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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 111984 matches for " Cathal O’Donoghue "
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Modelling Financially Optimal Afforestation and Forest Management Scenarios Using a Bio-Economic Model  [PDF]
Mary Ryan, Cathal ODonoghue, Henry Phillips
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2016.61003
Abstract: The expansion of non-industrial private forests (NIPF) in Ireland is unique in the European context in which the almost doubling of forest cover within the last thirty years has taken place largely on farmland. This is not surprising as Ireland has some of the highest growth rates for conifers in Europe and also has a large proportion of land which is marginal for agriculture but highly productive under forests. However, in recent years, afforestation in Ireland as in many European countries has fallen well short of policy targets. As the farm afforestation decision essentially involves an inter-temporal land use change, farmers need comprehensive information on forest market returns under different environmental conditions and forest management regimes. This paper describes the systematic development of a cohort forest bio-economic model which examines financially optimal afforestation and management choices. Simulating a range of productivity and harvesting scenarios for Sitka spruce, we find that different objectives result in different outcomes. We see substantial differences between the biologically optimal rotation, the reduced rotation in common usage and the financially optimal rotation which maximises net present value and find that the results are particularly sensitive to the choice of management and methodological assumptions. Specifically, we find that better site productivity and thin versus no-thin options result in shorter rotations across all optimisations, reinforcing the usefulness of this type of financial modelling approach. This information is critical for future policy design to further incentivise afforestation of agricultural land.
Assessing the Geographic Representativity of Farm Accountancy Data
Stuart Green,Cathal O'Donoghue
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijgi2010050
Abstract: The environment affects agriculture, via soils, weather, etc. and agriculture affects the environment locally at farm level and via its impact on climate change. Locating agriculture within its spatial environment is thus important for farmers and policy makers. Within the EU countries collect detailed farm data to understand the technical and financial performance of farms; the Farm Accountancy Data Network. However, knowledge of the spatial-environmental context of these farms is reported at gross scale. In this paper, Irish farm accounting data is geo-referenced using address matching to a national address database. An analysis of the geographic distribution of the survey farms, illustrated through a novel 2D ranked pair plot of the coordinates, compared to the national distribution of farms shows a trend in the location of survey farms that leads to a statistical difference in the climatic variables associated with the farm. The farms in the survey have significantly higher accumulated solar radiation values than the national average. As a result, the survey may not be representative spatially of the pattern of environment x farm system. This could have important considerations when using FADN data in modelling climate change impacts on agri-economic performance.
Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adoption of Agricultural Innovations: A Panel Data Analysis of the Use of Artificial Insemination among Dairy Farmers in Ireland
Peter Howley,Cathal O. Donoghue,Kevin Heanue
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n6p171
Abstract: The use of artificial insemination (AI) has been of enormous economic benefit for dairy farmers in many countries such as Ireland through the genetic improvement of their stock. Despite these benefits a significant proportion of dairy farmers continue to use natural mating over AI. Previous research has found that the cost of semen, the cost of insemination and success rate all affect the probability of farmers using AI. Using a nationally representative panel dataset, this paper examined if there were any farm or farmer characteristics that affected the probability of dairy farmers using AI. Modelling the farm factors driving the uptake of AI enables the understanding of the differences between various types of landowners which should in turn better equip policymakers to design policies and programs that efficiently promote good reproductive management. The results in this paper suggest that there is significant heterogeneity among farm households in relation to the uptake of AI with both characteristics of the farmer as well as structural farm factors all found to significantly affect the probability of a farmer adopting this agricultural innovation.
Shaping Earnings Mobility: Policy and Institutional Factors
Denisa Maria Sologon,Cathal ODonoghue
The European Journal of Comparative Economics , 2011,
Abstract: This paper explores the role of labour market policy and institutional factors in explaining cross-national differences in earnings mobility across Europe in the 1990s using the European Community Household Panel and OECD data on institutional variables. More regulation in both labour and product markets emerge as sources of labour market rigidity, being positively associated with earnings immobility and exacerbating the adverse effects of macro-economic shocks on earnings mobility. Unionization is found to promote earnings mobility, effect, however, counteracted in periods with adverse macroeconomic shocks. Corporatism is found to promote mobility and to counteract the adverse effects of macroeconomic shocks on earnings mobility. The generosity of the unemployment benefit is found to limit the adverse effects of macroeconomic shocks on earnings mobility.
Simulating Brazil?s tax-benefit system using Brahms, the Brazilian household microsimulation model
Immervoll, Herwig;Levy, Horácio;Nogueira, José Ricardo;ODonoghue, Cathal;Siqueira, Rozane Bezerra de;
Economia Aplicada , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-80502006000200004
Abstract: despite raising an amount of taxes that represents nearly 37% of the country?s gdp and spending over half of this revenue on social programmes, the brazilian government has not been able to significantly alleviate inequality and poverty. a number of studies have shown evidence that, to a great extent, this situation is due to the inadequate targeting of public expenditures. the distributive impact of the financing of these expenditures, however, has received less attention. this paper investigates the combined impact of taxes and government cash transfers on the distribution of income among brazilian households and compares brazil?s redistributive performance with that of some countries with a similar tax burden.
Simulating the impact of inflation on the progressivity of personal income tax in Brazil
Levy, Horacio;Nogueira, José Ricardo;Siqueira, Rozane Bezerra de;Immervoll, Herwig;O'Donoghue, Cathal;
Revista Brasileira de Economia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-71402010000400004
Abstract: income tax reform in brazil has mainly stressed changes in rates, aiming at increasing its progressivity. one aspect frequently overlooked is that, in the absence of adjustments of the tax rules to inflation, the level and distribution of the income tax burden can be substantially affected. we use a microsimulation model to simulate the potential revenue and distributive effects of inflation on the income tax in brazil. our findings suggest that if the income tax is not adjusted for inflation, progressivity would decrease but redistribution would increase due to a larger tax burden, but income inequality would not substantially change.
Exploring the Links between Employment Clusters and Economic Diversity in the British Urban System  [PDF]
Daniel ODonoghue
Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.77079
Abstract: A growing body of literature, built up over the years, has explored the cluster concept. In parallel, another body of literature has accumulated regarding the diversity and specialisation of cities. There has been little explicit linkage between these two bodies of literature. This study sets out to explore the potential link between these two representations of spatial patterns so that a better understanding of the relationship between the two might be established. The UK Annual Business Inquiry 2007 provides the employment data drawn from various aggregated levels of the SIC 2003 for 70 TTWAs that represent the British Urban System. The paper investigates the extent of spatial concentration of individual sectors, and provides an example of how clusters might be identified spatially. Further analysis, using data drawn from the SIC 1, 2 and 3 digit levels indicates the relationship levels diversity/specialisation have with the clustering of activities, particularly when various sub-sectors are examined. Specific locations, or groups of cities are identified, which reinforce previous understandings of some of the key concepts. The results indicate further analysis of the role of localisation and urbanisation economies and their relationship with diversity/specialisation is required with an added emphasis on occupational, rather than just industrial diversity.
Application of statistical process control to qualitative molecular diagnostic assays
Cathal P. O'Brien
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fmolb.2014.00018
Abstract: Modern pathology laboratories and in particular high throughput laboratories such as clinical chemistry have developed a reliable system for statistical process control (SPC). Such a system is absent from the majority of molecular laboratories and where present is confined to quantitative assays. As the inability to apply SPC to an assay is an obvious disadvantage this study aimed to solve this problem by using a frequency estimate coupled with a confidence interval calculation to detect deviations from an expected mutation frequency. The results of this study demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of this approach and highlight minimum sample number requirements. Notably, assays with low mutation frequencies and detection of small deviations from an expected value require greater sample numbers to mitigate a protracted time to detection. Modeled laboratory data was also used to highlight how this approach might be applied in a routine molecular laboratory. This article is the first to describe the application of SPC to qualitative laboratory data.
Troubling some generalisations on teacher education in the English-speaking world: the case of the Republic of Ireland
T ODonoghue, J Harford
South African Journal of Education , 2010,
Abstract: There is a great deal of talk about a crisis in teaching across the Englishspeaking world, about the quality of teachers leaving much to be desired, and about the quality of student outcomes dropping. This, in turn, has resulted in various aspects of teacher preparation coming under severe scrutiny. In general, disquiet has been voiced about the quality of those admitted to teacher preparation programmes, about the quality of the programmes themselves, and about the quality of those responsible for delivering them. Much of the literature in this regard emanates primarily from the US, and England and Wales, and to a lesser extent from Australia and New Zealand. While the criticisms voiced may well be valid for these contexts, one would still not be justified in uncritically generalising from them to the rest of the English-speaking world. We adopt such a ‘troubling’ perspective by focusing on the situation regarding secondary school teacher preparation in the Republic of Ireland. Along with being offered as a work of interest in its own right, a number of areas for consideration regarding the situation in South Africa are also outlined.
Troubling some generalisations on teacher education in the English-speaking world: the case of the Republic of Ireland
Tom O'Donoghue,Judith Harford
South African Journal of Education , 2010,
Abstract: There is a great deal of talk about a crisis in teaching across the Englishspeaking world, about the quality of teachers leaving much to be desired, and about the quality of student outcomes dropping. This, in turn, has resulted in various aspects of teacher preparation coming under severe scrutiny. In general, disquiet has been voiced about the quality of those admitted to teacher preparation programmes, about the quality of the programmes themselves, and about the quality of those responsible for delivering them. Much of the literature in this regard emanates primarily from the US, and England and Wales, and to a lesser extent from Australia and New Zealand. While the criticisms voiced may well be valid for these contexts, one would still not be justified in uncritically generalising from them to the rest of the English-speaking world. We adopt such a 'troubling' perspective by focusing on the situation regarding secondary school teacher preparation in the Republic of Ireland. Along with being offered as a work of interest in its own right, a number of areas for consideration regarding the situation in South Africa are also outlined.
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