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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14524 matches for " Carol Di Perri "
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Search for Cellular Stress Biomarkers in Lymphocytes from Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study
Sabrina Grecchi, Giuliano Mazzini, Antonella Lisa, Marie-Therese Armentero, Roberto Bergamaschi, Alfredo Romani, Fabio Blandini, Carol Di Perri, Anna Ivana Scovassi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044935
Abstract: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system, the etiology of which, although not completely known, involves inflammation and autoimmunity. In the present study we aimed at identifying molecular markers of apoptosis, cellular stress and DNA damage in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MS patients. The analysis was carried on 19 relapsing-remitting untreated MS patients and 13 healthy individuals. We investigated the emergency-driven synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), the expression level of the constitutive enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and the DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX. PAR accumulation, PARP-1 and phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) were detected by immunofluorescence experiments on PBMCs isolated from 19 patients and 13 healthy volunteers. Our results show for the first time a net increased amount in PAR and γH2AX in MS patients compared to healthy individuals. Patients were further subdivided in three groups, according to the neuroimaging (MRI)-based classification of disease phase. Remarkably, we found a positive correlation between the level of γH2AX and MS aggressiveness. In addition, apoptosis in PBMCs was monitored by flow cytometry of both phosphatidylserine exposure (revealed by Annexin V-FITC labeling) and membrane permeability to propidium iodide. Our observations provide the evidence that the number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher in patients compared to healthy individuals, thus suggesting that apoptosis could affect MS lymphocyte function.
Improved assessment of multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation agreement via detection and outline error estimates
David S. Wack, Michael G. Dwyer, Niels Bergsland, Carol Di Perri, Laura Ranza, Hussein Sara, Deepa P. Ramasamy, Guy Poloni, Robert Zivadinov
BMC Medical Imaging , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2342-12-17
Abstract: DE, OE and Similarity Index (SI) values were calculated for two raters tested on a set of 17 fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images of patients with MS. DE, OE, and SI values were tested for dependence with mean total area (MTA) of the raters' Region of Interests (ROIs).When correlated with MTA, neither DE (ρ?=?.056, p=.83) nor the ratio of OE to MTA (ρ?=?.23, p=.37), referred to as Outline Error Rate (OER), exhibited significant correlation. In contrast, SI is found to be strongly correlated with MTA (ρ?=?.75, p?<?.001). Furthermore, DE and OER values can be used to model the variation in SI with MTA.The DE and OER indices are proposed as a better method than SI for comparing rater agreement of ROIs, which also provide specific information for raters to improve their agreement.
Posterior Cingulate Cortex-Related Co-Activation Patterns: A Resting State fMRI Study in Propofol-Induced Loss of Consciousness
Enrico Amico, Francisco Gomez, Carol Di Perri, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Damien Lesenfants, Pierre Boveroux, Vincent Bonhomme, Jean-Fran?ois Brichant, Daniele Marinazzo, Steven Laureys
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100012
Abstract: Background Recent studies have been shown that functional connectivity of cerebral areas is not a static phenomenon, but exhibits spontaneous fluctuations over time. There is evidence that fluctuating connectivity is an intrinsic phenomenon of brain dynamics that persists during anesthesia. Lately, point process analysis applied on functional data has revealed that much of the information regarding brain connectivity is contained in a fraction of critical time points of a resting state dataset. In the present study we want to extend this methodology for the investigation of resting state fMRI spatial pattern changes during propofol-induced modulation of consciousness, with the aim of extracting new insights on brain networks consciousness-dependent fluctuations. Methods Resting-state fMRI volumes on 18 healthy subjects were acquired in four clinical states during propofol injection: wakefulness, sedation, unconsciousness, and recovery. The dataset was reduced to a spatio-temporal point process by selecting time points in the Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC) at which the signal is higher than a given threshold (i.e., BOLD intensity above 1 standard deviation). Spatial clustering on the PCC time frames extracted was then performed (number of clusters = 8), to obtain 8 different PCC co-activation patterns (CAPs) for each level of consciousness. Results The current analysis shows that the core of the PCC-CAPs throughout consciousness modulation seems to be preserved. Nonetheless, this methodology enables to differentiate region-specific propofol-induced reductions in PCC-CAPs, some of them already present in the functional connectivity literature (e.g., disconnections of the prefrontal cortex, thalamus, auditory cortex), some others new (e.g., reduced co-activation in motor cortex and visual area). Conclusion In conclusion, our results indicate that the employed methodology can help in improving and refining the characterization of local functional changes in the brain associated to propofol-induced modulation of consciousness.
Locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Current and emerging treatment strategies
Francesco Perri,Davide Bosso,Carlo Buonerba,Giuseppe Di Lorenzo
World Journal of Clinical Oncology , 2011, DOI: 10.5306/wjco.v2.i12.377
Abstract: Although nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a widespread malignant tumor, it is particularly frequent in Southeast Asia. Although T1 tumors can be effectively controlled with exclusive radiotherapy, this treatment modality is insufficient for most NPC patients, who present with locally advanced disease at diagnosis. In fact, for stages ranging from T2b N0 to T4 N3, definitive scientific evidence supports the use of concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy with standard external beam radiotherapy. This treatment approach has shown a statistically significant advantage in terms of overall survival, with respect to radiotherapy alone. Several trials have also investigated the use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy. Platinum compounds, anthracyclines and taxanes are among the chemotherapy agents employed. This review focuses on the clinical results obtained in the field of adjuvant/concurrent/neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced NPC, for which exclusive concurrent chemo-radiotherapy currently represents the standard treatment approach.
Individual differences in response speed and accuracy are associated to specific brain activities of two interacting systems
Rinaldo Livio Perri,Marika Berchicci,Donatella Spinelli,Francesco Di Russo
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00251
Abstract: The study investigates the neurocognitive stages involved in the speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT). Contrary to previous approach, we did not manipulate speed and accuracy instructions: participants were required to be fast and accurate in a go/no-go task, and we selected post-hoc the groups based on the subjects’ spontaneous behavioral tendency. Based on the reaction times, we selected the fast and slow groups (Speed-groups), and based on the percentage of false alarms, we selected the accurate and inaccurate groups (Accuracy-groups). The two Speed-groups were accuracy-matched, and the two Accuracy-groups were speed-matched. High density electroencephalographic (EEG) and stimulus-locked analyses allowed us to observe group differences both before and after the stimulus onset. Long before the stimulus appearance, the two Speed-groups showed different amplitude of the Bereitschaftspotential (BP), reflecting the activity of the supplementary motor area (SMA); by contrast, the two Accuracy-groups showed different amplitude of the prefrontal negativity (pN), reflecting the activity of the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC). In addition, the post-stimulus event-related potential (ERP) components showed differences between groups: the P1 component was larger in accurate than inaccurate group; the N1 and N2 components were larger in the fast than slow group; the P3 component started earlier and was larger in the fast than slow group. The go minus no-go subtractive wave enhancing go-related processing revealed a differential prefrontal positivity (dpP) that peaked at about 330 ms; the latency and the amplitude of this peak were associated with the speed of the decision process and the efficiency of the stimulus-response mapping, respectively. Overall, data are consistent with the view that speed and accuracy are processed by two interacting but separate neurocognitive systems, with different features in both the anticipation and the response execution phases.
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: A comprehensive review of current and future therapeutic options
Francesco Perri, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Giuseppina Della Vittoria Scarpati, Carlo Buonerba
World Journal of Clinical Oncology , 2011,
Abstract: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the rarest, but deadliest histologic type among thyroid malignancies, with a dismal median survival of 3-9 mo. Even though ATC accounts for less than 2% of all thyroid tumors, it is responsible for 14%-39% of thyroid carcinoma-related deaths. ATC clinically presents as a rapidly growing mass in the neck, associated with dyspnoea, dysphagia and vocal cord paralysis. It is usually locally advanced and often metastatic at initial presentation. For operable diseases, the combination of radical surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy, using agents such as doxorubicin and cisplatin, is the best treatment strategy. Cytotoxic drugs for advanced/metastatic ATC are poorly effective. On the other hand, targeted agents might represent a viable therapeutic option. Axitinib, combretastatin A4, sorafenib and imatinib have been tested in small clinical trials of ATC, with a promising disease control rate ranging from 33% to 75%. Other clinical trials of targeted therapy for thyroid carcinoma are currently ongoing. Biological agents that are under investigation include pazopanib, gefitinib and everolimus. With the very limited therapeutic armamentarium available at the present time, targeted therapy constitutes an exciting new horizon for ATC. In future, biological agents will probably represent the standard of care for this aggressive malignancy, in the same fashion as it has recently occurred for other chemo-refractory tumors, such as kidney and hepatic cancer.
Durability of lopinavir/r monotherapy in people with viral load ≤50 copies/Ml
A d'Arminio Monforte,A Cozzi-Lepri,M Andreoni,G di Perri
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2012, DOI: 10.7448/ias.15.6.18378
Abstract: There is debate about whether lopinavir/r mono-therapy (LPV/r-MT) is a valid treatment option for HIV-infected patients who have shown perfect adherence to therapy. The objective was to evaluate the durability of LPV/r-MT in terms of time to virological rebound (VR), time to discontinuation/intensification or a composite endpoint considering both (=treatment failure). We also identified factors associated with faster progression to treatment failure and estimated the median CD4 count over time while people were still on LPV/r-MT. Patients enrolled in 10 clinical sites in Italy who ever started LPV/r-MT with a viral load ≤50 copies/mL (baseline) are included. Patients’ follow-up accrued from baseline to the date of the event of interest (VR, defined using the thresholds of 50 and 200 copies/mL, or discontinuation/intensification) or at the date of last available visit/VL measurement. Standard survival analysis employing Kaplan-Meier curves was used. We studied 139 patients starting LPV/r-MT on average in 2010 (IQR: 2009–2011) with a VL≤50 copies/mL already for a median of 1 month (range: 1–17). Median age 45 years (IQR: 39–50), 35% females, 32% IDU. Median time from first initiation of ART was 33 months (16–58) with no history of virological failure. Median (IQR) marker values at baseline were 611 (432–741) CD4 count cells/mm3, 937 (655–1254) CD8 count and 28 (19–47) IU/L of ALT. Median CD4 count were 519 cells/mm3 at 3 months, 660 at 6 months, 603 at 9 months and 467 at 12 months. The table shows the Kaplan-Meier estimates by 1 year and 2 years for a number of endpoints examined. There was a wide range of estimates depending on the endpoint used. Of those stopping/intensifying, 6 people (4%) added Truvada (n=4), Kivexa (n=1) and darunavir (n=1), the remaining 8 restarted cART.In our ‘real-life’ setting, by 2 years of starting LPV/r-MT, 70% of patients remained persistently suppressed ≤50 copies/mL. This percentage was >80% when considering only confirmed virological failures while people still remaining on the drug. Our results, though lacking precision because of the small number of events, are consistent with those of recent clinical trials.
A Passive Exoskeleton Can Push Your Life Up: Application on Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Francesco Di Russo, Marika Berchicci, Rinaldo Livio Perri, Francesca Romana Ripani, Maurizio Ripani
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077348
Abstract: In the present study, we report the benefits of a passive and fully articulated exoskeleton on multiple sclerosis patients by means of behavioral and electrophysiological measures, paying particular attention to the prefrontal cortex activity. Multiple sclerosis is a neurological condition characterized by lesions of the myelin sheaths that encapsulate the neurons of the brain, spine and optic nerve, and it causes transient or progressive symptoms and impairments in gait and posture. Up to 50% of multiple sclerosis patients require walking aids and 10% are wheelchair-bound 15 years following the initial diagnosis. We tested the ability of a new orthosis, the “Human Body Posturizer”, designed to improve the structural and functional symmetry of the body through proprioception, in multiple sclerosis patients. We observed that a single Human Body Posturizer application improved mobility, ambulation and response accuracy, in all of the tested patients. Most importantly, we associated these clinical observations and behavioral effects to changes in brain activity, particularly in the prefrontal cortex.
Getting ready for an emotion: specific premotor brain activities for self-administered emotional pictures
Rinaldo L. Perri,Marika Berchicci,Giuliana Lucci,Rocco L. Cimmino,Annalisa Bello,Francesco Di Russo
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00197
Abstract: Emotional perception has been extensively studied, but only a few studies have investigated the brain activity preceding exposure to emotional stimuli, especially when they are triggered by the subject himself. Here, we sought to investigate the emotional expectancy by means of movement related cortical potentials (MRCPs) in a self-paced task, in which the subjects begin the affective experience by pressing a key. In this experiment, participants had to alternatively press two keys to concomitantly display positive, negative, neutral, and scrambled images extracted from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). Each key press corresponded to a specific emotional category, and the experimenter communicated the coupling before each trial so that the subjects always knew the valence of the forthcoming picture. The main results of the present study included a bilateral positive activity in prefrontal areas during expectancy of more arousing pictures (positive and negative) and an early and sustained positivity over occipital areas, especially during negative expectancy. In addition, we observed more pronounced and anteriorly distributed Late Positive Potential (LPPs) components in the emotional conditions. In conclusion, these results show that emotional expectancy can influence brain activity in both motor preparation and stimulus perception, suggesting enhanced pre-processing in the to-be-stimulated areas. We propose that before a predictable emotional stimulus, both appetitive and defensive motivational systems act to facilitate the forthcoming processing of survival-relevant contents by means of an enhancement of attention toward more arousing pictures.
Homeopathy: Has it Beaten Medicine at its Own Game?
Dan Perri
University of Toronto Medical Journal , 1999, DOI: 10.5015/utmj.v76i3.1152
Abstract:
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