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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14811 matches for " Caroline Smith-Burchnell "
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Identification of HCV Inhibitors from a Cell-Based Sub-Genomic Replicon Screen  [PDF]
David C. Pryde, Thien-Duc Tran, Mark Gardner, Chris Pickford, Stephen M. Shaw, Mike Westby, Tanya Parkinson, Caroline Smith-Burchnell, Rob Webster, Satish Dayal
Open Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (OJMC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmc.2013.31003

A high throughput screen of the Pfizer compound collection was carried out using a hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b subgenomic replicon cell line. Those confirmed hits that demonstrated broad spectrum activity without overt cytotoxicity were further evaluated, leading to the identification of a series of pyrrolopyridines with excellent antiviral activity in a fully infectious HCV cell-based assay and pharmacokinetic properties.

A Systematic Review of the Effect of Expectancy on Treatment Responses to Acupuncture
Ben Colagiuri,Caroline A. Smith
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/857804
Abstract: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture often find equivalent responses to real and placebo acupuncture despite both appearing superior to no treatment. This raises questions regarding the mechanisms of acupuncture, especially the contribution of patient expectancies. We systematically reviewed previous research assessing the relationship between expectancy and treatment responses following acupuncture, whether real or placebo. To be included, studies needed to assess and/or manipulate expectancies about acupuncture and relate these to at least one health-relevant outcome. Nine such independent studies were identified through systematic searches of Medline, PsycInfo, PubMed, and Cochrane Clinical Trials Register. The methodology and reporting of these studies were quite heterogeneous, meaning that meta-analysis was not possible. A descriptive review revealed that five studies found statistically significant effects of expectancy on a least one outcome, with three also finding evidence suggestive of an interaction between expectancy and type of acupuncture (real or placebo). While there were some trends in significant effects in terms of study characteristics, their generality is limited by the heterogeneity of study designs. The differences in design across studies highlight some important methodological considerations for future research in this area, particularly regarding whether to assess or manipulate expectancies and how best to assess expectancies.
Use of Chinese medicine by cancer patients: a review of surveys
Bridget Carmady, Caroline A Smith
Chinese Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8546-6-22
Abstract: Conventional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy have shown some effectiveness for reducing or eradicating cancers; however, they can produce unpleasant side effects, e.g. nausea, vomiting, changes in bowel habits, fatigue and hair loss. Chinese medicine is increasingly used as an adjunctive treatment option for cancer patients and a way of reducing or managing side effects of conventional cancer treatment.Chinese medicinal herbs such as Ginkgo biloba has been reported to have chemo-preventive activities for treating certain cancers such as ovarian, breast and brain [1]. Acupuncture is being used to relieve side effects of conventional cancer treatment. While some laboratory and clinical research found some immune boosting capabilities of acupuncture in cancer patients [2,3], most clinical research has focused on symptom management, in particular, the management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting [4-6].This study reviews the articles published in English language complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) literature on the prevalence and patterns of Chinese medicine usage by cancer patients and informs patients, researchers, health care providers and policy makers of the current use of Chinese medicine in the CAM context.Our working definition of CAM was an inclusive term incorporating both complementary medicine and therapies (modalities and/or systems), namely the concepts of health and medical systems, practices and products not currently recognised as part of conventional medicine, alternative medicine, traditional medicine (indigenous medicine and practices), and integrative medicine (CAM used alongside with the mainstream medicine) [7]. For the purposes of this review Chinese medicine includes acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, remedial massage, exercise and breathing therapy (e.g. Qigong) as well as diet and lifestyle advice in primary health care [8].We searched major databases, namely AMED, CINAHL, PubMED, Science Dire
Epigenetic Epidemiology of Common Complex Disease: Prospects for Prediction, Prevention, and Treatment
Caroline L. Relton ,George Davey Smith
PLOS Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000356
Using a Delphi consensus process to develop an acupuncture treatment protocol by consensus for women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment
Caroline A Smith, Suzanne Grant, Jane Lyttleton, Suzanne Cochrane
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-88
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine what fertility acupuncturists consider key components of best practice acupuncture during an ART cycle, and to establish an acupuncture protocol by consensus.Fifteen international acupuncturists with extensive experience treating women during ART interventions participated in 3 rounds of Delphi questionnaires. The first round focused on identifying the parameters of acupuncture treatment as adjunct to ART, the second round evaluated statements derived from the earlier round, and the third evaluated specific parameters for a proposed trial protocol. Consensus was defined as greater than 80% agreement.Significant agreement was achieved on the parameters of best practice acupuncture, including an acupuncture protocol suitable for future research. Study participants confirmed the importance of needling aspects relating to the dose of acupuncture, the therapeutic relationship, tailoring treatment to the individual, and the role of co-interventions. From two rounds of the Delphi a consensus was achieved on seven treatment parameters for the design of the acupuncture treatment to be used in a clinical trial of acupuncture as an adjunct to ART. The treatment protocol includes the use of the traditional Chinese medicine acupuncture, use of manual acupuncture, a first treatment administered between day 6–8 of the stimulated ART cycle which is individualised to the participant, two treatments will be administered on the day of embryo transfer, and will include points SP8, SP10, LR3, ST29, CV4, and post transfer include: GV20, KD3, ST36, SP6, and PC6. Auricular points Shenmen and Zigong will be used. Practitioner intent or yi will be addressed in the treatment protocol.Despite a lack of homogeneity in the research and clinical literature on ART and acupuncture, a consensus amongst experts on key components of a best practice treatment protocol was possible. Such consensus offers guidance for further research.
Building resilience: A preliminary exploration of women's perceptions of the use of acupuncture as an adjunct to In Vitro Fertilisation
Sheryl de Lacey, Caroline A Smith, Charlotte Paterson
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-50
Abstract: A sample of 20 women was drawn from a cohort of women who had attended for a minimum of four acupuncture sessions in the practices of two acupuncturists in South Australia. Eight women were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Six had sought acupuncture during IVF treatment and two had begun acupuncture to enhance their fertility and had later progressed to IVF. Descriptive content analysis was employed to analyse the data.Four major categories of perceptions about acupuncture in relation to reproductive health were identified: (a) Awareness of, and perceived benefits of acupuncture; (b) perceptions of the body and the impact of acupuncture upon it; (c) perceptions of stress and the impact of acupuncture on resilience; and (d) perceptions of the intersection of medical treatment and acupuncture.This preliminary exploration, whilst confined to a small sample of women, confirms that acupuncture is indeed perceived by infertile women to have an impact to their health. All findings outlined here are reported cautiously because they are limited by the size of the sample. They suggest that further studies of acupuncture as an adjunct to IVF should systematically explore the issues of wellbeing, anxiety, personal and social resilience and women's identity in relation to sexuality and reproduction.In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) is now an accepted and effective treatment for infertility. Although accepted and effective, IVF is acknowledged as contributing to, rather than lessening, the overall psychosocial effects of infertility. Women who have been attempting to fall pregnant for a long period of time or who receive IVF treatment deal with two types of stressors: the chronic stress resulting from the threat of definitive infertility and the loss of future plans for having children, and the acute stress resulting from IVF treatment itself [1,2].Studies have demonstrated a direct causal link or significant association between stress and reproductive failure [3]. T
Acupuncture as a therapeutic treatment option for threatened miscarriage
Debra Betts, Caroline A Smith, Dahlen G Hannah
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-20
Abstract: While it is known that 50-70% of miscarriages occur due to chromosomal abnormalities, the potential for therapeutic intervention amongst the remaining percentage of women remains unknown. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies have the potential to provide supportive care for women presenting with threatened miscarriage. Within fertility research, acupuncture demonstrates beneficial hormonal responses with decreased miscarriage rates, raising the possibility acupuncture may promote specific beneficial effects in early pregnancy. With the lack of current medical options for women presenting with threatened miscarriage it is timely to examine the possible treatment benefits of providing CAM therapies such as acupuncture.Despite vaginal bleeding being a common complication of early pregnancy there is often reluctance from practitioners to discuss with women and medical personal how and why CAM may be beneficial. In this debate article, the physiological processes of early pregnancy together with the concept of providing supportive care and acupuncture are examined. The aim is to raise awareness and promote discussion as to the beneficial role CAM may have for women presenting with threatened miscarriage.Vaginal bleeding is a common complication of pregnancy, with an estimated 20% of pregnant women experiencing this in the first 12 weeks of their pregnancy [1]. Threatened miscarriage involves vaginal bleeding with a viable fetus under 20 weeks gestation and a cervix that remains closed [2]. While a pregnancy can be established through ultrasound diagnostics detecting the presence of an interuturine gestational sack, it is recommended that diagnosis of threatened miscarriage viability be determined by the presence of a fetal heart beat [3]. While the risk of subsequent pregnancy loss is reduced following this confirmation of cardiac activity, these pregnancies remain at risk. Women presenting with light vaginal bleeding have twice the rate of miscarriage
Neuropsychological outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting
Nafisa Cassimjee,Caroline L Couzens,Frans J Smith,Claire Wagner
Health SA Gesondheid , 2004, DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v9i3.167
Abstract: People with coronary heart disease have recourse to a palliative intervention such as Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG). Opsomming Persone met ‘n koronêre hartsiekte is soms genoodsaak om ‘n hartomleiding (CABG), wat ‘n tydelike intervensie ter verligting is, te ondergaan. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Acupuncture to Treat Primary Dysmenorrhea in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Caroline A. Smith,Caroline A. Crowther,Oswald Petrucco,Justin Beilby,Hannah Dent
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep239
Abstract: We examined the effectiveness of acupuncture to reduce the severity and intensity of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized controlled trial compared acupuncture with control acupuncture using a placebo needle. Eligible women were aged 14–25 years with a diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea. Women received nine sessions of the study treatment over 3 months. The primary outcomes were menstrual pain intensity and duration, overall improvement in dysmenorrhea symptoms and reduced need for additional analgesia, measured at 3, 6 and 12 months from trial entry. A total of 92 women were randomly assigned to the intervention (acupuncture =46 and control =46). At 3 months although pain outcomes were lower for women in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, there was no significant difference between groups. Women receiving acupuncture reported a small reduction in mood changes compared with the control group, relative risk (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–1.00, =.05. Follow-up at 6 months found a significant reduction in the duration of menstrual pain in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, mean difference –9.6, 95% CI –18.9 to –0.3, =.04, and the need for additional analgesia was significantly lower in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49–0.96, =.03, but the follow-up at 12 months found lack of treatment effect. To conclude, although acupuncture improved menstrual mood symptoms in women with primary dysmenorrhea during the treatment phase, the trend in the improvement of symptoms during the active phase of treatment, and at 6 and 12 months was non-significant, indicating that a small treatment effect from acupuncture on dysmenorrhea may exist. In the study, acupuncture was acceptable and safe, but further appropriately powered trials are needed before recommendations for clinical practice can be made.
The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Acupuncture and Their Relevance to Allergic Rhinitis: A Narrative Review and Proposed Model
John L. McDonald,Allan W. Cripps,Peter K. Smith,Caroline A. Smith
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/591796
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