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Effects of Caffeine on the Organism—Literature Review  [PDF]
Marcio Antonio Ferreira Camargo, Carmen Aparecida Cardoso Maia Camargo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105265
Abstract:
Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant. Caffeine is known to in-crease energetic metabolism throughout the brain, but it also decreases cerebral blood flow, inducing relative cerebral hypoperfusion. Caffeine ac-tivates norepinephrine neurons and appears to affect the local release of dopamine. Many of the warning effects of caffeine may be related to the action of methylxanthine on serotonin neurons. In this sense, this study aimed to identify the main effects of caffeine on the body. This is a literature review study addressing the main effects of caffeine on the body. In order to select the studies, an online survey of articles has been conducted on sites such as the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), using the descriptors “caffeine”, “effects of caffeine” and “methylxanthine”. We included the studies published between the years 2000 to 2018, which explicitly contemplate the evaluated aspects. In general, caffeine has effects on anxiety and sleep that vary according to individual sensitivity to methylxanthine. The central nervous system does not appear to develop a great tolerance to the effects of caffeine, although the symptoms of dependence and withdrawal are reported.
Classroom: A Space of Pedagogical Interaction  [PDF]
Carmen Aparecida Cardoso Maia Camargo, Marcio Antonio Ferreira Camargo, Márcio Ferreira de Carvalho, Clere Ventura Costa Oliveira
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104958
Abstract:
Classroom is a socially instituted space of pedagogical intervention. This article aims to analyze how the interdisciplinary dialogue between teachers, in the classroom and outside of the classroom, in order to approach theory and practice in the teaching knowledge. It is part of a research project developed in 2017 in a Community Course, in the city of Passos-MG, Brazil. Based on a qualitative approach, there was an exploratory and descriptive design involving semi-structured interviews with eight teachers. Content analysis was used to treat the data. From the data found, it was evident that the general recognition of the teachers about the necessity and importance of the adequacy of teaching methods in relation to the interdisciplinarity in the teaching routine makes it a tool of approximation between the student and the learning. On the other hand, the interviewees identified some difficulties in programming interdisciplinary practices, such as understanding the importance of dialogue with content in everyday practice and the excessive daily demands of teaching work that prevent the involvement of all educators. However, they are unanimous in emphasizing the need to create joint pedagogical strategies, seeking a more meaningful knowledge for the student.
Chemical Characterization and Application of the Essential Oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides and Philodendron bipinnatifidum in the Control of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  [PDF]
Juliana de Andrade Santiago, Maria das Gra?as Cardoso, Ana Cristina da Silva Figueiredo, Jair Campos de Moraes, Franscinely Aparecida de Assis, Maria Luisa Teixeira, Wilder Douglas Santiago, Thaís Aparecida Sales, Karen Caroline Camargo, David Lee Nelson
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526417
Abstract: The compositions of essential oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides L. and Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott were determined, and the their potential effects on the nutrition and mortality of Diabrotica speciosa were studied. The extraction of the oils was performed by hydrodistillation (2 h) using a modified Clevenger apparatus and the oils were subsequently subjected to analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (CG/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications was adopted. The bean plants were sprayed with solutions of the oils dissolved in aqueous Tween 80 solutions at concentrations of 0 (water + Tween 80), 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% and then furnished to the insects with no choice available. Seven days after the application, the percentage of leaves with injury, degree of defoliation, the preference index for consumption and the percent of mortality of insects were evaluated. Neither of the essential oils caused a reduction in foliar injury, but antifeeding activity was observed, causing reduced feeding and increasing the mortality of adult D. speciosa insects.
Adherence level and knowledge about psychopharmacological treatment among patients discharged from psychiatric internment
Cardoso, Lucilene;Miasso, Adriana Inocenti;Galera, Sueli Aparecida Frari;Maia, Beatriz Marques;Esteves, Rafael Braga;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692011000500012
Abstract: this exploratory, descriptive and prospective study aimed to identify the degree of adherence to psychopharmacological treatment of patients who were discharged from psychiatric hospitalization and their knowledge about their prescription and diagnosis. the study was carried out at a mental health service. the sample consisted of all service clients who were discharged from psychiatric hospitalization in the data collection period. a sociodemographic questionnaire and the morisky-green test were the instruments used. data were analyzed through central trend measures. in total, 48 patients participated in the study. regarding adherence, 70.8% of them showed a low adherence level to psychopharmacological treatment. moreover, only twenty-one patients knew what their diagnosis was and most did not know or partially knew the name and dose of all prescribed medications.
Crescimento de milheto e guandu, desempenho de plantas cítricas e propriedades físicas do solo escarificado em um pomar
Bordin, Ivan;Neves, Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro;Francio Filho, Pedro;Preti, Edilene Aparecida;Cardoso, Carina;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-06832008000400005
Abstract: chiseling and cover crops can be used in the management of orchards with the purpose of improving soil physical conditions and reducing soil compaction. this study had the objective of evaluating the influence of chiseling on the development of cover crops and citrus trees and on soil physical properties in an orchard with a compaction history in a clayey typic haplorthox. the soil was chiseled at 0.30 m, followed by three soil cover crops: spontaneous vegetation, pigeon pea (cajanus cajan), and millet (pennisetum americanum). the statistical design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 3 (chiseling and non-chiseling and three soil covers). after 110 days the aboveground phytomass of cover crops was collected and trenches were dug for root evaluation. the soil physical properties were determined at three points (under canopy, wheel track and inter-row) and four depths (0-0.1; 0.1-0.2; 0.2-0.3 and 0.3-0.4 m). the phytomass of the aboveground part and root system of the cover crops was greater in the chiseling treatment. in the chiseling management the root growth of pearl millet was greater than of pigeon pea and equal in the unchiseled treatment. development and yield of citrus trees were not affected by treatments. soil chiseling resulted in a higher soil macro porosity and lower soil bulk density and soil penetration resistance.
IDENTIFICACIóN Y ANáLISIS DE LOS ERRORES DE MEDICACIóN EN SEIS HOSPITALES BRASILE?OS
de Bortoli Cassiani,Silvia Helena; Silvia Monzani,Aline Aparecida; Bauer De Camargo Silva,Ana Elisa; Trevisani Fakih,Flávio; Perufo Opitz,Simone; Alux Teixeira,Thalyta Cardoso;
Ciencia y enfermería , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95532010000100010
Abstract: this study identified medication errors that occurred at the medical clinics of 6 brazilian hospitals, using direct observation. the sample consisted of doses prescribed and administered at the clinics, which were observed during the data collection period, respecting a minimum of 35 doses/day, during a 30-day period. the results evidenced that: 1.7% of the administered medication was different from the prescribed drugs; 4.8% of the administered doses were different from the prescriptions; 1.5% of the medication was administered through routes different from the prescriptions; 0.3% of patients received non-authorized medication; about 7.4% of the medication were administered more than 1 h after and 2.2% more than 1 h before the prescribed medication time.
Phytochemical Screening, Extraction of Essential Oils and Antioxidant Activity of Five Species of Unconventional Vegetables  [PDF]
Marcos Schleiden Sousa Carvalho, Maria das Gra?as Cardoso, Luciane Vilela Resende, Marcos de Souza Gomes, Luiz Roberto Marques Albuquerque, Anni Cristini Silvestri Gomes, Thaís Aparecida Sales, Karen Caroline Camargo, David Lee Nelson, Gabriele Mikami Costa, Mariana Araújo Espósito, Luis Felipe Lima e Silva
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.616265
Abstract: Unconventional vegetables, in general, are plants that have been largely consumed by the population at some point and, because of changes in eating behavior, now present reduced economic and social expression and have lost ground to other vegetables. The objectives of this study were to perform phytochemical screening of the ethanol extracts of Rumex acetosa L., Tropaeolum majus L., Solanum muricatum, Stachys byzantina K. Koch and Solanum betaceum Cav. and evaluate their antioxidant potentials via the methods involving scavaging of the DPPH free radical and the ABTS radical, phosphomolybdenum and reducing power. In phytochemical screening, five species of unconventional vegetables tested positive for tannins; for sesquiterpene, lactones and other lactones. These tests were positive for Tropaeolum majus L. and Rumex acetosa L., Solanum betaceum Cav. and Solanum muricatum tested negative for steroids. Only Solanum betaceum Cav. gave positive tests for flavonoids. Among the five plant species studied, Stachys byzantina K. Koch presented the greatest antioxidant potential in all the methods evaluated.
Uso do ácido indolbutírico e do escuro no enraizamento in vitro do porta-enxerto de macieira 'Marubakaido'
Zanol, Geni Carmen;Fortes, Gerson Renan de Luces;Silva, Jo?o Baptista da;Faria, Janine Taveres Camargo;Gottinari, Rosete Aparecida;Centellas, Alberto Quesada;
Ciência Rural , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84781998000300006
Abstract: the this work was improve in vitro rooting percentage and quality of the apple rootstock 'marubakaido' (malus prunifolia borkh.) through reduction of the damaging effects caused by excess auxin during rooting period. shoots with three pair leaves (2.5 - 3.0 cm) derived from the in vitro multiplication process were utilized. the medium used had ms vitamins and salts ms/2, 100mg/l-1 myo-inositol, 30 g/l'1 sucrose and 6 g/l-1 agar. the ph was adjusted to 5,9 before adding the agar. the shoots remained 2, 4 and 6 days in the dark under three iba concentrations as follows: 0; 1.0 and 3.0 mm. after that period they transferred to a medium without growth regulator and displayed in a growth chamber at 25 ±2° c, 16 hour photoperiod and 2000 lux. the lack of iba or its lowest concentration reduced the rooting as the darkening period increased showing a negative linear effect. for the highest auxin level it was not observed any difference in the rooting for all the darkening periods witch presented over 80% rooting. shoots treated witch iba showed a higher number of roots as the darkening periods increased. it was observed that roots formed mainly in the base shoots soars. plantlets showed gradual increase in leaf area witch the increase and iba concentration and the period remained in the dark. the highest survival percentage occurred with higher iba treated explants. the highest plantlet quality were obtained with 6 days darkening period under 3.0 mm iba. although the svstem iba/darkness seems to improve quality it requires further manipulation of the individual explants and a renewed medium is also required.
Gerenciamento do setor saúde na década de 80, no Estado de S?o Paulo, Brasil
Tanaka,Oswaldo Yoshimi; Escobar,Eulália Maria A.; Gimenez,Aparecida Silvia M.; Camargo,Katia G.; Lelli,Carmen L.S.; Yoshida,Tania M.;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1992, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101992000300010
Abstract: the shared management put into effect by the "a??es integradas de saúde" (integrated health actions) in the state of s. paulo (brazil), in the early 80s is analysed. the relevant data were collected from the minutes of the meetings of the "comiss?o interinstitutional de saúde" (interinstitucional health commitee). the data collected show the most frequent subjects discussed by the members at the meetings, the number of members related to each of the different government levels, in addition to the kind of resolutions taken at the meetings. the data analysis has demonstrated that important changes took place in public health management in the state of s. paulo in the decade in question. the shared management process was replaced by one in which government powers were clearly divided a towards the end of the 80s. those changes have led the public health members from each level of governmental administration to give up the common goals and the shared negociations among them.
Uma análise de semelhan?as e diferen?as na tradu??o de textos técnicos, jornalísticos e literários
Camargo, Diva Cardoso de;
DELTA: Documenta??o de Estudos em Lingüística Teórica e Aplicada , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-44502004000100001
Abstract: by using corpus of technical, journalistic and literary texts, originally written in english and translated into portuguese, we may analyse the prevailing strategies employed by the translators when dealing with similarities and differences of source and target texts, languages and cultures. with this purpose in mind, we applied the descriptive-comparative model suggested by aubert (1984, 1998). this model adapts the categories proposed by vinay and darbelnet ([1958, 1977]1995), in order to first identify then classify the procedures or modalities that characterise the translation of these text genres. according to data comparison, the most common modalities in the three corpora are found to be literal translation, transposition, and modulation. because the high frequency of literal translation appears in technical texts and, contrary to what was expected, also occurs in journalistic texts with even higher percentage, we may infer a tendency towards automatism in the translation of these two text types. on the other hand, the greater need for modulations and transpositions with modulation may be said to be related to the literary text translators' more active participation in attempting to escape from literalism towards re-elaboration, in order to convey features commonly attached to the language of the novel.
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