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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 409783 matches for " Carmen M. "
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Nanomaterials for Drugs Delivery  [PDF]
Francisco Márquez, Carmen Morant
Soft Nanoscience Letters (SNL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/snl.2014.43007
Abstract:

As expected for years, nanotechnology has revolutionized engineering, biology, chemistry, physics and medicine of today. These disciplines are evolving thanks to the ongoing development of new materials and applications. Nanomedicine, as application of nanotechnology in the field of health care, has undergone unprecedented development. Some of these changes have real applications as, for example, the use of nanoparticles in MRI imaging, in hyperthermia, in immunotherapy, or to improve the bioavailability of drugs, among others [1]-[3].

When a drug is administered to a patient, the blood distributes it throughout the body. In the case of very localized diseases (i.e. tumors), only a small fraction of the drug reaches the target. Chemotherapy is one of the most aggressive treatment options used in some types of cancer, and is usually administered intravenously. In this type of therapy, the drug circulates throughout the body, reaching and destroying healthy and cancerous tissues, producing side effects throughout the body, sometimes with serious consequences for the health of the patient (nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, anemia, etc.). Among the many applications of nanotechnology, the fabrication of nanostructures capable of safely transporting these drugs is seen as a strategy for reducing these side effects. Nanoparticles are able to carry and release the drug in the right place and with the required dose, greatly reducing the problems associated with direct treatment with these drugs.

In recent years, there have been continuous improvements in the design and development of new tailor-made drug delivery systems [4], including hollow magnetic nanoparticles, liposomal structures, dendrimers, nanoporous silicon, etc. These structures can be obtained with different molecular weights (in the case of polymers), structures, shapes, and even with the appropriate functional groups for interaction at the desired positions. However, a great effort is still required to solve many of the current problems [5], including toxicity, aggregation, solubility and stability in the human body, physiological processes of elimination, identification of targets by highly specific receptors, controlled drug release over time, etc.

Nanomaterials for Sensor Applications  [PDF]
Francisco Márquez, Carmen Morant
Soft Nanoscience Letters (SNL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/snl.2015.51001
Abstract: Recently, a large part of the advances in nanotechnology have been directed towards the development of high-speed electronics, more efficient catalysts, and sensors. This latter group of applications has great relevance and unprecedented development potential for the coming years.So far, some of the main objectives for the development of sensors have focused on making more sensitive, effective and specific sensing devices.The improvement of these systems and the increase of specificity are clearly associated with a decrease in size of the components, which can lead to obtaining more rapid action, almost in real time. Nanomaterials currently used in sensor development include a long list of nanostructured systems, as for example: metal nanotubes, nanowires, nanofibers, nanocomposites, nanorods, nanoparticles, nanostructured polymers, and different allotropes of carbon as carbon nanotubes, graphene or fullerenes, among others.
Growth of Four Varieties of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals and Their Effects on Some Physiological Traits  [PDF]
águeda González, M. Carmen Lobo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.49221
Abstract:

To evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) on growth and selected physiological traits in barley, a greenhouse trial was performed using four barley varieties that were exposed to different concentration of these metals. The parameters quantified were growth, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence during three phenological stages: flag leaf, anthesis, and grain filling. The metal concentrations in both the plant and soil were also quantified. We determined that the varieties studied were more tolerant to Zn and Cd than to Cr. Treatment with Zn did not negatively affect growth, and only high concentrations of Cd decreased growth by approximately 4% to 8%. Plants treated with the highest Cr concentration stopped growing at the flag leaf stage. The amount of metal that accumulated in the plant increased with increasing metal concentration, and the highest amount of accumulated metal was recorded in the root and shoot. Both the plant height and dry weight were higher in the CB502 variety plants, followed by the Reinette, Pedrezuela, and Plaisant varieties. The same trend was observed for the chlorophyll content and fluorescence, with a significant correlation between the growth parameters and chlorophyll content (p < 0.001). Thus, we determined that barley has variability in the studied traits.

A Green Analytical Method Using Ultrasound in Sample Preparation for the Flow Injection Determination of Iron, Manganese, and Zinc in Soluble Solid Samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
M. Carmen Yebra
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/298217
Abstract: A simple and rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid samples. The method is based on continuous ultrasonic water dissolution of the sample (5–30 mg) at room temperature followed by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination. A good precision of the whole procedure (1.2–4.6%) and a sample throughput of ca. 25 samples h−1 were obtained. The proposed green analytical method has been successfully applied for the determination of iron, manganese, and zinc in soluble solid food samples (soluble cocoa and soluble coffee) and pharmaceutical preparations (multivitamin tablets). The ranges of concentrations found were 21.4–25.61 μg g−1 for iron, 5.74–18.30 μg g−1 for manganese, and 33.27–57.90 μg g−1 for zinc in soluble solid food samples and 3.75–9.90 μg g−1 for iron, 0.47–5.05 μg g−1 for manganese, and 1.55–15.12 μg g−1 for zinc in multivitamin tablets. The accuracy of the proposed method was established by a comparison with the conventional wet acid digestion method using a paired -test, indicating the absence of systematic errors.
Teoría retórica y retórica del error en la Electra de Sófocles
Encinas Reguero,M. Carmen;
Argos , 2009,
Abstract: it is not a minor matter in sophocles' electra, the implicit presence of a continuously questioned rhetorical theory. it is through the faults made by the characters, especially electra, on the interpretation of rhetorical proofs which are voluntarily manipulated, that the author urges us to a deep reflection. this reflection influences the significance of rhetoric and of its different kind of proves as well as the difficulty of human beings to understand the world surrounding them. moreover, it concretely affects the interpretation of this tragedy and its message.
Editorial
Andrade Perdrix, M. Carmen
Materiales de Construccion , 1988,
Abstract:
Testing the Problem-Solving Skills of Students in an NCTM-Oriented Curriculum
Carmen M. Latterell
Mathematics Educator , 2003,
Abstract: An interesting question concerns how well NCTM-oriented students do on standardized mathematics tests. Another important question that has received less attention is: Are standardized tests truly measuring the skills that NCTM-oriented students have? Would other tests reveal skills that differentiate NCTM-oriented students from traditional students? Moreover, what are these skills? This paper contributes to the answers to these questions, and finds that students in one NCTM-oriented curriculum displayed such qualities as engagement, eagerness, communication, flexibility, and curiosity to a much higher degree than traditional students did. The implication given is that not only should we use standardized tests, but we should revise them and/or supplement them to measure the qualities that are not currently being measured.
Bibliografía comentada Commented bibliography
M. Carmen Moreno Arroyo
Revista de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Enfermería Nefrológica , 2010,
Abstract:
Taxonomía, Sistemática y Nomenclatura, herramientas esenciales en Zoología y Veterinaria.Taxonomy, Systematics and Nomenclature, essential tools in Zoology and Veterinary
Arija, Carmen M.
REDVET , 2012,
Abstract: ResumenLa Taxonomía, la Sistemática, la Nomenclatura Zoológica y el uso de nombres científicos constituyen herramientas de gran utilidad para todas aquellas personas que tienen una relación directa con el estudio, el cuidado, el manejo o la conservación faunística, ya sean biólogos, veterinarios o profesionales de ciencias afines.AbstractTaxonomy, Systematics, Zoological Nomenclature and the use of scientific names are useful tools to all the people who have a direct relationship with the study, care, manage or conservation of the fauna, like Biologists, Veterinarians or similar professionals. However, the hard approach that we sometimes make from them can conceive them more a burden than a help.
Taxonomía a golpe de proteínas y ADN mitocondrial: el caso de la Or a - Developing taxonomy using proteins and mitocondrial DNA: The case of the Orca
Arija, Carmen M.
REDVET , 2011,
Abstract: ResumenLos estudios moleculares han dado un vuelco a la Taxonomía,erigiéndose como una herramienta imprescindible para la determinación de los límites de una especie o un grupo y su situación en el complejo árbol de los seres vivos.SummaryMolecular studies have overturned the taxonomy, establishing itself asan indispensable tool for determining the limits of an specie or a group, and their situation in the Living tree.
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