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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 791 matches for " Carole Weba Wapa-Kamangu "
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Prevalence of Malaria Infection among People Living with HIV in Kinshasa  [PDF]
Erick Ntambwe Kamangu, Hypolite Mavoko Muhindo, Carole Weba Wapa-Kamangu, Hip-polyte Nani-Tuma Situakibanza
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101077
Abstract: Background: Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and malaria are two infectious diseases which are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and each a major public health problem. Data on malaria infection among people living with HIV (PLHIV) are poorly defined in Kinshasa as there are very few studies available on the subject. Objective: To determine the rate of co-infection HIV/malaria in Kinshasa to improve the care of PLHIV, this study was initiated to update the data. Methodology: This study was a prospective cohort. 123 volunteers participated in this study in the third month. 114 patients completed the 6- month visit. Malaria diagnosis by microscopy was performed at the two medical visits. A sample of 5 ml of blood was also drawn in a tube with EDTA for the determination of viral load and measuring the level of CD4 T cells. Results: In the third month of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), we had 123 PLHIV (78 women and 45 men). Viral loads (VL) ranged from 390.79 copies/ml (2.59 log10) and 38546691.53 copies/ml (6.59 log10). The CD4 ranged between 90 and 547 cells/mm3. 25 patients (20.33%) were positive for malaria. At 6th month of ART, there were 114 patients (75 women and 39 men). The CV of the population ranged from 0 copies/ml and 2693671.54 copies/ml (6.43 log10). The CD4 at 6th month were in the range between 421 and 984 cells/mm3. 20 patients (17.54%) presented positive thick smear for malaria. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of HIV/ malaria co-infection varies between 17.54% and 20.33% in Kinshasa.
Estimation of Clinical, Immunological and Virological Failure of First Line Antiretroviral Treatment in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo  [PDF]
Erick Ntambwe Kamangu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104560
Background: The prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection was 1.2% in the Democratic Republic of Congo, according to the Demographic Health Study report in 2014. In 2012, the severe failure rate to first-line ART in Kinshasa was estimated at more than 16%. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the rate of clinical, immunological and virological failure in first-line treatment in Kinshasa. Methodology: At the 6th month of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART), 138 patients from a follow-up cohort of 8 centers in Kinshasa were received for paraclinical evaluations and analyses. The clinical and paraclinical parameters were recorded on the individual patient sheets as well as the survey forms. Clinical parameters, viral load and CD4 were evaluated at the 6th month of ART. Results: One hundred and thirty-eight (138) patients had returned for follow-up treatment, 81 women and 57 men. The average age of patients is 37 ± 12 years. The dominant age groups are those of 26 to 35 years and 36 to 45 years with 39 patients (28.3%) each, followed by those of 18 to 25 years (21.7%). One hundred and twenty-five (125) patients (90.5%) were in clinical stage 3 and 13 (9.5%) in clinical stage 4 according to the WHO classification. CD4 levels ranged from 98 to 1050 cells/mm3 and a median value of 560 cells/mm3. The median value of the patients’ VLs was 0.90 log10 copies of RNA/ml with respective minimum and maximum values of 0 and 4.82 log10 copies of RNA/ml. The virological failure rate was 24.6%. Conclusions: The rate of virological failure of first-line antiretroviral treatment of patients under treatment in Kinshasa is 24.6% for the year 2015.
A Comparison of Cytokine Profiles of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Multiple Sclerosis Patients  [PDF]
Naomi Wong, Thao Nguyen, Ekua Weba Brenu, Simon Broadley, Donald Staines, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.610103
Abstract: Background: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, also known as Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), is a debilitating condition that presents with a range of symptoms, including fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, muscular and joint pain, and may be immune-mediated. In particular, patients exhibit abnormal cytokine expression. Similarly, in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), patients display neuroimmunological symptoms, and abnormal cytokine expression, with some overlap in symptomology with CFS/ME. The purpose of this study was to compare Th1, Th2, Th17 cytokines, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, in healthy controls, CFS/ME and MS patients. Methods: Serum samples were collected from healthy controls (n = 16, mean age = 50 ± 11.85 years), CFS/ME patients (n = 16, mean age = 49.88 ± 9.54 years) and MS patients (n = 11, mean age = 52.75 ± 12.81 years). The concentrations of 27 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-2, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-5, IL-17, IL-1ra, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, eotaxin, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP1α, MIP1β, PDGF-bb, RANTES, basic FGF, GCSF, GMCSF, VEGF and IL-15) were measured using a Bio-Plex Pro™ kit. Results: IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-5 were significantly higher in the serum of both CFS/ME and MS patients compared to the healthy controls (p ≤ 0.041). However, only the MS patients had significantly elevated levels of IL-12, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-13, IL-6, IL-17, IL-1ra, IL-7, IL-9, eotaxin, IL-10, MIP1α, basic FGF, GCSF and VEGF compared to the CFS/ME patients and controls (p ≤ 0.04). There were no significant differences between groups for IL-8, MCP-1, MIP1β, RANTES, GMCSF, TNF-α, and IL-2. Conclusion: CFS/ME and MS patients both displayed abnormal cytokine levels, with dual expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Further research into cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-5, with the use of a specific CFS/ME case definition and sensitive cytokine assays, is required to improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of CFS/ME.
Use of Dried Blood Spot to Improve the Diagnosis and Management of HIV in Resource-Limited Settings  [PDF]
Chatté Adawaye, Erick Kamangu, Ali Mahamat Moussa, Bertin Tchoumbou, Dolores Vaira, Michel Moutschen
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.33033

Over 75% of people infected with HIV live in countries where health resources are very limited for the diagnosis and biological monitoring of people infected by the virus. In resource-limited settings, the use of DBS is a valuable alternative. It has provided technical and economical alternative to the collection of blood in the tubes for testing HIV infection. The DBS can be kept for over a year, it is economical in storage space and facilitates storage conditions because it can be stored at room temperature. It is more discreet and easier to carry over liquid samples that require tubes and other appropriate materials. The amount is sufficient for certain analyses of DNA generally, but may be insufficient for the analysis of viral RNA if the viral load is low. Its disadvantage is often associated with small amounts of blood collected available for testing, and the difficulties encountered in laboratories to extract the maximum possibilities without material contamination. DBS can be stored at room temperature (25 - 35), at 4, -20 or even -70. With PCR, the DBS is a suitable medium for the diagnosis of patients infected with HIV, virological monitoring by the VL and even analyzing viral genotype. It is a handy stand for the collection, transport and analyses of biological monitoring of HIV infection. It is indeed very suitable for environments with limited accessibility where it is difficult for specialized laboratories to monitor these patients. The DBS is suitable for resource-limited settings.

The Effects of Influenza Vaccination on Immune Function in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis  [PDF]
Ekua Weba Brenu, Mieke van Driel, Donald R. Staines, Sanne Kreijkamp-Kaspers, Sharni Lee Hardcastle, Sonya Maree Marshall-Gradisnik
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.36098
Abstract: Immune dysfunction is a hallmark of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). The purpose of this pilot study was to identify the effects of influenza vaccination on immune function in patients with CFS/ME. We included 7 patients meeting the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention criteria (CDC 1994) for ME/CFS and 8 control subjects. Bloods were collected from all participants prior to vaccination with Influvac, a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV), 14 and 28 days following vaccination. The immune parameters examined include Natural Killer (NK) phenotypes, NK cytotoxic activity, FOXP3 and Th1/Th2/Th17 related cytokines. Flow cytometric protocols were employed. There was no significant difference in NK phenotypes and Tregs numbers between CFS/ME patients and healthy controls. However, NK activity was significantly decreased at baseline and at 28 days, while at 14 days it significantly increased in the CFS/ME patients compared to the healthy controls. Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines increased considerably in the CFS/ME patients at 28 days compared to the non-fatigued controls. Only one Th2 cytokine, IL-4, increased in the CFS/ME participants. FOXP3 expressing Tregs only increased significantly at day 28 post vaccination in the CFS/ME patients compared to the healthy controls. Self-rated wellbeing was lower for patients at day 28 while at baseline and day 14 no differences were observed. In this pilot study immunization with influenza vaccine is accompanied by a degree of immune dysregulation in CFS/ME patients compared with controls. While vaccination may protect CFS/ME patients against influenza, it has the ability to increase cytotoxic activity and pro-inflammatory reactions post vaccination. The role of Tregs in promoting a toxic effect at 28 days post-vaccination in our patient group cannot be ruled out. The benefits of influenza vaccine still likely outweigh the risks CFS/ME patients experience following vaccination.
Immunovirologic Evaluation of Triomune (Lamivudine, Stavudine and Nevirapine) Antiretroviral Therapy in First Line HIV-1 Adult Patients in N’Djamena, Chad  [PDF]
Chatté Adawaye, Kamangu Erick, Soudy I. Djibrine, Aoudalkarim Moussa Chahad, Ali Mahamat Moussa, Tchombou HZ Bertin, Vaira Dolores, Moutschen Michel
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2014.43035

Contexte: The fight against HIV/AIDS epidemics is one of the greatest challenges of this century. The epidemic affects generally under-developed countries, and Sub-Saharan Africa are the most concerned. The combined marketed form known as Triomune was used as first-line treatment in several sub-Saharan African Countries (60% of VIH infected people), including Chad. However, no evaluation has been done for that treatment in the country. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety immuno-virological of Triomune at the General Hospital in N’Djamena/Chad. Methods: 48 HIV-1 positive patients eligible for ARV treatment were enrolled in our study, and they have been then followed for 8 months. We have measured in these patients the CD4 cell count before treatment and at the 8th month of treatment. After 8 months of treatment, we have also evaluated the Lymphocyte T CD4 and the plasma viral load (VL). Comparisons of means of CD4 lymphocytes and plasma CV (≥1000 copies/ml) were used to define treatment failure. Results: 48 patients were under Triomune regime. The average CD4 count was decreased from 462 ± 179.22 [56 - 981] cells/mm3 before treatment to 327.23 ± 153.77 [10 - 1008] cells/mm3 at the 8th month of treatment. The mean plasma viral load for patients was 66008.62 copies/ml. The failure rate to Triomune was 43.75% (21/48). Conclusion: Aside from the side effects already described for Triomune, our study reveals a high treatment failure rate. Hence, there is the need of regular revisions of therapeutic regime administer in the first intention.

Life Satisfaction between Chinese-Immigrant Adolescents and Their Counterparts in the United States and China  [PDF]
Jessica J. Lee, Carole Kimberlin
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.34014
Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the life satisfaction (LS) of Chinese-immigrant children in the United States (US) with their counterparts in America and China by using the Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS). The mean scores of SLSS were examined and compared among three groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to identify the differences of LS among comparison groups after adjusting for other potential risk factors. Out of 161 children who completed the surveys, 47 (29%) were Chinese-immigrant children, 81 (50%) were native Chinese children, and 33 (20%) were non-immigrant US children. The results showed that Chinese- immigrant children had higher overall LS than native Chinese children (4.39 ± 0.83 vs 3.79 ± 0.81; p = 0.0001), but lower overall LS than non-immigrant children in the US (4.39 ± 0.83 vs 4.81 ± 0.69; p = 0.0207). Systematic investigation on larger populations will be necessary to identify the potential contributing factors.
The Low Down on e-Science and Grids for Biology
Carole Goble
Comparative and Functional Genomics , 2001, DOI: 10.1002/cfg.115
Abstract: The Grid is touted as a next generation Internet/Web, designed primarily to support e-Science. I hope to shed some light on what the Grid is, its purpose, and its potential impact on scientific practice in biology. The key message is that biologists are already primarily working in a manner that the Grid is intended to support. However, to ensure that the Grid’s good intentions are appropriate and fulfilled in practice, biologists must become engaged in the process of its development.
Criterios de transferibilidad del enfoque concurrente en los procesos de dise?o y desarrollo de productos de las peque?as y medianas empresas chilenas
Ingeniare. Revista chilena de ingeniería , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-33052011000100014
Abstract: the results of the first stage of a study aimed at generating a model for the evaluation and improvement of product design and development processes (pddp) of chilean small and middle size enterprises (smes) based on the concurrent approach with the aim of inserting them in current competitive markets are presented. many authors have shown that in our globalized society the ability of a company to provide good guidance and development of the product design stages determines largely its industrial efficiency. in particular, models based on concurrent engineering (ce) seem to be the most appropriate to respond rapidly and adequately to ever more demanding markets. however, there are few studies showing the applicability of these models to smes. therefore this first stage is aimed at establishing transferability criteria of the concurrent approach in small and middle size companies, analyzing the technical and experimental corpus related to ce and its application in smes, contrasting these analyses with the first results of an exploratory and qualitative investigation of three chilean manufacturing smes. these transferability criteria are based on the one hand on an interpretation of the concurrent approach from the existing literature and the performance pattern of the smes in order to highlight the particular critical sizes, and on the other hand on an analysis of the type of intervention model that will allow its implementation in these kinds of companies.
Chungará (Arica) , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562004000400008
Abstract: the systematization on chronology, rock art, landscape, and settlement pattern carried out at the upper salado river in the loa superior basin have produced important advance in the understanding of the regional prehistory. this is particularly true for the formative and early intermediate periods as multiple archaeological settlements have been identified, supported by more than forty archaeometric from 1.400 bc to ad 900. these results have permitted to go ahead in the comprehension of the subsistence and settlement systems of the local populations, and to understand their entailment with the complex formative processes that are developing in the circumpunean. in this paper, a specifically cultural/historical period frame for the formative period is proposed throughout a systematization of settlement and chronology's new information in this sub-region, updating previous chronological data and integrating the whole archaeological information
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