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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 171771 matches for " Catherine E Dewey "
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Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise following hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis: a systematic review of clinical trials
Catherine Minns Lowe, Karen L Barker, Michael E Dewey, Catherine M Sackley
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-10-98
Abstract: Design: Systematic review, using the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Quorom Statement.Database searches: AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, KingsFund, MEDLINE, Cochrane library (Cochrane reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, DARE), PEDro, The Department of Health National Research Register. Handsearches: Physiotherapy, Physical Therapy, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Britain) Conference Proceedings. No language restrictions were applied.Selection: Trials comparing physiotherapy exercise versus usual/standard care, or comparing two types of relevant exercise physiotherapy, following discharge from hospital after elective primary total hip replacement for osteoarthritis were reviewed.Outcomes: Functional activities of daily living, walking, quality of life, muscle strength and range of hip joint motion. Trial quality was extensively evaluated. Narrative synthesis plus meta-analytic summaries were performed to summarise the data.8 trials were identified. Trial quality was mixed. Generally poor trial quality, quantity and diversity prevented explanatory meta-analyses. The results were synthesised and meta-analytic summaries were used where possible to provide a formal summary of results. Results indicate that physiotherapy exercise after discharge following total hip replacement has the potential to benefit patients.Insufficient evidence exists to establish the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise following primary hip replacement for osteoarthritis. Further well designed trials are required to determine the value of post discharge exercise following this increasingly common surgical procedure.Osteoarthritis is the commonest cause of disability in older people [1]. Prevalence figures for hip osteoarthritis range from 7–25% in people aged over fifty five [2] with over 70% of sufferers experience pain and limitations in performing activities of daily living, such as mobility outside the home [3]. Effective treat
Exposure assessment in investigations of waterborne illness: a quantitative estimate of measurement error
Jones Andria Q,Dewey Catherine E,Doré Kathryn,Majowicz Shannon E
Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-5573-3-6
Abstract: Background Exposure assessment is typically the greatest weakness of epidemiologic studies of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water, which largely stems from the difficulty in obtaining accurate data on individual-level water consumption patterns and activity. Thus, surrogate measures for such waterborne exposures are commonly used. Little attention however, has been directed towards formal validation of these measures. Methods We conducted a study in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada) in 2001–2002, to assess the accuracy of two surrogate measures of home water source: (a) urban/rural status as assigned using residential postal codes, and (b) mapping of residential postal codes to municipal water systems within a Geographic Information System (GIS). We then assessed the accuracy of a commonly-used surrogate measure of an individual's actual drinking water source, namely, their home water source. Results The surrogates for home water source provided good classification of residents served by municipal water systems (approximately 98% predictive value), but did not perform well in classifying those served by private water systems (average: 63.5% predictive value). More importantly, we found that home water source was a poor surrogate measure of the individuals' actual drinking water source(s), being associated with high misclassification errors. Conclusion This study demonstrated substantial misclassification errors associated with a surrogate measure commonly used in studies of drinking water disinfection byproducts. Further, the limited accuracy of two surrogate measures of an individual's home water source heeds caution in their use in exposure classification methodology. While these surrogates are inexpensive and convenient, they should not be substituted for direct collection of accurate data pertaining to the subjects' waterborne disease exposure. In instances where such surrogates must be used, estimation of the misclassification and its subsequent effects are recommended for the interpretation and communication of results. Our results also lend support for further investigation into the quantification of the exposure misclassification associated with these surrogate measures, which would provide useful estimates for consideration in interpretation of waterborne disease studies.
A qualitative exploration of the perceptions and information needs of public health inspectors responsible for food safety
Mai T Pham, Andria Q Jones, Jan M Sargeant, Barbara J Marshall, Catherine E Dewey
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-345
Abstract: Four focus group discussions were conducted with public health inspectors from the Central West region of Ontario, Canada during June and July, 2008. A questioning route was used to standardize qualitative data collection. Audio recordings of sessions were transcribed verbatim and data-driven content analysis was performed.A total of 23 public health inspectors participated in four focus group discussions. Five themes emerged as key food safety issues: time-temperature abuse, inadequate handwashing, cross-contamination, the lack of food safety knowledge by food handlers and food premise operators, and the lack of food safety information and knowledge about specialty foods (i.e., foods from different cultures). In general, participants reported confidence with their current knowledge of food safety issues and foodborne pathogens. Participants highlighted the need for a central source for food safety information, access to up-to-date food safety information, resources in different languages, and additional food safety information on specialty foods.The information gathered from these focus groups can provide a basis for the development of resources that will meet the specific needs of public health inspectors involved in protecting and promoting food safety.Foodborne illness represents a significant health burden in the province of Ontario, Canada. According to an Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) analysis by Campbell (2002), there are more than 2.5 million cases of foodborne illness each year in Ontario, resulting in 9,319 hospitalizations and 135 deaths [1]. Since many cases of foodborne illness are often not reported, the actual number and impact of foodborne illnesses in Ontario is likely to be greater. A study estimating the rate of underreporting for infectious gastrointestinal illness in Ontario found that for each reported case of enteric illness, an estimated 313 cases of infectious gastrointestinal illness occurred in the commu
Identifying an outbreak of a novel swine disease using test requests for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome as a syndromic surveillance tool
Terri L O’Sullivan, Robert M Friendship, David L Pearl, Beverly McEwen, Catherine E Dewey
BMC Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-192
Abstract: Retrospective data were collected from the Animal Health Laboratory (AHL) at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario Canada and were comprised of weekly counts of PRRSV ELISA and PRRSV PCR diagnostic tests requested by swine practitioners from 2000–2007. The results of the PRRSV ELISA and PRRSV PCRs were analysed separately in two models using logistic regression with the dependent variables being: the weekly probability of PRRSV ELISA positivity, and the weekly probability of PRRSV PCR positivity, respectively. The weekly probability of PRRSV PCR positivity decreased during the PVCAD outbreak (OR=0.66, P=0.01). The weekly probability of PRRSV ELISA positivity was not associated with the PCVAD outbreak.The results of this study showed that during the PCVAD outbreak in Ontario from December 2004-May 2006, the probability of a positive PRRSV PCR at the AHL decreased. We conclude that when a decrease in test positivity occurs for a known disease, it may suggest that a new disease agent is emerging in the population. Hence, monitoring the test results of commonly used first-order tests for a known disease (e.g. PRRSV) has the potential to be a unique form of syndromic data for the timely identification of novel disease outbreaks in swine populations.The information captured by veterinary diagnostic laboratories generates an immense database of animal health information and has contributed significantly to the collective knowledge of animal diseases. In addition to playing a role in determining disease etiology, the data are crucial in providing essential health information for disease monitoring and passive disease surveillance systems of livestock industries worldwide [1-3]. In response to the need for improving and implementing coordinated disease surveillance for Canadian livestock sectors, the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network (CAHSN) was established and veterinary diagnostic laboratory data contribute significantly to the network [4]. The use of laborat
Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in Ontario (Canada) swine herds: Part I. Exploratory spatial analysis
Zvonimir Poljak, Catherine E Dewey, Thomas Rosendal, Robert M Friendship, Beth Young, Olaf Berke
BMC Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-6-59
Abstract: The study included 278 swine herds from a large disease-monitoring project that included porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus-positive herds identified by the diagnostic laboratory, and PRRS virus-negative herds directly from the target population. Herds were included if they had growing pigs present on-site and available geographical coordinates for the sampling site. Furthermore, herds were defined as PCVAD-positive if a producer reported an outbreak of circovirus associated disease, or as PCVAD-negative if no outbreak was noted. Spatial trend was investigated using generalized additive models and time to PCVAD outbreak in a herd using Cox's proportional hazard model; spatial and spatio-temporal clustering was explored using K-functions; and location of most likely spatial and spatio-temporal clusters was investigated using scan statistics. Over the study period, the risk of reporting a PCVAD-positive herd tended to be higher in the eastern part of the province after adjustment for herd PRRS status (P = 0.05). This was partly confirmed for spread (Partial P < 0.01). Local spread also appeared to exist, as suggested by the tentative (P = 0.06) existence of spatio-temporal clustering of PCVAD and detection of a spatio-temporal cluster (P = 0.04).In Ontario, PCVAD has shown a general trend, spreading from east-to-west. We interpret the existence of spatio-temporal clustering as evidence of spatio-temporal aggregation of PCVAD-positive cases above expectations and, together with the existence of spatio-temporal and spatial clusters, as suggestive of apparent local spread of PCVAD. Clustering was detected at small spatial and temporal scales. Other patterns of spread could not be detected; however, survival rates in discrete Ontario zones, as well as a lack of a clear spatial pattern in the most likely spatio-temporal clusters, suggest other between-herd transmission mechanisms.Initially reported in early 1990's as post weaning multi-systemic wast
Spread of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in Ontario (Canada) swine herds: Part II. Matched case-control study
Zvonimir Poljak, Catherine E Dewey, Thomas Rosendal, Robert M Friendship, Beth Young, Olaf Berke
BMC Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-6-58
Abstract: A time-matched case-control study was used as a study design approach, and conditional logistic regression as the analytical method. The main exposure of interest was local spread, which was defined as an unidentified mechanism of PCVAD spread between premises located within 3 kilometers of the Euclidean distance. Various modifications of variables indicative of local spread were also evaluated. The dataset contained 278 swine herds from Ontario originally sampled either from diagnostic laboratory submissions or directly from the target population. A PCVAD case was defined on the basis of the producer's recall. Existence of apparent local spread over the entire study period was confirmed (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.83), and was further identified to be time-varying in nature - herds experiencing outbreaks in the later part of the epidemic were more likely than control herds to be exposed to neighboring herds experiencing recent PCVAD outbreaks. More importantly, the pattern of local spread was driven by concurrent occurrence of PCVAD on premises under the same ownership (OREXACTwithin ownership = 25.6, 95% CI: 3.4, +inf; OREXACToutside ownership = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.45, 3.3). Other significant factors included PRRSv status of a herd (OREXACT = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.9), after adjusting for geographical location by including the binary effect of the easting coordinate (Easting > 600 km = 1; OREXACT = 1.8, 95% CI: 0.5, 5.6).These results preclude any conclusion regarding the existence of a mechanism of local spread through airborne transmission or indirectly through contaminated fomites or vectors, as simultaneous emergence of PCVAD could also be a result of concurrent change in contributing factors due to other mechanisms within ownerships.Porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), also known as porcine circovirus disease and previously as post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), emerged in the early 1990's and soon became a major animal health problem in man
Reducing Weight Variation and Behaviour Problems in Nursery Pigs on a Commercial Farm by Improving Water Accessibility and Providing Environmental Enrichment
Angel Francisco de Grau,Catherine E. Dewey,Tina .M. Widowski,Robert .M. Friendship,Cornelius FM de Lange,Barry Milligana
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine whether provision of additional water via wet/dry feeders, and use of chains as distractors, improves performance and reduces ear biting in nursery pigs. The study was based on a 2 ? 2 factorial design, with provision of additional water in wet/dry feeders and chains as the main factors. A single nipple drinker was provided in each pen of 35 to 40 pigs. In 36 of the 66 pens, wet/dry feeders were not connected to the water line, and in 30 pens, wet/dry feeders provided additional water. Chains were provided in alternate pens. Pigs were individually weighed and assigned an ear score at weaning (approximately 3 wk of age) and at approximately 8 wk of age. Piglets in 48 pens were videotaped for 24 h on days 7, 14, and 21 post-weaning, using black-and-white time-lapse video equipment. The numbers of pigs drinking, feeding, and interacting with the chain were recorded. There was less variation in ADG (P<.001) in groups with additional water. The incidence of ear lesions was lower in pens with a chain (P=.01) and higher in heavier pigs (P<.01), but was not affected by use of wet/dry feeding (P=.53).
Public perceptions of drinking water: a postal survey of residents with private water supplies
Andria Q Jones, Catherine E Dewey, Kathryn Doré, Shannon E Majowicz, Scott A McEwen, Waltner-Toews David, Mathews Eric, Deborah J Carr, Spencer J Henson
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-94
Abstract: A cross-sectional postal survey of 246 residences with private water supplies was conducted in May 2004. Questions pertained to the perceptions of water quality and alternative water sources, water testing behaviours and the self-identified need for further information.Private wells, cisterns or both, were the source of household water for 71%, 16% and 13% of respondents, respectively. Although respondents rated their water quality highly, 80% also had concerns with its safety. The most common concerns pertained to bacterial and chemical contamination of their water supply and its potential negative effect on health. Approximately 56% and 61% of respondents used in-home treatment devices and bottled water within their homes, respectively, mainly due to perceived improvements in the safety and aesthetic qualities compared to regular tap water. Testing of private water supplies was performed infrequently: 8% of respondents tested at a frequency that meets current provincial guidelines. Two-thirds of respondents wanted more information on various topics related to private water supplies. Flyers and newspapers were the two media reported most likely to be used.Although respondents rated their water quality highly, the majority had concerns regarding the water from their private supply, and the use of bottled water and water treatment devices was extensive. The results of this study suggest important lines of inquiry and provide support and input for public education programs, particularly those related to private water testing, in this population.Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, predominantly from groundwater wells [1]. In Canada, the legal responsibility for the condition of private water supplies, such as private wells and cisterns, lies with their owners [2]. There are reports, however, that Canadians with private water supplies test their water intermittently, if at all [1,3], and that water treatment within their
Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses
Andria Q Jones, Catherine E Dewey, Kathryn Doré, Shannon E Majowicz, Scott A McEwen, David Waltner-Toews, Spencer J Henson, Eric Mathews
BMC Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-129
Abstract: In September 2003, three focus group discussions were conducted; two with men and women aged 36–65 years, and one with men and women 20–35 years of age.Overall, participants had positive perceptions of their private water supplies, particularly in the older age group. Concerns included bacterial and chemical contamination from agricultural sources. Testing of water from private supplies was minimal and was done less frequently than recommended by the provincial government. Barriers to water testing included the inconvenience of the testing process, acceptable test results in the past, resident complacency and lack of knowledge. The younger participants greatly emphasized their need for more information on private water supplies. Participants from all groups wanted more information on water testing, and various media for information dissemination were discussed.While most participants were confident in the safety of their private water supply, the factual basis for these opinions is uncertain. Improved dissemination of information pertaining to private water supplies in this population is needed. Observed differences in the concerns expressed by users of different water systems and age groups may suggest the need for targeted public education strategies. These focus groups provided significant insight into the public perception of private water supplies and the need for public health outreach activities; however, to obtain a more representative understanding of the perceptions in this population, it is important that a larger scale investigation be performed.Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, predominantly from groundwater wells [1]. Numerous studies report that Canadian private water supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for microbial and chemical contamination [1-5], and it is estimated that 45 percent of all waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada involve non-municipal systems, largely in rural or
Intercomparison of aircraft instruments on board the C-130 and Falcon 20 over southern Germany during EXPORT 2000
N. Brough,C. E. Reeves,S. A. Penkett,K. Dewey
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2003,
Abstract: In the summer 2000 Export aircraft campaign (European eXport of Precursors and Ozone by long-Range Transport), two comprehensively instrumented research aircraft measuring a variety of chemical species flew wing tip to wing tip for a period of one and a quarter hours. During this interval a comparison was undertaken of the measurements of nitrogen oxide (NO), odd nitrogen species (NOy), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3). The comparison was performed at two different flight levels, which provided a 10-fold variation in the concentrations of both NO (10 to 1000 parts per trillion by volume (pptv)) and NOy (200 to over 2500 pptv). Large peaks of NO and NOy observed from the Falcon 20, which were at first thought to be from the exhaust of the C-130, were also detected on the 4 channel NOx,y instrument aboard the C-130. These peaks were a good indication that both aircraft were in the same air mass and that the Falcon 20 was not in the exhaust plume of the C-130. Correlations and statistical analysis are presented between the instruments used on the two separate aircraft platforms. These were found to be in good agreement giving a high degree of correlation for the ambient air studied. Any deviations from the correlations are accounted for in the estimated inaccuracies of the instruments. These results help to establish that the instruments aboard the separate aircraft are reliably able to measure the corresponding chemical species in the range of conditions sampled and that data collected by both aircraft can be co-ordinated for purposes of interpretation.
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