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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 326781 matches for " Carol S. Camlin "
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Short-Term Mobility and the Risk of HIV Infection among Married Couples in the Fishing Communities along Lake Victoria, Kenya
Zachary A. Kwena, Carol S. Camlin, Chris A. Shisanya, Isaac Mwanzo, Elizabeth A. Bukusi
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054523
Abstract: Objective Mobility has long been associated with high HIV prevalence. We sought to assess sex differences in the relationship between mobility and risk for HIV infection among married couples in the fishing communities. Methods We conducted 1090 gender-matched interviews and rapid HIV testing with 545 couples proportionally representing all the different sizes of the fish-landing beaches in Kisumu County. We contacted a random sample of fishermen as our index participants and asked them to enrol in the study together with their spouses. The consenting couples were separated into different private rooms for concurrent interviews and thereafter reunited for couple rapid HIV counselling and testing. In addition to socio-economic and behavioural data, we collected information on overnight travels and divided couples in 4 groups as follows both partners not mobile, both partners mobile, only woman mobile, and only man mobile. Other than descriptive statistics, we used X2 and U tests to compare groups of variables and multivariate logistic regression to measure association between mobility and HIV infection. Results We found significant differences in the number of trips women travelled in the preceding month (mean 4.6, SD 7.1) compared to men (mean 3.3, SD 4.9; p<0.01) and when the women did travel, they were more likely to spend more days away from home than their male partners (mean 5.2 [SD 7.2] versus 3.4 SD 5.6; p = 0.01). With an HIV prevalence of 22.7% in women compared to 20.9% among men, mobile women who had non-mobile spouses had 2.1 times the likelihood of HIV infection compared to individuals in couples where both partners were non-mobile. Conclusion The mobility of fishermen’s spouses is associated with HIV infection that is not evident among fishermen themselves. Therefore, interventions in this community could be a combination of sex-specific programming that targets women and combined programming for couples.
Gender, Migration and HIV in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Carol S. Camlin,Victoria Hosegood,Marie-Louise Newell,Nuala McGrath,Till B?rnighausen,Rachel C. Snow
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011539
Abstract: Research on migration and HIV has largely focused on male migration, often failing to measure HIV risks associated with migration for women. We aimed to establish whether associations between migration and HIV infection differ for women and men, and identify possible mechanisms by which women's migration contributes to their high infection risk.
Predictors of Extra-Marital Partnerships among Women Married to Fishermen along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya
Zachary Kwena, Isaac Mwanzo, Chris Shisanya, Carol Camlin, Janet Turan, Lilian Achiro, Elizabeth Bukusi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095298
Abstract: Background The vulnerability of women to HIV infection makes establishing predictors of women's involvement in extra-marital partnerships critical. We investigated the predictors of extra-marital partnerships among women married to fishermen. Methods The current analyses are part of a mixed methods cross-sectional survey of 1090 gender-matched interviews with 545 couples and 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 59 couples. Using a proportional to size simple random sample of fishermen as our index participants, we asked them to enrol in the study with their spouses. The consenting couples were interviewed simultaneously in separate private rooms. In addition to socio-economic and demographic data, we collected information on sexual behaviour including extra-marital sexual partnerships. We analysed these data using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. For FGDs, couples willing to participate were invited, consented and separated for simultaneous FGDs by gender-matched moderators. The resultant audiofiles were transcribed verbatim and translated into English for coding and thematic content analysis using NVivo 9. Results The prevalence of extra-marital partnerships among women was 6.2% within a reference time of six months. Factors that were independently associated with increased likelihood of extra-marital partnerships were domestic violence (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI 1.09–1.92), women reporting being denied a preferred sex position (aOR, 3.34; 95% CI 1.26–8.84) and spouse longer erect penis (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI 1.00–1.78). Conversely, women's age – more than 24years (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI 0.14–0.78) and women's increased sexual satisfaction (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI 0.87–0.96) were associated with reduced likelihood of extra-marital partnerships. Conclusion Domestic violence, denial of a preferred sex positions, longer erect penis, younger age and increased sexual satisfaction were the main predictors of women's involvement in extra-marital partnerships. Integration of sex education, counselling and life skills training in couple HIV prevention programs might help in risk reduction.
Gender Differences in the Relationship between Competitiveness and Adjustment among Athletically Identified College Students  [PDF]
Michele M. Carter, Carol S. Weissbrod
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.22014
Abstract: This study explored the relationship between gender and enjoyment of competition and various indicators of mental health and adjustment in a sample of college students who report that they highly value athletics. One hundred and thirty-seven students completed the Sports Anxiety Scale, Multi-perfectionism Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait), Beck Depression Inventory, and Perception of Competition Scale. Results indicated that among women, enjoyment of competition was associated with decreased levels of athletic anxiety and a positive correlation between positive self-perception when winning and self-and socially oriented perfectionism, and between negative perception when losing and self-and socially oriented perfectionism. Among males, enjoyment of competition was related to decreased levels of general anxiety and depression, but not athletic anxiety. Furthermore, among men there was a positive correlation between enjoying competition and self-oriented perfectionism and between negative self-perception when losing and socially-oriented perfectionism. These data indicate gender differentially impacts the benefit of valuing athletics on measures of athletic anxiety and general measures of psychological well being.
Obstetric hemorrhage and shock management: using the low technology Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment in Nigerian and Egyptian tertiary care facilities
Suellen Miller, Mohamed MF Fathalla, Oladosu A Ojengbede, Carol Camlin, Mohammed Mourad-Youssif, Imran O Morhason-Bello, Hadiza Galadanci, David Nsima, Elizabeth Butrick, Tarek al Hussaini, Janet Turan, Carinne Meyer, Hilarie Martin, Aminu I Mohammed
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-10-64
Abstract: This study employed a pre-intervention/intervention design in four facilities in Nigeria and two in Egypt. Primary outcomes were measured mean and median blood loss, severe end-organ failure morbidity (renal failure, pulmonary failure, cardiac failure, or CNS dysfunctions), mortality, and emergency hysterectomy for 1442 women with ≥750 mL blood loss and at least one sign of hemodynamic instability. Comparisons of outcomes by study phase were assessed with rank sum tests, relative risks (RR), number needed to treat for benefit (NNTb), and multiple logistic regression.Women in the NASG phase (n = 835) were in worse condition on study entry, 38.5% with mean arterial pressure <60 mmHg vs. 29.9% in the pre-intervention phase (p = 0.001). Despite this, negative outcomes were significantly reduced in the NASG phase: mean measured blood loss decreased from 444 mL to 240 mL (p < 0.001), maternal mortality decreased from 6.3% to 3.5% (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.89), severe morbidities from 3.7% to 0.7% (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.50), and emergency hysterectomy from 8.9% to 4.0% (RR 0.44, 0.23-0.86). In multiple logistic regression, there was a 55% reduced odds of mortality during the NASG phase (aOR 0.45, 0.27-0.77). The NNTb to prevent either mortality or severe morbidity was 18 (12-36).Adding the NASG to standard shock and hemorrhage management may significantly improve maternal outcomes from hypovolemic shock secondary to obstetric hemorrhage at tertiary care facilities in low-resource settings.Obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality globally. In low-resource settings, delays in identifying hemorrhage, delays in transport to facilities from a home birth or from primary care centers, and delays in receiving definitive therapies upon arrival at tertiary facilities contribute to high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity secondary to hypovolemic shock [1]. Access to definitive therapies, such as blood transfusions and surgery, necessary to manage severe h
Can the Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) reduce adverse maternal outcomes from postpartum hemorrhage? Evidence from Egypt and Nigeria
Mohammed Mourad-Youssif, Oladosu A Ojengbede, Carinne D Meyer, Mohammad Fathalla, Imran O Morhason-Bello, Hadiza Galadanci, Carol Camlin, David Nsima, Tarek al Hussaini, Elizabeth Butrick, Suellen Miller
Reproductive Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-7-24
Abstract: This pre-intervention/NASG study of 854 women was conducted in four referral facilities in Nigeria and two in Egypt between 2004-2008. Entry criteria were women with PPH due to uterine atony, retained placenta, ruptured uterus, vaginal or cervical lacerations or placenta accreta with estimated blood loss of ≥ 750 mL and one clinical sign of shock. Differences in demographics, conditions on study entry, treatment and outcomes were examined. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test and relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for primary outcomes - measured blood loss, emergency hysterectomy, mortality, morbidity (each individually), and a combined variable, "adverse outcomes", defined as severe morbidity and mortality. A multiple logistic regression model was fitted to test the independent association between the NASG and the combined severe morbidity and mortality outcome.Measured blood loss decreased by 50% between phases; women experienced 400 mL of median blood loss after study entry in the pre-intervention and 200 mL in the NASG phase (p < 0.0001). As individual outcomes, mortality decreased from 9% pre-intervention to 3.1% in the NASG phase (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.19-0.62); severe morbidity decreased from 4.2% to 1%, in the NASG phase (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.67). As a combination, "adverse outcomes," decreased from 12.8% to 4.1% in the NASG phase (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19-0.53). In a multiple logistic regression model, the NASG was associated with the combined outcome of severe maternal morbidity and mortality (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-0.99).In this non-randomized study, in which bias is inherent, the NASG showed promise for reducing blood loss, emergency hysterectomy, morbidity and mortality associated with PPH in referral facilities in Egypt and Nigeria.Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the single largest cause of maternal death worldwide. These deaths are largely preventable with skilled attendance and comprehensive emergency obstetric care. While the majority of mate
Body Composition and Energy Expenditure Changes during Weight Loss: An Exploratory Study  [PDF]
Adrienne S. Thomas, Jocelyn E. Holden, Jo Carol Chezem
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.32023
Abstract: The objective of this exploratory study was to describe changes in body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) in adult women during weight reduction. A total of 69 client records were collected retrospectively from a 25 week commercial weight loss program that restricted calories to 90% of measured REE. Data analyzed included total body mass (TBM), fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) from air displacement plethysmography; measured REE from indirect calorimetry; and predicted REE from linear regression. From baseline to week 25, there were significant declines in TBM (95.0 ± 24.1 kg to 87.2 ± 22.9 kg; P < 0.001) and FM (47.5 ± 18.5 kg to 39.9 ± 17.6 kg; P < 0.001). During the same time period, FFM remained unchanged (47.5 ± 7.3 kg to 47.2 ± 7.0 kg; P ≥ 0.05). REE was signify- cantly lower at weeks 13 (6595.2 ± 1312.1 kJ) and 25 (6608.2 ± 1404.6 kJ) compared to baseline (7117.4 ± 1471.5 kJ) (P < 0.001); however, REE at weeks 13 and 25 were similar (P ≥ 0.05). At weeks 13 and 25, predicted REE (6992.7 ± 1065.7 and 6939.2 ± 1056.0 kJ, respectively) was significantly higher than measured REE (6595.2 ± 1312.1 and 6608.2 ± 1404.6 kJ, respectively) (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that significant reduction in TBM is possible without the loss of FFM and that metabolic adaptation may occur during the process.
Colonial cleansing: Laws for a summer resort in China
Carol G.S. Tan
International Review of Law , 2012, DOI: 10.5339/irl.2012.7
Abstract: In the leased territory of Weihaiwei, China (1898–1930), public health and related laws played an important part in the local British government’s effort to create and maintain a summer resort for European visitors. These laws ensured that the territory was clean, restful and safe from dangers to health, such as noxious fumes, rabies, infectious diseases and tainted food. Buildings in the town areas had to meet minimum standards of construction, ventilation, and sanitation; and the layout of streets, the location of factory buildings and building plans were subject to control. Beyond the physical environment, further cultural transformations were effected as European habits and tastes came to determine conceptions of space, time and leisure. Through express provision or uneven enforcement, public health laws helped to heighten the differences between the town areas in which visitors were expected to stay and the less regulated rural areas of the territory. This too, served to enhance the reputation of Weihaiwei as a summer destination because it offered familiar and modern comforts as well as the opportunity to observe a more authentic China a short distance away. Given the degree of intrusion into the lives of the local population that was authorized by the public health laws, a study of these laws also provides clues as to the conflict or convergence between the interests of the foreign British administration and those of the Chinese residing in the territory.
Heating of ions by low-frequency Alfvén waves in partially ionized plasmas
Chuanfei Dong,Carol S. Paty
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3555532
Abstract: In the solar atmosphere, the chromospheric and coronal plasmas are much hotter than the visible photosphere. The heating of the solar atmosphere, including the partially ionized chromosphere and corona, remains largely unknown. In this paper we demonstrate that the ions can be substantially heated by Alfv\'{e}n waves with very low frequencies in partially ionized low beta plasmas. This differs from other Alfv\'{e}n wave related heating mechanisms such as ion-neutral collisional damping of Alfv\'{e}n waves and heating described by previous work on resonant Alfv\'{e}n wave heating. In this paper, we find that the non-resonant Alfv\'{e}n wave heating is less efficient in partially ionized plasmas than when there are no ion-neutral collisions, and the heating efficiency depends on the ratio of the ion-neutral collision frequency to the ion gyrofrequency.
Why Study Problematizations? Making Politics Visible  [PDF]
Carol Bacchi
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2012.21001
Abstract: This paper introduces the theoretical concept, problematization, as it is developed in Foucauldian-inspired poststructural analysis. The objective is two-fold: first, to show how a study of problematizations politicizes taken-for-granted “truths”; and second, to illustrate how this analytic approach opens up novel ways of approaching the study of public policy, politics and comparative politics. The study of problematizations, it suggests, directs attention to the heterogenous strategic relations – the politics – that shape lives. It simultaneously alerts researchers to their unavoidable participation in these relations, opening up a much-needed conversation about the role of theory in politics.
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