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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10351 matches for " Carmen Torrero "
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Sweet and Bitter Tastes Evoked Different Neuronal Activation in the Rostral Portion of the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract of Developing Rats  [PDF]
Lorena Rubio-Navarro, Carmen Torrero, Mirelta Regalado, Manuel Salas
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.23033
Abstract: The impact of the gustatory stimuli on the rostral portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (rNST) was investigated in developing rats, by using c-fos immunohistochemical staining. Wistar male rats of 5, 15, and 25 days of age were isolated from the mother for 12 h, then stimulated via the intraoral route with quinine, sucrose, or NaCl, and sacrificed 90 min later. The water-stimulated group showed minimal c-fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) compared with taste-stimulated groups that exhibited different FLI in the rNST at the different ages. At all ages the quinine-stimulated group induced FLI in the medial subfield, while sucrose induced FLI in the lateral subfield of the rNST. The intensity of FLI was highest at P15, and it declined at P25. These findings provide detailed insight into the anatomical basis of rNST activation that is involved in early food intake and the learning capacity of the newborn.
Development of the Gusto Facial Reflex in Perinatally Undernourished Rats  [PDF]
Manuel Salas, Carmen Torrero, Mirelta Regalado, Lorena Rubio
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.23035
Abstract: In the rat, the taste system plays a critical role in motivating the animal to consume nutrients and avoid toxic substances. In neonatal rat the orofacial movements can be modified by the application of sucrose and quinine in the mouth, producing ingestion or rejection responses, respectively, but there is no information available on the gusto facial reflexes (GFR) under perinatal fasting. The aim of the present study was to determine how undernutrition can affect the development of orofacial responses to sucrose, quinine, and NaCl during early development. Pregnant dams were undernourished by being given 50% of a balanced diet from G6 to G12, 60% from G13-G18, and 100% from G19-G21. On postpartum days 0 - 9, prenatally underfed (UG) pups continued the undernourishment by remaining for 12 h with a foster dam and 12 h with a nipple-ligated mother. Stimuli were presented as a single droplet of sucrose (S), sodium chloride (NaCl), quinine hydrochloride (Q), and water (W) onto the lips at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days of age, and mouth-opening frequency (MO) and lip-licking frequency (LL) were analyzed. The results show consistent effects associated with age, but not with diet, except in the cases of 0.01 M Q, which provoked in the UG subjects increased MO and the reduction of LL, and 0.1 M Q, which consistently reduced both responses. Moreover, S provoked increases in both MO and LL at 0.1 M while NaCl and water elicited minimal effects on GFR. These data suggest that perinatal undernutrition affects the basic components of the gustatory system necessary to produce GFR in the first postnatal days by possibly interfering with the integration of taste input for food learning and the hedonic aspects of gustatory cues.
Parabrachial neuron development: Effects of pre- and neonatal undernutrition in the rat  [PDF]
Carmen Torrero, Mirelta Regalado, Lorena Rubio, Manuel Salas
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology (OJMIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmip.2012.24016
Abstract: Pre-and neonatal fasting in the rat has been used as an experimental model to obtain information on how the newborn gustatory system can be damaged, in- terfering with the basic sensory and hedonic proc- esses to different tastants. Fasting during the prenatal period and for 24 days postnatally results in signifi- cant reductions of body and brain weight, number of branches, dendritic density, and cross-sectional area of the PBN multipolar neurons in the central lateral and central medial subnucleus particularly at post- natal days 20 and 30. Furthermore, the underfeeding paradigm affected more the middle portions of the dendritic tree than other parts of the neurons possibly disturbing the afferent characteristics of neuronal acti- vity propagation that may partly disrupt the elabora- tion of synaptic plasticity at later ages. These findings may play a role in the development of complex physio- logical phenomena such as food intake, taste discrimi- nation, learning taste aversion, and appetitive beha- vior.
Effects of Perinatal Undernutrition and Massage Stimulation upon the Ambiguus Nucleus in the Rat Prior to Weaning  [PDF]
Dora Lopez-Jimenez, Carmen Torrero, Mirelta Regalado, Manuel Salas
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.32021

Undernutrition produces morphological brain alterations and cognitive deficiencies in children of underdeveloped countries. The central nervous system (CNS) alterations mainly interfere with the anatomical organization of areas undergoing a phase of intense postnatal cell proliferation, disrupting plastic processes like learning, memory, and phonation. In the rat pup, prenatal malnutrition interferes with the elaboration of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) by poorly understood mechanisms. The neuronal caudal portion of the nucleus ambiguus (Ambc) innervates the laryngeal intrinsic muscles to produce phonation, a basic USV communication system. During postnatal development, enhanced plasticity phenomena play a fundamental role in improving brain function. Thus, the massage stimulation (MS) may accelerate growth and induce neurogenesis in different areas of the brain. The current study analyzed the effects of a daily 10-min MS on the dendritic tree and perikarya measurements of Ambc multipolar motoneurons (Golgi-Cox) of perinatally underfed (U), control (C), control massage-stimulated (CMS), and underfed massage-stimulated (UMS) groups at postnatal days (PDs) 8, 12, and 15. The data indicated that the dendritic scores were reduced (p < 0.05) in both number and density at PD8 and PD15 in the U subjects and that MS increased the values of these parameters (p < 0.05). In addition, MS induced body weight gain in both U and CMS groups, and it enhanced the dendritic density in CMS subjects. These results show that MS during the pre-weaning period restores the plastic properties of the Ambc over the hypoplastic multipolar motoneuron after the alterations caused by perinatal undernutrition.

Retrieval of Pups by Female Rats Undernourished during the Pre- and Neonatal Period  [PDF]
Judith Felix, Mirelta Regalado, Carmen Torrero, Manuel Salas
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.47033
Abstract: Early mother-litter bonds alterations elicited by pre- and neonatal undernutrition are a source of long-lasting brain and functional disorders such as exploratory and emotional deficits and maternal unresponsiveness to the newborn. Here, we examined the prolonged effects of gestational and neonatal food restriction on the retrieval of pups and nest building activity by primiparous adult Wistar rats on postnatal days (PDs) 4, 8, and 12. In early undernourished dams, the latency to retrieve the first or the fifth pups in the litter was extended; and nest building activity was significantly reduced. Additionally, early underfed dams retrieved the pups in a rough manner, eliciting distress cries and grasping the pups by unusual body areas. The current findings suggest that pre- and neonatal food restriction may affect the anatomical and functional forebrain structures, modulating the cognitive and motor components underlying maternal responsiveness.
Effects of Neonatal Undernutrition on Development of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Pyramidal Cells in the Rat  [PDF]
Carmen Torrero, Mirelta Regalado, Lorena Rubio, Manuel Salas
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.41007
Abstract: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) of the rat plays a role in the encoding of neuronal signals involved in conflict-induced behavioral adjustment, working memory, planning and executive abilities, attentional control and other cognitive responses. In altricial species, early perinatal undernutrition interferes with the morphofunctional organization of a number of central nervous system (CNS) structures including the prefrontal cortex. The effects of neonatal undernutrition on dendritic arbor density, perikaryon measurements, and the number of spines (detected by rapid-Golgi) of basilar dendritic segments in layer III pyramidal neurons of the dlPFC were examined in male Wistar rats on postnatal (PDs) 12, 20, and 30. In the underfed (U) subjects the distal portions of the dendritic arbors had a consistent hipoplasia, mainly on PD 30, with reduced cross sectional area, perimeter, and spine densities on the basilar dendrites on all days studied. Thus, the alterations of the dlPFC pyramidal neurons may interfere with the plastic synaptic activity and cognitive performance of rats subjected to the stress of early underfeeding. Characterizing these anatomical alterations may help to understand the disrupted cognitive processes associated with neonatal undernutrition.
Analysis of the Sensory and Hedonic Impacts of Sweet and Bitter Tastes in Perinatally Underfed Rats  [PDF]
Lorena Rubio-Navarro, Carmen Torrero, Mirelta Regalado, Manuel Salas
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.49041
Abstract: Newborn rats discriminate tastes and generate gustofacial response (GFR) because the neuronal substrate is already operating. The oral application of sucrose or quinine hydrochloride produces a specific GFR. We analyzed the effects of perinatal undernutrition on the GFR development of rats at two cue concentrations. In the undernourished group, pregnant dams received different percentages of a balance diet. After birth, prenatally underfed pups continue the undernourishment by remaining for 12 h with a foster dam, and for 12 h with a nipple-ligated mother. Cues were presented as a single droplet of sucrose, sodium chloride, or quinine at low or high concentrations onto the lips at postnatal days (PDs) 1 and 3, and mouth-opening (MOF) and lip-licking frequencies (LLF) were noted. On PD 1 the undernourished group showed smaller MOF increases in response to low salt and quinine stimuli than the controls but no differences at high concentrations. On PD 3, both low and high concentrations of the sucrose and quinine cues significantly increased the MOF in the underfed compared to the control group. Low but not high salt decreased LLF on PD1 in the underfed compared to the control group. On PD 3 the undernourished pups showed significant increases of LLF with low quinine compared with the control rats, but the reverse was observed with high quinine. These data suggest that perinatal undernutrition affects the development of the sensory and hedonic aspects of taste causing changes in GFR expression.
Olfactory Discrimination in Adult Male Rats Undernourished during the Pre- and Neonatal Period  [PDF]
Mitzi G. Carreon, Carmen Torrero, Mirelta Regalado, Lorena Rubio, Manuel Salas
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.23032
Abstract: In the neonatal rat, the olfactory system is a fundamental channel to locate and recognize the mother, to survive and develop early social behavior, and to distinguish related or unrelated members of a litter. Perinatal undernutrition in rats alters the neuronal organization and functioning of the olfactory system and its ascending relays, possibly affecting odor discrimination. In this study we compared the frequency and time spent visiting the source of urine obtained from unrelated female subjects and amyl acetate odors vs water in adult perinatally underfed rats. Each test initiated with one daily presentation during three consecutive aliquots of deionized water (10 μl) placed on a filter paper for 2 min, separated by 1-min intervals for habituation. The water presentations were followed by three exposures to an odor, all at the same dilution (either 1:1 or 1:80) for dishabituation. Control (C) and undernourished (U) subjects display similar, significant habituation/dishabituation responses, except that the U subjects showed greater increases in the frequency and duration of visits to undiluted and diluted urine and amyl acetate cues compared to the controls. These findings are similar to previous studies showing that adult rats investigate novel odors longer than the familiar ones. Thus, perinatal undernutrition appears to interfere with the foundation of the olfactory development causing long-term olfactory discrimination deficits as revealed by the increased frequency and duration of visits to the source of odors that may be relevant for social behavior.
Maternal Response of Perinatally Underfed Wistar Virgin Females Exposed to Newborn Rats  [PDF]
Manuel Salas, Mirelta Regalado, Carmen Torrero, Minerva Ortiz-Valladares, Lorena Rubio
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2019.93007
Abstract: Nutrition plays a major role in the survival of the progeny, and its perinatal deficiencies delay physical development and interfere with social and cognitive performance later in life. The effects of early undernutrition on maternal social performance of sensitized adult virgin rats were evaluated. Several maternal and non-maternal responses were measured in virgin female Wistar rats randomly divided into two groups, control and early undernourished, during 19 days of chronic daily exposure to fresh foster pups in home-cage conditions. Underfed females (F0) received different percentages of a balanced diet during gestation. After birth, pups were underfed (F1) by alternating every 12 h between litters two lactating dams, one with ligated nipples. Weaning was at 25 days of age followed by an ad lib diet until postpartum day 90, when sensitized virgins were maternally tested daily for seven successive sessions. Significantly (p < 0.05) low body weight scores in UG F1 virgins of five different ages were observed. The UG F1 females expressed significantly (p < 0.05) lower frequency values in sniffing, licking, retrieving, crouching, and handling shavings, with clear prolonged sniffing, retrieving and handling shaving latencies towards the foster pups compared with CG F1 sensitized females. Self-grooming was not affected, whereas exploration was significantly reduced. Current findings suggest that perinatal undernutrition interfered the organization of a core neuronal circuitry underlying the mother-litter interactions involved in social and cognitive performance of sensitized adult virgins. Furthermore, the behavioral maternal alterations in F1 virgins may possibly generate a risky negative social environment to induce cognitive and/or brain disorders in later generations.
Los roles de género a través de la adaptación cinematográfica de la obra de Miguel Delibes. La pirámide de Maslow o cuántas regulas ha costado una Lola?
Ojeda Torrero, Almudena
Fonseca : Journal of Communication , 2012,
Abstract: En espa ol: En este trabajo analizamos paso a paso el papel de la mujer a través de la adaptación cinematográfica del escritor castellano Miguel Delibes. Para ello, y haciendo uso de nuestra mirada o “gafas feministas” combinamos dos tipos de análisis. La aportación de la especialista en cine y feminismo A. Kuhn, con la propuesta de A. Maslow sobre la jerarquización de las necesidades humanas. El objetivo de todo ello es adentrase en el complejo mundo de las mentalidades, comportamientos y actitudes, y de esta forma desvelar el intento o ruptura con el modelo patriarcal. Ruptura que consciente o inconscientemente algunas mujeres persiguieron y solo pocas alcanzaron. Todo ello teniendo como marco de referencia los dos sistemas políticos contrarios y dominantes en la segunda mitad del siglo XX espa ol, dictadura y democracia. . In english: In this paper we analyze step by step the role of women through the film adaptation of writer Miguel Delibes. For this, and using our eyes or "feminist glasses" combine two types of analysis. The specialist provided by the film and feminism, A. Kuhn, with the proposal of A. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. The aim of all this is penetrates in the complex world of attitudes, behaviors and attitudes, and thus reveal the attempt or break with the patriarchal model, consciously or unconsciously break some women chased and only few reached. All this taking as reference the two opposing political systems and dominant in the second half of the twentieth century Spanish, dictatorship and democracy.
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