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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10617 matches for " Carmen Rossini "
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Bignoniaceae Metabolites as Semiochemicals
Lucía Castillo,Carmen Rossini
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15107090
Abstract: Members of the family Bignoniaceae are mostly found in tropical and neo-tropical regions in America, Asia and Africa, although some of them are cultivated in other regions as ornamentals. Species belonging to this family have been extensively studied in regard to their pharmacological properties (as extracts and isolated compounds). The aim of this review is to summarize the reported scientific evidence about the chemical properties as well as that of the extracts and isolated compounds from species of this family, focusing mainly in insect-plant interactions. As it is known, this family is recognized for the presence of iridoids which are markers of oviposition and feeding preference to species which have became specialist feeders. Some herbivore species have also evolved to the point of been able to sequester iridoids and use them as defenses against their predators. However, iridoids also exhibit anti-insect properties, and therefore they may be good lead molecules to develop botanical pesticides. Other secondary metabolites, such as quinones, and whole extracts have also shown potential as anti-insect agents.
Differential Deterrent Activity of Natural Products Isolated from Allophylus edulis (Sapindaceae)  [PDF]
Martina Díaz, Lucía Castillo, Carmen E. Díaz, Ricardo Guillermo álvarez, Azucena González-Coloma, Carmen Rossini
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2014.42021
Abstract: The phytochemical study of Uruguayan specimens of Allophylus edulis (Sapindaceae) yielded the isolation of various natural products being some of them reported for the first time in this species. Although most of them are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom, some revealed in this study to have anti insect properties. Two sesquiterpenes (6,7-Epoxicaryophyllene and spathulenol), two phytosterols (sitosterone and sitosterol), a pentacyclic triterpene (lupeol) and a clerodane diterpene were isolated. 6,7-Epoxycaryophyllene, lupeol and sitosterol showed to be deterrent against the aphid Myzus persicae and the coleopteran Epilachna paenulata. Moreover, the crude ethanolic extract of twigs of A. edulis showed to be deterrent against both insect species being some of its fractions also active against another aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi. Various active compounds against different insect models have been isolated from the twigs extract of A. edulis. The results evidenced synergic as well as antagonistic effects in the mixture, summed to differential activity against the insects, a desirable attribute when developing botanical pesticides.
Reproductive behaviour of Crocidosema (=Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): temporal pattern of female calling and mating
Altesor, Paula;Horas, Vanusa R;Arcia, María P;Rossini, Carmen;Zarbin, Paulo H G;González, Andrés;
Neotropical Entomology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2010000300003
Abstract: crocidosema aporema (walsingham) is a major pest of legumes in the southern cone of latin america. the mating behaviour of two allopatric populations (uruguay and brazil) of c. aporema kept in captivity was studied by observing the posture of calling females, the temporal pattern of pheromone emission and mating, and the response of males to calling females in olfactometer tests. female calling and mating was observed during the scotophase, from the first to the seventh night after adult emergence. male response was evaluated at night using a single calling female in a y-shaped olfactometer. females adopted a characteristic calling posture, extruding the pheromone gland from the tip of the abdomen. most females started calling during the second scotophase, and all females called from the third, between the fifth and seventh hours after the onset of the scotophase. most of the couples mated once throughout the experiment, between the third and sixth night and during the middle of the dark phase. males preferentially chose the female arm in olfactometer tests, considering both the first arm chosen and the number of visits during the observation period. our results describe for the fi rst time the temporal pattern associated to the reproductive behaviour of c. aporema. we also provide evidence that this tortricid is monoandrous, and that pheromones are used in intersexual communication for mate finding. our data will be used to optimize the collection of female sex pheromones for chemical characterization in order to develop a monitoring tool for this pest.
Sergio Zatti (ed.), L'eroe e l'ostacolo. Forme dell'avventura nella narrativa occidentale
Gianluigi Rossini
Between , 2011,
Abstract: Pubblicato nella serie I libri dell'Associazione S. Malatesta , il volume ha l'ambizioso obiettivo di delineare una storia dell'Avventura nella letteratura occidentale che sia essenzialmente lo studio delle forme in cui le diverse culture storiche e i diversi “generi” letterari hanno sedimentato [...] e codificato una specifica categoria dell'azione umana .
Law and Justice on TV. The Wire vs. CSI and Ally McBeal La legge e la giustizia in TV. The Wire a confronto con CSI e Ally McBeal
Gianluigi Rossini
Between , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the ways in which law is represented in the celebrated TV series The Wire, broadcasted in United States between 2002 and 2008. The analysis focuses particularly on the thematization of the relationship between the concept of law and that of justice, that is between 'positive law' and 'natural law'. This theme is pursued in the context of American television series of great success such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation (CBS, 2000-) and Ally McBeal (Fox, 1997-2002) . The comparison highlights the way in which in The Wire the terms of the problem are completely eroded through the representation of a sort of 'disappearance of justice'. In this series the natural law becomes insignificant both because it is no more the point of reference of the actions activated by the institutions, and because an informed, in-depth and not prejudicial gaze on the social reality of the contemporary metropolis brings into question the very idea of a justice absolute and distanced from the contingent circumstances. Scopo di questo intervento è individuare il modo in cui la legge è rappresentata in The Wire, serie poliziesca trasmessa negli Stati Uniti tra il 2002 e il 2008 da HBO. Particolare oggetto di interesse dell'analisi è la tematizzazione del rapporto tra il concetto di 'legge' e quello di 'giustizia', ovverosia tra la 'legge positiva' e la 'legge naturale'. Questa tematizzazione viene, però, inquadrata all'interno del contesto della serialità televisiva statunitense, analizzando in via preliminare il modo in cui lo stesso rapporto è trattato da altri due titoli di grande successo: CSI: Crime Scene Investigation (CBS, 2000- ) e Ally McBeal (Fox, 1997-2002). Dal confronto emerge come The Wire riesca a scardinare completamente i termini del problema, mettendo in scena una sorta di 'scomparsa della giustizia'. Nella serie la legge naturale, infatti, diventa irrilevante sia perché non è più il referente delle attività messe in moto dalle istituzioni, sia perché uno sguardo approfondito, informato e non pregiudiziale sulla realtà sociale delle metropoli contemporanee mette in discussione l'idea stessa di una giustizia assoluta e distaccata dalle circostanze contingenti.
Christine Baron e Manfed Engel (Eds.), Realism/Anti-Realism in 20th Century Literature
Gianluigi Rossini
Between , 2012,
Abstract: Parte della serie Internationale Forschungen zur Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Literaturwissenschaft edita da Rodopi, il volume è composto da quattordici saggi, cinque dei quali in francese, i restanti in inglese. Come chiarisce sin dalle prime righe l'introduzione, l'obiettivo dell'opera non è né dare una definizione stringente di realismo né catalogare tutte le differenti modalità in cui, in letteratura, forme antirealistiche si sono opposte o intrecciate a quelle realistiche: questo non soltanto perché l'ambito è limitato al XX secolo, ma anche perché non viene imposta una prospettiva che permetta di inquadrare in un modello generale la dinamica tra le due forme di rappresentazione.
Vittorio Coletti, Romanzo mondo. La letteratura nel villaggio globale
Gianluigi Rossini
Between , 2011,
Abstract: In questo agile saggio Vittorio Coletti (ordinario di Storia della lingua italiana presso l'Università di Genova) intende definire i tratti di una mutazione avvenuta all'interno del romanzo contemporaneo, mutazione che ha comportato il superamento delle distinzioni e delle proprietà nazionali nella pratica della narrazione.
Extraskeletal effects of vitamin D
Maurizio Rossini
Reviews in Health Care , 2011, DOI: 10.7175/rhc.252287-100
Abstract: In the last years we observed an increasing number of publications about the vitamin D, due to its recognised therapeutic actions and to the widespread hypovitaminosis D. In addition to the well known skeletal benefits, vitamin D can have multiple effects on other tissues. Muscular apparatus: hypovitaminosis D is associated with myopathy, sarcopenia, muscular strength reduction and increased risk of falls. The vitamin D supplementation increases the muscle functionality indexes. Cardiovascular system: low levels of vitamin D are related to increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a decreased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a good vitamin D status is related to a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome; a vitamin D supplementation in the early childhood reduces (nearly 30%) the risk of having type 1 diabetes. Cancer: vitamin D deficit is associated with breast, colorectal cancer and melanoma relapses. Low and high levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) are related to a higher neoplastic mortality. Infectious diseases: hypovitaminosis D is associated with higher incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and worse interferon response in chronic hepatitis C. Vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of having type A influence. Rheumatic diseases: in rheumatoid arthritis low serum levels of vitamin D metabolites are related to a higher disease activity, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a higher probability of remission or response to therapy and a lower degree of disability. Neurologic diseases: associations between vitamin D deficit and risk of multiple sclerosis, depression, cognitive deficits, and Parkinson’s disease have been reported. There is evidence of the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, but most derive from observational studies: clinical trials are required the better to determine the therapeutic role of vitamin D.
Modernità migranti e interstizi di potere: El Metro di Donato Ndongo Modernità migranti e interstizi di potere: El Metro di Donato Ndongo
Ilaria Rossini
Confluenze. Rivista di Studi Iberoamericani , 2011,
Abstract: Starting from the novel El Metro Donato Ndongo, the article focuses on the relationship that the migrant establishes with Western culture. We highlight the feelings that prevail in the subject when it comes in contact with another world, characterized by innovative spaces and different habits. The subway station, a symbol of modernity in this novel, and an example of the complexity of relationships that arise in the city as a whole, shows that today reality is a blend of "otherness", a scenario in which live people of different traditions. Keywords: migrant, western culture, innovative spaces, otherness, cultural heritages. L’articolo pone l’attenzione sul rapporto che il migrante stabilisce con i tratti della realtà occidentale, partendo dall’analisi del romanzo El Metro di Donato Ndongo. Si evidenziano le sensazioni che prevalgono nell’individuo quando entra in contatto con un mondo altro, caratterizzato da spazi innovativi e abitudini differenti dalle proprie. La stazione della metropolitana, simbolo della modernità in tale romanzo ed esempio della complessità di rapporti che sorgono nella città nella sua totalità, mostra come la realtà odierna sia un connubio di “alterità”, uno scenario in cui convivono persone di tradizioni diverse. Parole Chiave: migrante, realtà occidentale, spazi innovativi, connubio di “alterità”, tradizioni diverse. Starting from the novel El Metro Donato Ndongo, the article focuses on the relationship that the migrant establishes with Western culture. We highlight the feelings that prevail in the subject when it comes in contact with another world, characterized by innovative spaces and different habits. The subway station, a symbol of modernity in this novel, and an example of the complexity of relationships that arise in the city as a whole, shows that today reality is a blend of "otherness", a scenario in which live people of different traditions. Keywords: migrant, western culture, innovative spaces, otherness, cultural heritages. L’articolo pone l’attenzione sul rapporto che il migrante stabilisce con i tratti della realtà occidentale, partendo dall’analisi del romanzo El Metro di Donato Ndongo. Si evidenziano le sensazioni che prevalgono nell’individuo quando entra in contatto con un mondo altro, caratterizzato da spazi innovativi e abitudini differenti dalle proprie. La stazione della metropolitana, simbolo della modernità in tale romanzo ed esempio della complessità di rapporti che sorgono nella città nella sua totalità, mostra come la realtà odierna sia un connubio di “alterità”, uno scenario in cui convivono persone
A Male Aggregation Pheromone in the Bronze Bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Thaumastocoridae)
Andrés González,María Victoria Calvo,Valeria Cal,Verónica Hernández,Florencia Do?o,Leticia Alves,Daniela Gamenara,Carmen Rossini,Gonzalo Martínez
Psyche , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/868474
Abstract: Forest plantations in Uruguay have doubled in the past decade, with Eucalyptus spp. leading this growth. The bronze bug, Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae), originally restricted to Australia, is an important emerging pest of Eucalyptus plantations in the Southern hemisphere. T. peregrinus feeds on mature Eucalyptus leaves, causing them to turn brown and often fall from the tree. Although population dynamics and behavioural patterns are not clearly understood, circumstantial observations suggest that males and nymphs aggregate. We used gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to analyze volatile organic compounds emitted by virgin males and females, and characterized a male-specific compound, 3-methylbut-2-enyl butanoate, based on mass spectral data and chromatographic comparison with a synthetic standard. We also performed Y-olfactometer bioassays to test the attraction of virgin males and females toward live virgin males, male volatile extracts, and synthetic 3-methylbut-2-enyl butanoate. Males were attracted toward conspecific males, while virgin females showed no preference, suggesting that male volatiles are not involved in sexual communication. Further olfactometer tests showed that males were attracted to male volatile extracts and to synthetic 3-methylbut-2-enyl butanoate. The ecological significance of this compound and its potential use for the management of T. peregrinus in Eucalyptus forests will be further investigated. 1. Introduction The area of commercial forests in Uruguay reaches about 1 million hectares, of which more than 70% are covered by Eucalyptus plantations. This area has nearly doubled in the past decade, as part of broader trend in South America. In Uruguay, E. globulus and E. grandis are the most important species, representing 54% and 32% of the Eucalyptus planted area, respectively, while red gum trees such as E. tereticornis occupy about 7% [1]. Depending on whether the plantations are intended for pulp or timber production, the growth cycles take between 8 to 12 years, being, therefore, a clear example of monocultural practice of an exotic crop, which should favor the spread of alien invasive pests and diseases, such as the bronze bug, Thaumastocoris pereginus (Hemiptera?:?Thaumastocoridae). T. peregrinus is a major emerging pest of eucalypt production in the Southern hemisphere. It is a small flattened bug (1–3?mm long) that feeds on Eucalyptus and some Corymbia species [2, 3]. It employs a lacerate-and-flush feeding strategy [4], causing the loss of photosynthetic surface area,
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