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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1651 matches for " Cathy Jenkins "
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Noninvasive assessment of asthma severity using pulse oximeter plethysmograph estimate of pulsus paradoxus physiology
Donald H Arnold, Cathy A Jenkins, Tina V Hartert
BMC Pulmonary Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2466-10-17
Abstract: We prospectively studied subjects 5 to 17 years of age with asthma exacerbations. PEP, %FEV1, airway resistance and accessory muscle use were recorded at baseline and at 2 and 4 hours after initiation of corticosteroid and bronchodilator treatments. Statistical associations were tested with Pearson or Spearman rank correlations, logistic regression using generalized estimating equations, or Wilcoxon rank sum tests.We studied 219 subjects (median age 9 years; male 62%; African-American 56%). Correlation of PEP with %FEV1 demonstrated criterion validity (r = - 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI], - 0.56 to - 0.30) and responsiveness at 2 hours (r = - 0.31, 95% CI, - 0.50 to - 0.09) and 4 hours (r = - 0.38, 95% CI, - 0.62 to - 0.07). PEP also correlated with airway resistance at baseline (r = 0.28 for ages 5 to 10; r = 0.45 for ages 10 to 17), but not with change over time. PEP was associated with accessory muscle use (OR 1.16, 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.21, P < 0.0001).PEP demonstrates criterion validity and responsiveness in correlations with %FEV1. PEP correlates with airway resistance at baseline and is associated with accessory muscle use at baseline and at 2 and 4 hours after initiation of treatment. Incorporation of this technology into contemporary pulse oximeters may provide clinicians improved parameters with which to make clinical assessments of asthma severity and response to treatment, particularly in patients who cannot perform spirometry because of young age or severity of illness. It might also allow for earlier recognition and improved management of other disorders leading to elevated pulsus paradoxus.Clinicians have few objective measures to evaluate acute asthma severity and are likely to under-treat these episodes[1-6]. A severity measure should correlate with an accepted criterion standard (criterion validity) and quantify clinically important changes of this standard over time (responsiveness)[7].Spirometry is the criterion standard for assessing the severi
Testosterone influences renal electrolyte excretion in SHR/y and WKY males
Jonathan Toot, Cathy Jenkins, Gail Dunphy, Shannon Boehme, Mike Hart, Amy Milsted, Monte Turner, Daniel Ely
BMC Physiology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6793-8-5
Abstract: To investigate the role of the Yc and T, consomic borderline hypertensive (SHR/y) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strains were used (15 weeks) in three T treatment groups: castrate, castrate with T implant and gonadally intact males. Urine was collected (24 hrs at 15 weeks of age) for Na and K measurements by flame photometry. RT-PCR was used to demonstrate the presence of renal androgen receptor (AR) transcripts. Plasma T and aldosterone were measured by RIA. In another experiment the androgen receptor was blocked using flutamide in the diet.Na and K excretion were decreased by T in SHR/y and WKY. AR transcripts were identified in SHR/y and WKY kidneys. Plasma aldosterone was decreased in the presence of T. Blockade of the AR resulted in a significant increase in Na excretion but not in K excretion in both SHR/y and WKY males.T influences electrolyte excretion through an androgen receptor dependent mechanism. There was not a differential Yc involvement in electrolyte excretion between WKY and SHR/y males.Human [1,2] and animal studies [3] have implicated Y-chromosome (Yc) loci as influencing the onset of male hypertension. In the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat strain (SHR), the SHR Yc contains a locus which increases blood pressure (BP) approximately 20 mmHg compared to the normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Y chromosome. The Yc is only one genetic component of the total SHR hypertension. In SHR males, the presences of testosterone and androgen receptors through puberty are required for development of the hypertension and associated sympathetic nervous system potentiation, including the Yc component [4,5]. In examining phenotypes that mapped to the Yc and differed between SHR and WKY, our laboratory demonstrated an earlier rise of testosterone (T) levels in SHR males leading into puberty [4] and this phenotype mapped to the SHR Yc. Because of the unique biology of the mammalian Yc the blood pressure phenotype and the T timing phenotype cannot be separated usin
Resilience: The New Paradigm in Disaster Management—An Australian Perspective  [PDF]
Stephen Jenkins, Stephen Jenkins
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33C020
Abstract:

During past decades, frameworks relating to emergency and disaster management have been based on a risk management approach to prevention/mitigation and preparedness coupled with a strong emphasis on response by police and emergency service organisations. Numerous reviews and inquiries of significant events however have identified significant issues relating to the preparation for such events and the management thereof; in particular, critical shortcomings in the capability of emergency response agencies, their leaders and senior decision-makers. In 2008, the Australian Government, through The First National Security Statement to the Australian Parliament by Prime Minister Rudd, has incorporated non-traditional threats and hazards, such as those posed by the impact of climate change, on the national security agenda. In doing so, the Government has announced a paradigm shift in policy for the nation’s approach to emergency and disaster management, namely a move from “response” to “resilience”. In support of this policy shift, the Australian Government, through the Council of Australian Governments, has endorsed the National Strategy for Disaster Resilience and the Critical Infrastructure Resilience Strategy. These documents make resilience the responsibility of all levels of government, private industry, emergency response agencies, and the community. A review of the reports published following Australian reviews and inquiries into significant events has identified that existing frameworks do not provide the necessary mechanisms for baselining and assessing community resilience, that is, their ability to respond to and recover from significant events. Internationally, indices have been developed for assessing community resilience, however, inherent limitations have also been identified in their scope and application. This paper will review Australian and international events which have led to inquiries that have resulted in criticisms of the emergency and disaster response, as well as introducing the organisational capability and resilience of organisations particularly in the context of climate change.

Gestalt Couples Therapy in the Field of Trauma  [PDF]
Paul Jenkins
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.75072
Abstract:

The field of Gestalt therapy has long had a troubled relationship with mainstream psychotherapy. The decades long assent of cognitive-behavioral and other, more objectively oriented therapies moved Gestalt even further from common acceptance as a valid alternative for treatment. Couple’s therapy, in particular, has not commonly been seen as a natural “fit” for Gestalt practice. The author’s view is that the recent rise of integrated therapy and the need for Evidence-Based Treatment separate from issues of allegiance to a particular school of therapy has created a new opportunity to reconsider Gestalt therapy theory and practice in couple’s work. It is particularly relevant for work with couples in which one or both have been traumatized. Recent developments in Gestalt practice offers a fresh approach for such work, especially in regard to its focus on resolving underlying shame and the need for the couple to develop mutual acceptance at a deep level. Both these therapeutic tasks are vital in work with traumatized clients. These Gestalt tasks can easily be integrated with other, more mainstream models of working with trauma and working couples. An example of this integrated approach is offered to explore the ramifications of the theoretical assertion.

Educating Students’ Privacy Decision Making through Information Ethics Curriculum  [PDF]
Cathy S. Lin
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.71017
Abstract: Increasingly sophisticated technologies nowadays have equipped powerful capabilities to obtain and exploit consumers’ information privacy on the Internet. The contemporary privacy protection techniques seem fail to guard information privacy. Besides of the technological protections, information ethics education is described as the ideal way to increase people’s consciousness. This study proposes a privacy decision making model which posits that attitudes toward privacy protection, privacy self-efficacy for protection, and privacy self-efficacy for non-acquisition are critical factors essential to behavioral intention. Further, a longitudinal model explores whether information ethics education plays a role in influencing students’ concepts of protecting information privacy. A survey of 111 senior-level undergraduate students in the department of Information Management was conducted to test the hypothesized model. The findings exhibit important insights: through information ethics education, students demonstrate significant model paths changes in the relationships of attitude, privacy self-efficacy for protection, and privacy self-efficacy for non-acquisition to intention. The implications to the ethics curriculum concerning information privacy are discussed.
Multiple mycobacterial antigens are targets of the adaptive immune response in pulmonary sarcoidosis
Kyra A Oswald-Richter, Dia C Beachboard, Xiaoyan Zhan, Christa F Gaskill, Susamma Abraham, Cathy Jenkins, Daniel A Culver, Wonder Drake
Respiratory Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-11-161
Abstract: Fifty-four subjects were enrolled in this study: 31 sarcoidosis patients, nine non-tuberculosis mycobacterial (NTM) infection controls, and 14 PPD- controls. Using flow cytometry, we assessed for Th1 immune responses to ESAT-6, katG, Ag85A, sodA, and HSP.Alveolar T-cells from twenty-two of the 31 sarcoidosis patients produced a CD4+ response to at least one of ESAT-6, katG, Ag85A, sodA, or HSP, compared to two of 14 PPD- controls (p = 0.0008) and five of nine NTM controls (p = 0.44), while eighteen of the 31 sarcoidosis subjects tested produced a CD8+ response to at least one of the mycobacterial antigens compared to two of 14 PPD- controls (p = 0.009) and three of nine NTM controls (0.26). Not only did the BAL-derived T cells respond to multiple virulence factors, but also to multiple, distinct epitopes within a given protein. The detection of proliferation upon stimulation with the mycobacterial virulence factors demonstrates that these responses are initiated by antigen specific recognition.Together these results reveal that antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells responses to multiple mycobacterial epitopes are present within sites of active sarcoidosis involvement, and that these antigen-specific responses are present at the time of diagnosis.Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, characterized by a Th1 immunophenotype. Immunological studies have shown that there are oligoclonal T cells in sarcoid bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), suggesting that the response is antigen-specific [1,2]. Investigation into T cell receptors in BAL fluid has shown an AV2S3+ T cell expansion in the lung of sarcoidosis patients with HLA-DRB1*0301 and HLA-DRB3*0101 also supporting an antigen specific response in the sarcoid lung [3]. Multiple studies have shown an association between mycobacterial antigens and sarcoidosis. Song et al. found mycobacterial katG in sarcoidosis granulomas using both mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry [4]. In addition, mycobacterial
Differentiation is death
Cathy Holding
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-11-reports0058
Abstract: Several lines of evidence led Fernando et al. to investigate whether apoptosis and myoblast differentiation might initially share a common pathway. At the molecular level, caspase 3 has been linked with activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (MAPKs), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, which are involved in the initiation and continuation of myogenesis. Certain cellular events, namely cell-membrane blebbing and fusion and actin fiber reorganization, appear to be common to both myogenesis and apoptosis. Finally, caspase-3-knockout mice appear to be quite underweight and have visibly less muscle mass than heterozygous individuals.In wild-type cell lines, raised levels of caspase 3 were detected after initiation of differentiation (which is achieved by placing actively growing cells in low-serum medium). Immunocytochemistry was used to show that the observed increase in caspase 3 was associated with differentiating myoblasts and not apoptotic cells. After initiation of differentiation in cell lines derived from caspase-3-knockout mice, there was a measurable lack of myotube formation compared with cell lines derived from heterozygous and wild-type mice, even though cell proliferation was comparable before the initiation of differentiation. Lower levels of differentiation-specific gene products, such as myogenin and hypophosphorylated MyoD, were found in these cells, while levels of cyclin D1, a marker for cellular proliferation, were higher. To rule out the possibility that apoptosis was somehow removing inhibitory cells, or that it could have some kind of cell-autonomous effect leading to the triggering of myogenesis, apoptosis was measured in both normal and knockout cell lines. Surprisingly, no difference in the degree of apoptosis was found between the two, and, therefore, the raised levels of caspase 3 in the normal cell lines did not appear to be involved entirely with apoptosis.To complement these experiments, caspase 3 was chemically inhibit
Gut response
Cathy Holding
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030616-01
Abstract: Steidler et al. replaced the thymidylate synthase gene thyA in Lactococcus lactis with an expression cassette for the IL-10 gene, simultaneously enabling the microorganism to produce the cytokine and to render it dependent on thymidine or thymine for survival. They reasoned that a recombination event to restore the thyA gene, if it should occur at all, would simply replace the expression cassette and return the bacterial genome to its premodification state. They demonstrated survival dependence of the organism on thymidine and thymine, its viability, and the secretion of functional IL-10 both in vitro and in vivo in pig intestine, which closely resembles the human gut. One of their strains is currently undergoing clinical trials in Holland."The thyA-deficient bacteria cannot accumulate in the environment. Our approach thus provides a simple and robust system for biological containment," conclude the authors.
Cross-species transfer is last straw
Cathy Holding
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20031128-01
Abstract: Weigel et al. confirmed the identity as S. aureus by sequence analysis of specific genes gyrA and gyrB and rDNA and ruled out contamination with enterococci by the inability to amplify enterococcal ligases by polymerase chain reaction. Pulse field analysis confirmed the VRSA to be type USA100 - the most common type in US hospitals. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined to be 1024 μg/ml for vancomycin, and resistance to aminoglycosides, β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, rifampin, and tetracycline showed that it had retained its MRSA phenotype. Vancomycin resistance was observed to be conferred by vanA, one of several gene clusters found in Enterococcus faecium. Analysis of plasmids from the VRSA and E. faecalis co-isolates identified two plasmids, 45 and 95 kb long, and Southern blot analysis revealed a 7.1-kb fragment containing vanA. Filter mating studies identified the resistance plasmid as conjugative. The complete sequence has been placed in GenBank."Genetic analyses suggest that the long-anticipated transfer of vancomycin resistance to a methicillin-resistant S. aureus occurred in vivo by interspecies transfer on Tn1546 from a co-isolate of Enterococcus faecalis. The VRSA plasmid was transferable to other strains of S. aureus, reinforcing concerns of potential widespread resistance to one of the few classes of agents still active against multidrug-resistant S. aureus," conclude the authors.
Gene deserts bear fruit
Cathy Holding
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20031017-01
Abstract: Nobrega et al. compared human DACH flanking sequences with mouse genomic DNA and by combining additional genome comparison information from distantly related vertebrates such as frog, zebrafish, and pufferfish, narrowed the number of conserved sequences from 1098 to 32. Nine of these were cloned upstream of the mouse heat shock protein 68 minimal promoter driving beta-galactosidase expression. These were used to create transgenic mice whose subsequent development revealed enhancer effects of the elements consistent with DACH endogenous gene expression. Genes flanking the DACH orthologues vary with species, but the adjacent gene deserts were found to be maintained."The size of genomic regions believed to be functionally linked to a particular gene may need to be expanded to take into account the possibility of essential regulatory sequences acting over near-megabase distances," conclude the authors.
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