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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 404899 matches for " Catherine M. Phelan "
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Variation in HNF1B and Obesity May Influence Prostate Cancer Risk in African American Men: A Pilot Study
Ganna Chornokur,Ernest K. Amankwah,Stacy N. Davis,Catherine M. Phelan,Jong Y. Park,Julio Pow-Sang,Nagi B. Kumar
Prostate Cancer , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/384594
Abstract: Background. Prostate cancer (PCa) racial disparity is multifactorial, involving biological, sociocultural, and lifestyle determinants. We investigated the association between selected potentially functional polymorphisms (SNPs) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk in Black (AAM) and White (EAM) men. We further explored if these associations varied by the body mass index (BMI) and height. Methods. Age-matched DNA samples from 259 AAM and 269 EAM were genotyped for 10 candidate SNPs in 7 genes using the TaqMan allelic differentiation analysis. The dominant, recessive, and additive age-adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were fitted. Results. Three SNPs showed statistically significant associations with PCa risk: in AAM, HNF1B rs7501939 ( , ) and rs4430796 ( , ); in EAM, CTBP2 rs4962416 ( , ). In addition, high BMI in AAM ( , ) and height in EAM ( , ) showed significant associations. Interestingly, HNF1B rs7501939 was associated with PCa exclusively in obese AAM ( , ). Conclusion. Our results suggest that variation in the HNF1B may influence PCa risk in obese AAM. 1. Introduction Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most common type of solid malignancy and the second-leading cause of all cancer death in US men [1]. However, the burden of PCa is not the same across all racial and ethnic groups, as African American/Black men (AAM) consistently demonstrate 1.6 times higher incidence and 2-3 times higher mortality rates of PCa, compared to their nonhispanic white (EAM) counterparts [2]. In addition, AAM are more likely to be diagnosed at an earlier age and have more aggressive tumors and higher recurrence rates following definite treatments [2, 3]. The etiology of racial disparity in PCa is thought to be multifactorial, involving biological, sociocultural, and lifestyle determinants [4]. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than a dozen PCa risk loci [5], elucidating the biological basis for these associations is challenging [6]. Identified risk loci include the noncoding variants, such as those located in the 8q24 region [7], as well as polymorphisms in the coding regions (genes) that either alter, or are predicted to alter, the protein expression (such as HNF1B [8], TERT [5], and RNASEL [9]). The post-GWAS studies are increasingly suggestive of the interaction between genetic variants and environmental risk factors [10] for which our understanding is still largely inadequate [11]. Established risk factors for PCa are increasing age, race, and family history of the disease [2–4]. Obesity (which affects 35% of all US adults
Polymorphisms in NF-κB Inhibitors and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Kristin L White, Robert A Vierkant, Catherine M Phelan, Brooke L Fridley, Stephanie Anderson, Keith L Knutson, Joellen M Schildkraut, Julie M Cunningham, Linda E Kelemen, V Shane Pankratz, David N Rider, Mark Liebow, Lynn C Hartmann, Thomas A Sellers, Ellen L Goode
BMC Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-170
Abstract: We used a case-control study to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NFKBIA and NFKBIB (the genes encoding IκBα and IκBβ, respectively) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. We queried 19 tagSNPs and putative-functional SNPs among 930 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 1,037 controls from two studies.The minor allele for one synonymous SNP in NFKBIA, rs1957106, was associated with decreased risk (p = 0.03).Considering the number of single-SNP tests performed and null gene-level results, we conclude that NFKBIA and NFKBIB are not likely to harbor ovarian cancer risk alleles. Due to its biological significance in ovarian cancer, additional genes encoding NF-κB subunits, activating and inhibiting molecules, and signaling molecules warrant interrogation.Despite estimates of more than 21,000 newly diagnosed cases of ovarian cancer and 15,000 related deaths each year in the United States [1], the etiology of ovarian cancer remains poorly understood. Known risk factors include increased risk with family history and use of fertility drugs, and decreased risk with oral contraceptive use, parity, and long duration of breast feeding [2]. Rare, high-penetrant mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for approximately 40% of familial risk, leaving most inherited risk unexplained [3,4]. The search for additional loci includes thoughtful selection of candidate genes in key biological pathways, an approach which has been successful in identifying new risk alleles for a variety of cancers [5].Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis because of its role in ovulation and post-ovulatory repair. During ovulation the ovarian epithelial surface is damaged, requiring a repair process involving the recruitment of leukocytes and inflammatory cytokines, release of nitrous oxide, DNA repair, and tissue restructuring [6-9]. Over time, this continuous repair of the ovarian epithelial tissue increases the likelihood of errors during replicatio
Impedance-Based Miniaturized Biosensor for Ultrasensitive and Fast Prostate-Specific Antigen Detection
Ganna Chornokur,Sunil K. Arya,Catherine Phelan,Richard Tanner,Shekhar Bhansali
Journal of Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/983752
Abstract: This paper reports the successful fabrication of an impedance-based miniaturized biosensor and its application for ultrasensitive Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) detection in standard and real human plasma solution, spiked with different PSA concentrations. The sensor was fabricated using photolithographic techniques, while monoclonal antibodies specific to human PSA were used as primary capture antibodies. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed as a detection technique. The sensor exhibited a detection limit of 1?pg/ml for PSA with minimal nonspecific binding (NSB). This detection limit is an order of magnitude lower than commercial PSA ELISA assays available on the market. The sensor can be easily modified into an array for the detection of other biomolecules of interest, enabling accurate, ultrasensitive, and inexpensive point-of-care sensing technologies. 1. Introduction Prostate cancer is one of the most widespread cancerous malignancies amongst the male population in the United States [1]. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause (after lung cancer) for all cancer-related deaths amongst males. On average, males in the United States have 1?:?6 odds of being diagnosed with prostate cancer during their lifetime [2]. Currently, there are only two approved prostate cancer screening methods: Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) blood test [3]. DRE, however, possesses low sensitivity and is a function of the skills of the doctor conducting the examination. Additionally, due to hesitation amongst males to undergo the “invasive” exam and variability in the skill levels of the doctors, DRE in many instances leads to the diagnosis of advanced noncurable tumors [4]. Hence, clinicians are increasingly turning to less invasive blood-based diagnostics tests (e.g., serum PSA), which [3] have led to tremendous improvements in early detection and reduced prostate cancer-related mortality and morbidity [5]. The epidemiological importance of prostate cancer therefore warrants a faster, cheaper, and more accurate sensing device for the PSA-based prostate cancer screening and detection. The generally accepted technique for PSA detection is Enzyme-Linked Immuno Assay (ELISA). However, ELISA and its variations have a detection limit in the high-picomolar ranges. Detection techniques which employ chromatography principle, while offering potentially lower detection limits, are expensive, laborious, and time intensive and are not suited to both routine screening applications and point-of-care diagnostics [6]. As a
Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Inherited Variants in Relapse-Associated Genes
Abraham Peedicayil,Robert A. Vierkant,Lynn C. Hartmann,Brooke L. Fridley,Zachary S. Fredericksen,Kristin L. White,Elaine A. Elliott,Catherine M. Phelan,Ya-Yu Tsai,Andrew Berchuck,Edwin S. Iversen Jr,Fergus J. Couch,Prema Peethamabaran,Melissa C. Larson,Kimberly R. Kalli,Matthew L. Kosel,Vijayalakshmi Shridhar,David N. Rider,Mark Liebow,Julie M. Cunningham,Joellen M. Schildkraut,Thomas A. Sellers,Ellen L. Goode
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008884
Abstract: We previously identified a panel of genes associated with outcome of ovarian cancer. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether variants in these genes correlated with ovarian cancer risk.
Impact of Adaptive Quizzing as a Practice and Remediation Strategy to Prepare for the NCLEX-RN  [PDF]
Susan Malkemes, Julia C. Phelan
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2017.711093
Abstract:

National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) outcomes are extremely important to nursing institutions and students for myriad reasons. For students, the NCLEX-RN represents one of the final milestones to conquer before entering a nursing career. Nursing programs monitor NCLEX-RN pass rates as an important gauge of program quality and minimum levels frequently must be met. This study explored the implementation of an adaptive quizzing and learning system as part of an NCLEX-RN preparation strategy designed to increase student engagement and subsequent success on the NCLEX-RN. The adaptive quizzing system was used as part of an ongoing, proactive strategy to student preparation. This strategy is in contrast to the practice of using high-stakes exams scores to try and predict student NCLEX-RN outcomes. In the latter case there is mixed evidence on how scores relate to remediation and moving students toward success based on evidence of need. The study school required students (N = 54) to take regular, adaptive practice quizzes throughout their final year in the nursing program. Students were also given the HESI E2 in their final semester and all but one student achieved the target threshold with a range of scores (772 to 1028). Despite this variability, 90.7% of the students in the study group passed the NCLEX-RN on their first attempt, with a pass rate of 98% when considering those who passed on the second attempt. NCLEX-RN pass rates at the study school increased by 11.55% following the implementation of the system and in the second year of implementation (the data analyzed for this study) increased an additional 3.95% from the previous year. With many factors to consider, we cannot say, unequivocally, that using the AQS resulted in an increase in NCLEX-RN pass rates at the study school. Findings from this retrospective study do, however, support the use of an adaptive quizzing system as a component of the NCLEX-RN preparation strategy. Implications of these findings are discussed.

(Un)settlement: political parody and the Northern Irish peace process
Mark Phelan
Ilha do Desterro , 2010,
Abstract: This essay examines Tim Loane's political comedies, Caught Red-Handed and To Be Sure, and their critique of the Northern Irish peace process. As "parodies of esteem", both plays challenge the ultimate electoral victors of the peace process (the Democratic Unionist Party and Sinn Féin) as well as critiquing the cant, chicanery and cynicism that have characterised their political rhetoric and the peace process as a whole. This essay argues that Loane's transformation of these comedic pantomime horses into Trojan ones loaded with a ruthless polemical critique of our ruling political elites is all the more important in the context of a self-censoring media that has stifled dissent and debate by protecting the peace process from inconvenient truths. From these close and contextual readings of Loane's plays, wider issues relating to the political efficacy of comedy and its canonical relegation below 'higher forms' in Irish theatre historiography will also be considered.
Los censos comunitarios. Un ejercicio inconcluso lleno de oportunidades
Mauricio Phelan
Revista Venezolana de Análisis de Coyuntura , 2006,
Abstract: El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en sistematizar la respuesta metodológica -los censos comuni-tarios- que las comunidades de los barrios populares de Caracas dan a la necesidad de informa-ción social desagregada. En principio, se pueden definir los censos comunitarios como procedimientos de levantamiento de datos de población y vivienda de un barrio popular o un sector de éste con una importante participación y aporte de las mismas personas objeto del levantamien-to. Se seleccionan las experiencias desplegadas por los Comités de Tierras Urbanas, los Comités de Salud y las Mesas Técnicas de Agua en las labores de recabación y procesamiento de datos. El análisis de estas experiencias comunitarias se aborda a partir de una aproximación directa mediante la entrevista, observación y recolección de planillas o boletas censales. En el trabajo se busca contribuir con el desarrollo y sistematización de nuevas formas de recabación de datos a escala comunitaria así como de prácticas más ajustadas a la realidad social de la desigualdad. El estudio arroja resultados interesantes para ser considerados por los censos oficiales.
Liliane Louvel. Le Tiers pictural, pour une critique intermédiale
Richard PHELAN
E-rea : Revue électronique d’études sur le Monde Anglophone , 2012,
Abstract: Liliane Louvel, professeur émerite à l'Université de Poitiers, poursuit dans le domaine des études anglophones un travail d'une envergure encyclopédique sur les rapports entre littérature et peinture, rapports infinis selon Foucault qui disait le langage et la peinture irréductibles l'un à l'autre . Mais texte et image sont-ils pour autant incommensurables ? C'est à cette question de la commune mesure que s'est consacrée Liliane Louvel afin d'offrir au lecteur-chercheur une vision dialecti...
Jenefer Robinson. Deeper than Reason, Emotion and its Role in Literature, Music and Art
Richard PHELAN
E-rea : Revue électronique d’études sur le Monde Anglophone , 2008,
Abstract: This book sets out to examine the role of emotion in both the construction and reception of art. It begins by a survey of recent theories of emotion and then applies them to the action of emotion in the fields of literature, music and, to a lesser extent, painting. Part One thus addresses the question of what emotions are and how they operate. It considers in particular the theory of emotions as judgements as argued by philosophers Robert Gordon, Gabriele Taylor, Robert Solomon, and William L...
Una aproximación metodológica a los indicadores locales y comunitarios. Entre lo institucional y lo popular
Mauricio Phelan
Espacio Abierto , 2008,
Abstract:
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