conclusion Significant differences (p < 0.05) observed between dead and living microbial cells for metal-removal and the presence of certain metal-resistant genes indicated that the selected microbial isolates used both passive (biosorptive) and active (bioaccumulation) mechanisms to remove heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study advocates the use of Peranema sp. as a potential candidate for the bioremediation of heavy-metals in wastewater treatment, in addition to Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus licheniformis.
Synthesis and Structure-Activity Correlation Studies of Metal Complexes of α-N-heterocyclic Carboxaldehyde Thiosemicarbazones in Shewanella oneidensis
Barbara A. Wilson,Ramaiyer Venkatraman,Cedrick Whitaker,Quintell Tillison
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph2005010170
Abstract: This investigation involved the synthesis of metal complexes to test the hypothesis that structural changes and metal coordination in pyridine thiosemicarbazones affect cell growth and cell proliferation in vitro. Thiosemicarbazones are well known to possess antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, and other activities. Extensive research has been carried out on aliphatic, aromatic, heterocyclic and other types of thiosemicarbazones and their metal complexes. Due to the pronounced reactivity exhibited by metal complexes of heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones, synthesis and structural characterization of di-2-pyridylketone 4N-phenyl thiosemicarbazone and diphenyl tin (Sn) and platinum (Pt) complexes were undertaken. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a metal ion-reducing bacterium, was used as a model organism to explore the biological activity under aerobic conditions. A comparision of the cytotoxic potential of selected ligand and metal-complex thiosemicarbazones on cell growth in wild type MR-1 and mutant DSP-010 Shewanella oneidensis strains at various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 25 ppm) was performed. The wild type (MR-1) grown in the presence of increasing concentrations of Sn- thiosemicarbazone complexes was comparatively more sensitive (mean cell number = 4.8 X 108 + 4.3 X 107 SD) than the DSP-010, a spontaneous rifampicillin derivative of the parent strain (mean cell number = 5.6 x 108 + 6.4 X 107 SD) under comparable aerobic conditions (p=0.0004). No differences were observed in the sensitivity of the wild and mutant types when exposed to various concentrations of diphenyl Pt- thiosemicarbazone complex (p= 0.425) or the thiosemicarbazone ligand (p=0.313). Growth of MR-1 in the presence of diphenyl Sn- thiosemicarbazone was significantly different among treatment groups (p=0.012). MR-1 cell numbers were significantly higher at 5ppm than at 10 to 20ppm (p = 0.05). The mean number of DSP-010 variant strain cells also differed among diphenyl Sn- thiosemicarbazone complex treated groups (p=0.051). In general, there was an increasing trend in the number of cells from about 5.0 X 108 cells (methanol control group) to about 6.0 X 108 cells (25ppm). The number of cells in methanol control group was significantly lower than cell numbers at 20ppm and 25ppm (p = 0.05), and numbers at 5ppm treatment were lower than at 20 and 25ppm (p = 0.05). Furthermore, a marginally significant difference in the number of MR-1 cells was observed among diphenyl Pt- thiosemicarbazone complex treatment groups (p = 0.077), and an increasing trend in the number of cells was noted from ~5.0 X 108 cells (methanol control group) to ~5.8 X 108 cells (20ppm). In contrast, the DSP-010 variant strain showed no significant differences in cell numbers when treated with various concentrations of diphenyl Pt- thiosemicarbazone complex (p = 0.251). Differences in response to Sn- metal complex between MR-1 and DSP-010 growing cultures indicate that biological activity to thiosemicarbazone metal complexes may be strain specific.
Sugammadex - A short review and clinical recommendations for the cardiac anesthesiologist
Hemmerling Thomas,Zaouter Cedrick,Geldner Goetz,Nauheimer Dirk
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia , 2010,
Abstract: This review outlines the basic pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of sugammadex for the cardiac anesthesiologist. It describes the different clinical scenarios when sugammadex can be used during cardiac surgery and gives clinical recommendations. Sugammadex is a unique reversal drug that binds a chemical complex with rocuronium and vecuronium, by which the neuromuscular blockade is quickly reversed. It is free of any clinical side-effects and doses of 2 mg/kg or more reliably reverse neuromuscular blockade within 5-15 min, depending on the depth of the neuromuscular blockade. Doses below 2 mg/kg should be avoided at any time because of the inherent risk of recurarization. Sugammadex should not replace good clinical practice - titration of neuromuscular blocking drugs to clinical needs and objective monitoring of neuromuscular blockade in the operating room or intensive care unit. Neuromuscular transmission should be determined in all patients before sugammadex is considered and 5 min after its administration to ensure that extubation is performed with normal neuromuscular transmission.
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