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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10762 matches for " Catherine Vincent "
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Semi-Solid and Solid Bolus Swallows in High-Resolution Oesophageal Manometry for the Detection of Motility Disorders  [PDF]
Jerry Zhou, Catherine Sykes, Vincent Ho
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2018.81001
Background/Aims: High-resolution oesophageal manometry utilises water swallows to evaluate oesophageal function. However, small volumes of water are not representative of normal eating and as a result often produce normal manometry studies in patients with dysphagia. This study sets out to establish optimal diagnostic thresholds for semi-solid solid swallows and evaluate their ability to uncover motility abnormalities in patients with motility disorders. Method: Manometry was performed using ten 5-mL single water swallows followed by two semi-solid and two solid swallows in the upright position. Normative values for the adjunctive tests were obtained from patient controls while patients with major motility disorders were used to establish the optimal diagnostic thresholds. Diagnostic thresholds identified were prospectively tested in patients with normal water swallows but oesophagus related symptoms and in those with minor and major motility disorders. Results: Normal values for semi-solid and solid were determined in patient controls (n = 100). Development of diagnostic thresholds included 120 patients with major motility disorders. Optimal diagnostic thresholds identified for oesophagogastric junction dysfunction in semi-solid and solid swallows (IRP > 15.5 mmHg). Hypercontractilty and spasm used existing thresholds (>8000 mmHg-s-cm and < 4.5 s, respectively) but modified frequency of ≥50% of adjunctive swallows. Diagnostic thresholds were applied to symptomatic patients with normal water swallows (n = 70) identifying 12/70 (17%) to have abnormal adjunctive swallows. One of 30 patients (3%) with ineffective motility had abnormal adjunctive swallow and 12 patients with oesophageal spasm, oesophagogastric junction obstruction, and hypercontractility had abnormal adjunctive swallows that moved them up the motility disorder hierarchy. Conclusions: Semi-solid and solid challenge increase diagnostic yield of motility disorders.
Instability driven formation of domains in the intermediate state of type-I superconductors
Vincent Jeudy,Catherine Gourdon
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2005.10.042
Abstract: The formation of normal-state domains in type-I superconducting indium films is investigated using the high resolution magneto-optical imaging technique. The observed patterns consist of coexisting circular and lamellar normal-phase domains surrounded by the superconducting phase. The distribution of domain surface areas is found to exhibit a threshold, above which only the lamellar shape is observed. We show that this threshold coincides with the predicted critical surface area for the elongation instability of the circular shape. The partition of the normal phase into circular and lamellar domains is determined by the combined effects of the elongation instability and the penetration of magnetic flux by bursts at the early stage of pattern formation. It is not governed by mutual interactions between domains, as usually assumed for self-organized systems.
Statistical clustering of temporal networks through a dynamic stochastic block model
Catherine Matias,Vincent Miele
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: Statistical node clustering in discrete time dynamic networks is an emerging field that raises many challenges. Here, we explore statistical properties and deterministic inference in a model that combines a stochastic block model (SBM) for its static part with independent Markov chains for the evolution of the nodes groups through time. We model binary data as well as weighted dynamic random graphs (with discrete or continuous edges values). Our approach particularly focuses on the control for label switching issues across the different time steps. We study identifiability of the model parameters, propose an inference procedure based on a variational expectation maximization algorithm as well as a model selection criterion to select for the number of groups. We carefully discuss our initialization strategy which plays an important role in the method and compare our procedure with existing ones on synthetic datasets. We also illustrate our approach on a real data set of encounters among high school students and provide an implementation of the method into a R package called dynsbm.
Impact of Students’ Reading Preferences on Reading Achievement  [PDF]
Yamina Bouchamma, Vincent Poulin, Marc Basque, Catherine Ruel
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.48070
Abstract: The reading preferences of 13-year-old boys and girls were examined to identify the factors determining reading achievement. Students from each Canadian province and one territory (N = 20,094) completed a questionnaire on, among others, the types of in-class reading activities. T-test results indicate that the boys spent more time reading textbooks, magazines, newspapers, Internet articles and electronic encyclopedias, while the girls read more novels, fiction, informative or nonfiction texts, and books from the school or local libraries. Logistical regression shows that reading achievement for both sexes was determined by identical reading preferences: reading novels, informative texts, and books from the school library, as well as level of interest in the class reading material and participation in the discussions on what was read in class.
Reducing user fees for primary health care in Kenya: Policy on paper or policy in practice?
Jane Chuma, Janet Musimbi, Vincent Okungu, Catherine Goodman, Catherine Molyneux
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-8-15
Abstract: Data were collected in two districts (Kwale and Makueni). Multiple methods of data collection were applied including a cross-sectional survey (n = 184 households Kwale; 141 Makueni), Focus Group Discussions (n = 12) and patient exit interviews (n = 175 Kwale; 184 Makueni).Approximately one third of the survey respondents could not correctly state the recommended charges for dispensaries, while half did not know what the official charges for health centres were. Adherence to the policy was poor in both districts, but facilities in Makueni were more likely to adhere than those in Kwale. Only 4 facilities in Kwale adhered to the policy compared to 10 in Makueni. Drug shortage, declining revenue, poor policy design and implementation processes were the main reasons given for poor adherence to the policy.We conclude that reducing user fees in primary health care in Kenya is a policy on paper that is yet to be implemented fully. We recommend that caution be taken when deciding on how to reduce or abolish user fees and that all potential consequences are carefully considered.Removing user fees in primary health care services is one of the most critical policy issues being considered in Africa. User fees were introduced in many African countries during the 1980s as a response to the significant economic constraints and increasing donor pressure. Proponents of user fees argued that fees would generate additional revenue, which could be used to improve equity and efficiency; that graduated fees would encourage use of low cost primary health care services rather than expensive referral facilities; and that they would improve targeting of resources by reducing unnecessary demand [1]. More than two decades since their introduction, evidence shows that user fees have done more harm than good. They impact negatively on the demand for health care, contribute towards household poverty, promote inequities and generate little revenue [2-9]. Waivers have generally failed to protect the
Bench-to-bedside review: Diaphragm muscle function in disuse and acute high-dose corticosteroid treatment
Catherine SH Sassoon, Vincent J Caiozzo
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7971
Abstract: Through a complex integration of feedback signals, the respiratory center generates signal output to the diaphragm muscle leading to its rhythmic contractions. Some critically ill patients, including those with acute insults to the respiratory center, upper spinal cord, bilateral phrenic nerves or neuromuscular junction or those receiving neuromuscular paralysis - for instance, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome [1] - must be supported with the application of controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV), where the ventilator takes full control of the act of breathing and the respiratory muscles do not contract. In addition to mechanical ventilation, some critically ill patients - such as victims of acute spinal cord injury [2], of lung transplant rejection [3], of hematologic malignancy [4] and of status asthmaticus [5] - may require administration of high doses of corticosteroids.The extent to which CMV [6] or (short-term) high-dose corticosteroid administration [7] negatively impacts diaphragm muscle function has been demonstrated in experimental animals. In critically ill patients, however, the presence of confounding factors (for example, sepsis, malnutrition, hyperglycemia) makes it difficult to determine the extent to which diaphragm muscle dysfunction is attributable to disuse or high-dose corticosteroid alone, or in combination. The reported studies suggest that deleterious effects in the diaphragm occurred with both diaphragm muscle disuse [8] and possibly with the administration of high-dose corticosteroid [9], leading to difficulty weaning from mechanical ventilation.The goal of the present article is to address two key issues: to identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for the loss of diaphragmatic function that occur as a result of CMV and acute high-doses of corticosteroids; and to determine the evidence of diaphragm muscle impairment in humans, and the potential approaches for protecting the diaphragm muscle.Several animal studies hav
The economic costs of malaria in four Kenyan districts: do household costs differ by disease endemicity?
Jane Chuma, Vincent Okungu, Catherine Molyneux
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-149
Abstract: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted during the peak malaria transmission season in the poorest areas in four Kenyan districts with differing malaria transmission patterns (n = 179 households in Bondo; 205 Gucha; 184 Kwale; 141 Makueni).There were significant differences in duration of fever, perception of fever severity and cost burdens. Fever episodes among adults and children over five years in Gucha and Makueni districts (highland endemic and low acute transmission districts respectively) lasted significantly longer than episodes reported in Bondo and Kwale districts (high perennial transmission and seasonal, intense transmission, respectively). Perceptions of illness severity also differed between districts: fevers reported among older children and adults in Gucha and Makueni districts were reported as severe compared to those reported in the other districts. Indirect and total costs differed significantly between districts but differences in direct costs were not significant. Total household costs were highest in Makueni (US$ 19.6 per month) and lowest in Bondo (US$ 9.2 per month).Cost burdens are the product of complex relationships between social, economic and epidemiological factors. The cost data presented in this study reflect transmission patterns in the four districts, suggesting that a relationship between costs burdens and the nature of transmission might exist, and that the same warrants more attention from researchers and policy makers.Malaria inflicts significant costs on households and on the economy of endemic countries. Evidence also suggests that the economic burden is higher among the poorest in a population and that cost burdens differ significantly between wet and dry seasons [1-5]. What is not clear is whether, and how, the economic burden of malaria differs by disease endemicity.Malaria endemicity refers to the amount of malaria in a given region; endemicity determines which groups of the population are at highest risk of malar
Barriers to prompt and effective malaria treatment among the poorest population in Kenya
Jane Chuma, Vincent Okungu, Catherine Molyneux
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-144
Abstract: The study was conducted in the poorest areas of four malaria endemic districts in Kenya. Multiple data collection methods were applied including: a cross-sectional survey (n = 708 households); 24 focus group discussions; semi-structured interviews with health workers (n = 34); and patient exit interviews (n = 359).Multiple factors related to affordability, acceptability and availability interact to influence access to prompt and effective treatment. Regarding affordability, about 40 percent of individuals who self-treated using shop-bought drugs and 42 percent who visited a formal health facility reported not having enough money to pay for treatment, and having to adopt coping strategies including borrowing money and getting treatment on credit in order to access care. Other factors influencing affordability were seasonality of illness and income sources, transport costs, and unofficial payments. Regarding acceptability, the major interrelated factors identified were provider patient relationship, patient expectations, beliefs on illness causation, perceived effectiveness of treatment, distrust in the quality of care and poor adherence to treatment regimes. Availability barriers identified were related to facility opening hours, organization of health care services, drug and staff shortages.Ensuring that all individuals suffering from malaria have prompt access to effective treatment remains a challenge for resource constrained health systems. Policy actions to address the multiple barriers of access should be designed around access dimensions, and should include broad interventions to revitalize the public health care system. Unless additional efforts are directed towards addressing access barriers among the poor and vulnerable, malaria will remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.Prompt access to effective malaria treatment is central to the success of malaria control worldwide. The Roll Back Malaria (RBM) partnership has set for 2010
Chemins de perfection, quête du salut
Daniel Russo,Dominique Rigaux,Catherine Vincent
Bulletin du Centre d’études Médiévales d’Auxerre , 2010, DOI: 10.4000/cem.11542
Abstract: Après le très beau témoignage de reconnaissance qui fut remis à André Vauchez par les médiévistes italiens à l’université des études de Padoue (juillet 2003), autour du recueil des Miracles de saint Antoine le pèlerin de Padoue (1267-1270), et l’hommage international qui lui fut rendu à l’université de Paris X-Nanterre (2 octobre 2003), ses élèves ont choisi de se réunir autour de lui pour travailler ensemble sur les voies qu’il a ouvertes par ses travaux . Six grandes orientations ont été tr...
Impeded Growth of Magnetic Flux Bubbles in the Intermediate State Pattern of Type I Superconductors
Vincent Jeudy,Catherine Gourdon,Takanori Okada
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.147001
Abstract: Normal state bubble patterns in Type I superconducting Indium and Lead slabs are studied by the high resolution magneto-optical imaging technique. The size of bubbles is found to be almost independent of the long-range interaction between the normal state domains. Under bubble diameter and slab thickness proper scaling, the results gather onto a single master curve. On this basis, in the framework of the "current-loop" model [R.E. Goldstein, D.P. Jackson and A.T. Dorsey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3818 (1996)], we calculate the equilibrium diameter of an isolated bubble resulting from the competition between the Biot-and-Savart interaction of the Meissner current encircling the bubble and the superconductor-normal interface energy. A good quantitative agreement with the master curve is found over two decades of the magnetic Bond number. The isolation of each bubble in the superconducting matrix and the existence of a positive interface energy are shown to preclude any continuous size variation of the bubbles after their formation, contrary to the prediction of mean-field models.
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