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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4468 matches for " Caroline Moreau "
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L’expertise psychiatrique entre l’évaluation de la responsabilité et de la dangerosité, entre le médical et le judiciaire. Commentaire du texte de Samuel Lézé
Caroline Protais,Delphine Moreau
Champ Pénal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/champpenal.7120
Abstract: L’étude de l’expertise psychiatrique judiciaire doit-elle être abordée à partir de la problématique de la récidive ? à partir d’un commentaire d’un article de Samuel Lézé, nous soulignons deux confusions à l’ uvre dans le débat politico-médiatique actuel : entre les figures du fou et du criminel monstrueux, d’une part, entre l’évaluation de la responsabilité d’une personne en proie à un possible trouble mental et celle d’un éventuel passage à l’acte qui n’est pas nécessairement criminel, d’autre part. Ces confusions, qui se nouent autour de la notion équivoque de dangerosité, tendent à occulter les enjeux de l’expertise tels que se les formulent les professionnels, avec leurs limites propres. Should the study of psychiatric expertise be addressed through the problem of recidivism? Commenting an article of Samuel Lézé, we propose to analyze two confusions in the French political and journalistic debate: first, between the madman and the monstrous criminal , and second, between two requests addressed to experts: the assessment of a maybe mentally suffering person’s responsibility and his possible but not necessarily criminal acting out. We suggest that these confusions, formed around the ambiguous notion of dangerousness, are occluding the actual questions met by professionals, with their own limits.
L’expertise psychiatrique entre l’évaluation de la responsabilité et de la dangerosité, entre le médical et le judiciaire. Commentaire du texte de Samuel Lézé
Caroline Protais,Delphine Moreau
Champ Pénal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/champpenal.7557
Abstract: L’étude de l’expertise psychiatrique judiciaire doit-elle être abordée à partir de la problématique de la récidive ? à partir d’un commentaire d’un article de Samuel Lézé, nous soulignons deux confusions à l’ uvre dans le débat politico-médiatique actuel : entre les figures du fou et du criminel monstrueux, d’une part, entre l’évaluation de la responsabilité d’une personne en proie à un possible trouble mental et celle d’un éventuel passage à l’acte qui n’est pas nécessairement criminel, d’autre part. Ces confusions, qui se nouent autour de la notion équivoque de dangerosité, tendent à occulter les enjeux de l’expertise tels que se les formulent les professionnels, avec leurs limites propres. Should the study of psychiatric expertise be addressed through the problem of recidivism? Commenting an article of Samuel Lézé, we propose to analyze two confusions in the French political and journalistic debate: first, between the madman and the monstrous criminal , and second, between two requests addressed to experts: the assessment of a maybe mentally suffering person’s responsibility and his possible but not necessarily criminal acting out. We suggest that these confusions, formed around the ambiguous notion of dangerousness, are occluding the actual questions met by professionals, with their own limits.
Female-driven mechanisms, ejaculate size and quality contribute to the lower fertility of sex-ratio distorter males in Drosophila simulans
Caroline Angelard, Catherine Montchamp-Moreau, Dominique Joly
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-326
Abstract: The most detrimental effect on SR males fertility is due to the size of their ejaculate which is half that of wild-type males. Sperm viability and sperm use by the females are also reduced. Sex-ratio males are poor sperm competitors in both offence and defence. We found evidence for sperm release from the female reproductive tract that specifically affects SR males. It results in the removal of stored sperm from a first SR mate without the action of the sperm of the second male. In addition, females mated once with an SR male remate more frequently with wild-type males.The paternity reduction of SR males in competitive conditions is greater than that attributable to their low sperm production and could prevent the spread of distorter X chromosomes in populations when multiple mating occur. The female-driven mechanisms are shown to play a major role both throughout the post-copulatory selective process and increased polyandry. The variation in male reproductive performance may drive the evolution of sexual learning capability of females.Male fertility depends on a variety of factors among which the number of sperm in the ejaculate, their quality (such as sperm size, longevity, viability and mobility) and that of seminal products are crucial. In most vertebrates and invertebrates, males that produce larger amounts of sperm increase their reproductive output. Sperm production becomes even more a key factor, but not the only one, when competition for mates is intense and continues within the genital tract of females [1-4]. Mixing of ejaculates from rival males may then occur and promote sperm competition for access to eggs. This includes the spatial displacement of sperm of previous mates (sperm displacement), the non-random utilization of sperm from a particular male (sperm precedence) and the killing or disabling of rival sperm (incapacitation) [5]. However, females are not passive and have evolved several mechanisms that promote fertilization by the sperm of a partic
Effectiveness of Family Planning Policies: The Abortion Paradox
Nathalie Bajos, Mireille Le Guen, Aline Bohet, Henri Panjo, Caroline Moreau, the FECOND group
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091539
Abstract: Objective The relation between levels of contraceptive use and the incidence of induced abortion remains a topic of heated debate. Many of the contradictions are likely due to the fact that abortion is the end point of a process that starts with sexual activity, contraceptive use (or non-use), followed by unwanted pregnancy, a decision to terminate, and access to abortion. Trends in abortion rates reflect changes in each step of this process, and opposing trends may cancel each other out. This paper aims to investigate the roles played by the dissemination of contraception and the evolving norms of motherhood on changes in abortion rates. Methods Drawing data from six national probability surveys that explored contraception and pregnancy wantedness in France from 1978 through 2010, we used multivariate linear regression to explore the associations between trends in contraceptive rates and trends in (i) abortion rates, (ii) unwanted pregnancy rates, (iii) and unwanted birth rates, and to determine which of these 3 associations was strongest. Findings The association between contraceptive rates and abortion rates over time was weaker than that between contraception rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p = 0.003). Similarly, the association between contraceptive rates and unwanted birth rates over time was weaker than that between contraceptive rates and unwanted pregnancy rates (p = 0.000).
Trans-generational Immune Priming Protects the Eggs Only against Gram-Positive Bacteria in the Mealworm Beetle
Aurore Dubuffet?,Caroline Zanchi?,Gwendoline Boutet?,Jér?me Moreau,Maria Teixeira?,Yannick Moret
PLOS Pathogens , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005178
Abstract: In many vertebrates and invertebrates, offspring whose mothers have been exposed to pathogens can exhibit increased levels of immune activity and/or increased survival to infection. Such phenomena, called “Trans-generational immune priming” (TGIP) are expected to provide immune protection to the offspring. As the offspring and their mother may share the same environment, and consequently similar microbial threats, we expect the immune molecules present in the progeny to be specific to the microbes that immune challenged the mother. We provide evidence in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor that the antimicrobial activity found in the eggs is only active against Gram-positive bacteria, even when females were exposed to Gram-negative bacteria or fungi. Fungi were weak inducers of TGIP while we obtained similar levels of anti-Gram-positive activity using different bacteria for the maternal challenge. Furthermore, we have identified an antibacterial peptide from the defensin family, the tenecin 1, which spectrum of activity is exclusively directed toward Gram-positive bacteria as potential contributor to this antimicrobial activity. We conclude that maternal transfer of antimicrobial activity in the eggs of T. molitor might have evolved from persistent Gram-positive bacterial pathogens between insect generations.
Separation of Hepatitis C genotype 4a into IgG-depleted and IgG-enriched fractions reveals a unique quasispecies profile
Isabelle Moreau, Hilary O'Sullivan, Caroline Murray, John Levis, Orla Crosbie, Elizabeth Kenny-Walsh, Liam J Fanning
Virology Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-5-103
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate if separation of Hepatitis C virions into antibody enriched and antibody depleted fractions segregates quasispecies populations into distinctive swarms.A HCV genotype 4a specimen was fractionated into IgG-depleted and IgG-enriched fractions by use of Albumin/IgG depletion spin column. Clonal analysis of these two fractions was performed and then compared to an unfractionated sample. Following sequence analysis it was evident that the antibody depleted fraction was significantly more heterogeneous than the antibody enriched fraction, revealing a unique quasispecies profile. An in-frame 3 nt insertion was observed in 26% of clones in the unfractionated population and in 64% of clones in the IgG-depleted fraction. In addition, an in-frame 3 nt indel event was observed in 10% of clones in the unfractionated population and in 9% of clones in the IgG-depleted fraction. Neither of these latter events, which are rare occurrences in genotype 4a, was identified in the IgG-enriched fraction.In conclusion, the homogeneity of the IgG-enriched species is postulated to represent a sequence that was strongly recognised by the humoral immune system at the time the sample was obtained. The heterogeneous nature of the IgG-depleted fraction is discussed in the context of humoral escape.Hepatitis C is a virus affecting more than 170 million people worldwide and presents a major challenge to the health care system [1]. The virus can result in chronic hepatitis in about 50% to 80% of cases [2-4]. HCV, a member of the Flaviviridae family, has a linear, single stranded RNA genome of approximately 9.6 kilobases in length which encodes a polyprotein of about 3,100 amino acids [5]. Currently, seven main genotypes have been determined, which can be further divided into several distinct subtypes [5]. HCV exists within an infected individual as a dynamic population of heterogeneous but closely related variants designed as quasispecies [1,6].The high
Long term expression of bicistronic vector driven by the FGF-1 IRES in mouse muscle
Camille Allera-Moreau, Aurélie Delluc-Clavières, Caroline Castano, Lo?c Van den Berghe, Muriel Golzio, Marc Moreau, Justin Teissié, Jean-Fran?ois Arnal, Anne-Catherine Prats
BMC Biotechnology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-7-74
Abstract: Our data demonstrate that the efficiency of the FGF-1 IRES is comparable to that of the EMCV IRES for long term expression of bicistronic transgenes in mouse muscle, whereas the FGF-2 IRES has a very poor activity. Interestingly, we show that despite the global decrease of vector expression over time, the ratio of firefly to renilla luciferase remains stable with bicistronic vectors containing the FGF-1 or FGF-2 IRES and is slightly affected with the EMCV IRES, whereas it is clearly unstable for mixed monocistronic vectors. In addition, long term expression more drastically decreases with monocistronic vectors, and is different for single or mixed vector injection.These data validate the use of bicistronic vectors rather than mixed monocistronic vectors for long term expression, and support the use of the FGF-1 IRES. The use of a cellular IRES over one of viral origin is of particular interest in the goal of eliminating viral sequences from transgenic vectors. In addition, the FGF-1 IRES, compared to the EMCV IRES, has a more stable activity, is shorter in length and more flexible in terms of downstream cloning of second cistrons. Finally, the FGF-1 IRES is very attractive to develop multicistronic expression cassettes for gene transfer in mouse muscle.Gene delivery to skeletal muscle is a promising strategy for the treatment of muscle disorders such as myopathies [1,2]. Furthermore, molecules containing secretion sequences can be expressed in muscle tissue and targeted to pathologies residing in other organs. Muscle is a highly vascularized tissue, often regarded as serving endocrine functions. By expressing therapeutic concentrations of secreted proteins, such as angiogenic and neurotrophic factors, in the muscle, a number of therapeutic applications can be envisioned. Skeletal muscle has been used for the production of IL-10 in gene therapy against atherosclerosis, coagulation factors against haemophilia, erythropoietin against anaemia and influenza protein for v
Le substrat galénique des idées médicales d’Isaac Beeckman (1616-1627)
Elisabeth Moreau
Studium : Tijdschrift voor Wetenschaps- en Universiteits-Geschiedenis , 2011,
Abstract: The Galenic content of Isaac Beeckman's medical ideas (1617-1629) The Journal tenu par Isaac Beeckman de 1604 à 1634 has been studied in the history of the seventeenth-century Scientific Revolution following the theme of Isaac Beeckman's physical mathematical mechanistic view, his proto-molecular theory and his atomistic Lucretian influence. This article goes deeper into the medical ideas of the Journal: how Isaac Beeckman (1588-1637) settles the structure of living matter according to his intensive reading of Galen. It develops a different analysis from the traditionally triumphalist approach in the history of science, focused on the victory of Cartesian mechanism, particularly in the history of medicine taking up Galenism very briefly because of its obsolete physiology. The Galenic corpus inside Isaac Beeckman's Journal consists of the many commentaries of Galen which Beeckman has put down in writing since 1616 until 1627, after when the passages linked to Galen became fewer. Isaac Beeckman's study of Galenic medicine is analyzed according to three approaches: the teleological dimension of Galenism showing up the organic conception of human body corresponding to the divine Providence and consistent with Beeckman's Calvinist belief, the physiologic angle of Galenism, based on natural faculties, stressing thepurely speculative aspect of Beeckman's commentaries, while the pathologic and therapeutic angle supports the Hippocratic humourism influence.
Conjurar a qualifica o de violência: justificativas e práticas do recurso à coer o nas hospitaliza es psiquiátricas
Delphine Moreau
Psicologia em Revista , 2009,
Abstract: As hospitaliza es sem consentimento est o no centro da acusa o contra a Psiquiatria, por esta exercer coer es ilegítimas. Essa crítica é feita pelos próprios profissionais da área. Com cerca de 13% de hospitaliza es em duas modalidades definidas pela Lei 90-527, de 27/06/1990 – a hospitaliza o de ofício e aquela resultante da demanda de um terceiro –, o exercício da coer o é parte integrante do tratamento psiquiátrico e pode incluir reclus o em quartos de isolamento, tratamentos e outras coer es relativas às condi es de hospitaliza o (vestimentas, visitas, recomenda es, etc.). A partir de entrevistas com diferentes categorias de profissionais (médicos, enfermeiros e técnicos) e de observa es etnográficas nos servi os de urgência psiquiátrica e num servi o de hospitaliza o, analisamos, por meio de uma abordagem compreensiva, a maneira pela qual os profissionais justificam o uso da coer o e definem seus limites, de maneira a afastar a qualifica o de violência.
L’incidence du droit de l’Union européenne sur la situation des agents public
Yannick Moreau
Zbornik Radova Pravnog Fakulteta u Splitu , 2013,
Abstract: imbenik koji je pridonio konvergenciji na upravnim podru jima je suradnja izme u javnih slu benika dr ava- lanica, kao i njihova redovita suradnja sa slu benicima Europske komisije. Ta neformalna europska suradnja na podru ju javne uprave, koja se o ituje kroz razmjenu iskustava, rje enja i znanja, dovodi i do svojevrsnog ujedna avanja tradicionalno razli itih upravnih sustava. Iz te suradnje ni u zajedni ki stavov i oko politika, oko upravnih na ela i oko uredbenih rje enja.
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