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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 138556 matches for " Catchpole K "
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Human factors perspective on the prescribing behavior of recent medical graduates: implications for educators
Gordon M, Catchpole K, Baker P
Advances in Medical Education and Practice , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S40487
Abstract: man factors perspective on the prescribing behavior of recent medical graduates: implications for educators Original Research (789) Total Article Views Authors: Gordon M, Catchpole K, Baker P Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:4 Pages 1 - 9 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S40487 Received: 19 November 2012 Accepted: 11 December 2012 Published: 10 January 2013 Morris Gordon,1,2 Ken Catchpole,3 Paul Baker1,4 1Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Salford, Salford, UK; 2Department of Paediatrics, Fairfield General Hospital, Bury, UK; 3Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4North Western Deanery, Manchester, UK Background: Junior doctors are at high risk of involvement in medication errors. Educational interventions to enhance human factors and specifically nontechnical skills in health care are increasingly reported, but there is no work in the context of prescribing improvement to guide such education. We set out to determine the elements that influence prescribing from a human factors perspective by recent medical graduates and use this to guide education in this area. Methods: A total of 206 recent medical graduates of the North Western Foundation School were asked to describe their views on safety practices and behaviors. Free text data regarding prescribing behaviors were collected 1, 2, and 4 months after starting their posts. A 94.1% response rate was achieved. Qualitative analysis of data was completed using the constant comparison method. Five initial categories were developed, and the researchers subsequently developed thematic indices according to their understanding of the emerging content of the data. Further data were collected through group interviews 8–9 months into the placement to ensure thematic saturation. Results: Six themes were established at the axial coding level, ie, contributors to inappropriate prescribing, contributors to appropriate prescribing, professional responsibility, prescribing error, current practices, and methods for improvement of prescribing. Utilizing appropriate theoretical elements, we describe how recent medical graduates employ situational and error awareness to guide risk assessment. Conclusion: We have modeled the human factors of prescribing behavior by recent medical graduates. As these factors are related to a number of recognized elements of nontechnical skills training within health care, educators should consider design elements from such existing interventions to support prescribing improvement programs. Future research should seek to assess the effectiveness of prescribing focused nontechnical skills training.
Human factors perspective on the prescribing behavior of recent medical graduates: implications for educators
Gordon M,Catchpole K,Baker P
Advances in Medical Education and Practice , 2013,
Abstract: Morris Gordon,1,2 Ken Catchpole,3 Paul Baker1,41Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Salford, Salford, UK; 2Department of Paediatrics, Fairfield General Hospital, Bury, UK; 3Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4North Western Deanery, Manchester, UKBackground: Junior doctors are at high risk of involvement in medication errors. Educational interventions to enhance human factors and specifically nontechnical skills in health care are increasingly reported, but there is no work in the context of prescribing improvement to guide such education. We set out to determine the elements that influence prescribing from a human factors perspective by recent medical graduates and use this to guide education in this area.Methods: A total of 206 recent medical graduates of the North Western Foundation School were asked to describe their views on safety practices and behaviors. Free text data regarding prescribing behaviors were collected 1, 2, and 4 months after starting their posts. A 94.1% response rate was achieved. Qualitative analysis of data was completed using the constant comparison method. Five initial categories were developed, and the researchers subsequently developed thematic indices according to their understanding of the emerging content of the data. Further data were collected through group interviews 8–9 months into the placement to ensure thematic saturation.Results: Six themes were established at the axial coding level, ie, contributors to inappropriate prescribing, contributors to appropriate prescribing, professional responsibility, prescribing error, current practices, and methods for improvement of prescribing. Utilizing appropriate theoretical elements, we describe how recent medical graduates employ situational and error awareness to guide risk assessment.Conclusion: We have modeled the human factors of prescribing behavior by recent medical graduates. As these factors are related to a number of recognized elements of nontechnical skills training within health care, educators should consider design elements from such existing interventions to support prescribing improvement programs. Future research should seek to assess the effectiveness of prescribing focused nontechnical skills training.Keywords: medication error, patient safety, nontechnical skills
A three-dimensional model of error and safety in surgical health care microsystems. Rationale, development and initial testing
Peter McCulloch, Ken Catchpole
BMC Surgery , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2482-11-23
Abstract: We have developed a new, simple, model of safety in healthcare systems, based on analysis of real problems seen in surgical systems, in which influences on risk at the "microsystem" level are described in terms of only 3 dimensions - technology, system and culture. We used definitions of these terms which are similar or identical to those used elsewhere in the safety literature, and utilised a set of formal empirical and deductive processes to derive the model. The "3D" model assumes that new risks arise in an unpredictable stochastic manner, and that the three defined dimensions are interactive, in an unconstrained fashion. We illustrated testing of the model, using analysis of a small number of incidents in a surgical environment for which we had detailed prospective observational data.The model appeared to provide useful explanation and categorisation of real events. We made predictions based on the model, which are experimentally verifiable, and propose further work to test and refine it.We suggest that, if calibrated by application to a large incident dataset, the 3D model could form the basis for a quantitative statistical method for estimating risk at microsystem levels in many acute healthcare settings."Essentially, all models are wrong, but some are useful"George AP BoxIt is only in the last 2 decades that it has become acceptable to admit that modern healthcare causes harm to patients. Early writers who drew attention to this, like Ivan Ilich[1], were dismissed as dystopian, whilst others, who raised the problems of healthcare harm after experiencing personal tragedy, were clearly not neutral observers. The medical and nursing professions have had difficulty in looking squarely at this issue, since our professional cultures contain a fundamental assumption of absolute commitment to selfless service, and the most demanding standards of performance. This mindset made it difficult to acknowledge the problem of patient harm, but eventually careful retrospectiv
Wafer Surface Charge Reversal as a Method of Simplifying Nanosphere Lithography for Reactive Ion Etch Texturing of Solar Cells
Daniel Inns,Patrick Campbell,Kylie Catchpole
Advances in OptoElectronics , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/32707
Abstract: A simplified nanosphere lithography process has been developed which allows fast and low-waste maskings of Si surfaces for subsequent reactive ion etching (RIE) texturing. Initially, a positive surface charge is applied to a wafer surface by dipping in a solution of aluminum nitrate. Dipping the positive-coated wafer into a solution of negatively charged silica beads (nanospheres) results in the spheres becoming electrostatically attracted to the wafer surface. These nanospheres form an etch mask for RIE. After RIE texturing, the reflection of the surface is reduced as effectively as any other nanosphere lithography method, while this batch process used for masking is much faster, making it more industrially relevant.
Fishery Discards: Factors Affecting Their Variability within a Demersal Trawl Fishery
Jordan Feekings, Valerio Bartolino, Niels Madsen, Tom Catchpole
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036409
Abstract: Discards represent one of the most important issues within current commercial fishing. It occurs for a range of reasons and is influenced by an even more complex array of factors. We address this issue by examining the data collected within the Danish discard observer program and describe the factors that influence discarding within the Danish Kattegat demersal fleet over the period 1997 to 2008. Generalised additive models were used to assess how discards of the 3 main target species, Norway lobster, cod and plaice, and their subcomponents (under and over minimum landings size) are influenced by important factors and their potential relevance to management. Our results show that discards are influenced by a range of different factors that are different for each species and portion of discards. We argue that knowledge about the factors influential to discarding and their use in relation to potential mitigation measures are essential for future fisheries management strategies.
Methods for investigating parameter redundancy
Gimenez, O.,Viallefont, A.,Catchpole, E. A.,Choquet, R.
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation , 2004,
Abstract: The quantitative study of marked individuals relies mainly on the use of meaningful biological models. Classical inference is then conducted based on the model likelihood, parameterized by parameters such as survival, recovery, transition and recapture probabilities. In classical statistics, we seek parameter estimates by maximising the likelihood. However, models are often overparameterized and, as a consequence, some parameters cannot be estimated separately. Identifying how many and which (functions of) parameters are estimable is thus crucial not only for proper model selection based upon likelihood ratio tests or information criteria but also for the interpretation of the estimates obtained. In this paper, we provide the reader with a description of the tools available to check for parameter redundancy. We aim to assist people in choosing the most appropriate method to solve their own specific problems.
Stability of Metabolic Correlations under Changing Environmental Conditions in Escherichia coli – A Systems Approach
Jedrzej Szymanski,Szymon Jozefczuk,Zoran Nikoloski,Joachim Selbig,Victoria Nikiforova,Gareth Catchpole,Lothar Willmitzer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007441
Abstract: Biological systems adapt to changing environments by reorganizing their cellular and physiological program with metabolites representing one important response level. Different stresses lead to both conserved and specific responses on the metabolite level which should be reflected in the underlying metabolic network.
Polymorphisms in the Tlr4 and Tlr5 Gene Are Significantly Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in German Shepherd Dogs
Aarti Kathrani,Arthur House,Brian Catchpole,Angela Murphy,Alex German,Dirk Werling,Karin Allenspach
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015740
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is considered to be the most common cause of vomiting and diarrhoea in dogs, and the German shepherd dog (GSD) is particularly susceptible. The exact aetiology of IBD is unknown, however associations have been identified between specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and human IBD. However, to date, no genetic studies have been undertaken in canine IBD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in canine TLR 2, 4 and 5 genes are associated with IBD in GSDs. Mutational analysis of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR5 was performed in 10 unrelated GSDs with IBD. Four non-synonymous SNPs (T23C, G1039A, A1571T and G1807A) were identified in the TLR4 gene, and three non-synonymous SNPs (G22A, C100T and T1844C) were identified in the TLR5 gene. The non-synonymous SNPs identified in TLR4 and TLR5 were evaluated further in a case-control study using a SNaPSHOT multiplex reaction. Sequencing information from 55 unrelated GSDs with IBD were compared to a control group consisting of 61 unrelated GSDs. The G22A SNP in TLR5 was significantly associated with IBD in GSDs, whereas the remaining two SNPs were found to be significantly protective for IBD. Furthermore, the two SNPs in TLR4 (A1571T and G1807A) were in complete linkage disequilibrium, and were also significantly associated with IBD. The TLR5 risk haplotype (ACC) without the two associated TLR4 SNP alleles was significantly associated with IBD, however the presence of the two TLR4 SNP risk alleles without the TLR5 risk haplotype was not statistically associated with IBD. Our study suggests that the three TLR5 SNPs and two TLR4 SNPs; A1571T and G1807A could play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD in GSDs. Further studies are required to confirm the functional importance of these polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of this disease.
TLR5 Risk-Associated Haplotype for Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease Confers Hyper-Responsiveness to Flagellin
Aarti Kathrani,Angela Holder,Brian Catchpole,Lorena Alvarez,Kenneth Simpson,Dirk Werling,Karin Allenspach
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030117
Abstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the TLR5 gene have been associated with human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and animal models of this disease. We recently demonstrated a significant association between three non-synonymous SNPs in the canine TLR5 gene and IBD in German shepherd dogs (GSDs). However, so far, no direct link between these SNPs and a disturbance in TLR5 function was shown. In the present study, we determined the functional significance of the canine TLR5 SNPs by transfecting the identified risk-protective and risk-associated haplotype into human embryonic kidney cells (HEK) and assessed nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and CXCL8 production after stimulation. In addition, a whole blood assay for TLR5 activation was developed using blood derived from carrier dogs of either haplotype. There was a significant increase in NF-kB activity when cells transfected with the risk-associated TLR5 haplotype were stimulated with flagellin compared to the cells expressing the risk-protective TLR5 haplotype. This difference in NFkB activation correlated with CXCL8 expression in the supernatant measured by ELISA. Furthermore, whole blood taken from carrier dogs of the risk-associated TLR5 haplotype produced significantly more TNF after stimulation with flagellin compared to that taken from carriers of the risk-protective haplotype. Thus, we show for the first time a direct functional impact of the canine IBD risk-associated TLR5 haplotype, which results in hyper-responsiveness to flagellin compared to the IBD risk-protective TLR5 haplotype. Our data potentially suggest that similarly to human IBD and experimental models, TLR5 may also play a role in canine IBD. Blocking the hyper-responsive receptor found in susceptible dogs with IBD may alleviate the inappropriate inflammation seen in this disease.
Pollutants Increase Song Complexity and the Volume of the Brain Area HVC in a Songbird
Shai Markman, Stefan Leitner, Clive Catchpole, Sara Barnsley, Carsten T. Müller, David Pascoe, Katherine L. Buchanan
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001674
Abstract: Environmental pollutants which alter endocrine function are now known to decrease vertebrate reproductive success. There is considerable evidence for endocrine disruption from aquatic ecosystems, but knowledge is lacking with regard to the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Here, we show for the first time that birds foraging on invertebrates contaminated with environmental pollutants, show marked changes in both brain and behaviour. We found that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to environmentally relevant levels of synthetic and natural estrogen mimics developed longer and more complex songs compared to control males, a sexually selected trait important in attracting females for reproduction. Moreover, females preferred the song of males which had higher pollutant exposure, despite the fact that experimentally dosed males showed reduced immune function. We also show that the key brain area controlling male song complexity (HVC) is significantly enlarged in the contaminated birds. This is the first evidence that environmental pollutants not only affect, but paradoxically enhance a signal of male quality such as song. Our data suggest that female starlings would bias their choice towards exposed males, with possible consequences at the population level. As the starling is a migratory species, our results suggest that transglobal effects of pollutants on terrestrial vertebrate physiology and reproduction could occur in birds.
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