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Applications of Quantitative Serum Neopterin Determination in Dogs Affected by Leishmaniasis-Preliminary Study
Cerquetella Matteo,Spaziante Daniele,Laus Fulvio,Beribe Francesca,Marini Carlotta,Preziuso Silvia,Cuteri Vincenzo,Spaterna Andrea,Tesei Beniamino
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.3937.3942
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible correlations between Neopterin serum values and Immunofluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT) titers in dogs positive for Leishmania infantum and to provide further reference values for Neopterin in seronegative patients. Neopterin has been determined in 74 dogs, 30 of which where clinically healthy, seronegative and without any particular laboratory abnormalities for the tested parameters while the remaining 44 were positive to IFAT. The heterogeneous results obtained for Neopterin values in seronegative dogs in the present study did not allow inferring reference limits in those subjects but some of the correlations between Neopterin and IFAT titers in seropositive ones encourage further studies on that matter, possibly comparing the molecule values with other traditional markers of infection/disease. The present study represents a possible preliminary step towards the use of serum Neopterin values as a biomarker in dogs affected by leishmaniasis.
Brain Activity of Thioctic Acid Enantiomers: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies in an Animal Model of Cerebrovascular Injury
Daniele Tomassoni,Francesco Amenta,Consuelo Amantini,Valerio Farfariello,Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli,Innocent E. Nwankwo,Carlotta Marini,Seyed Khosrow Tayebati
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms14034580
Abstract: Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defense mechanisms, potentially leading to tissue damage. Oxidative stress has a key role in the development of cerebrovascular and/or neurodegenerative diseases. This phenomenon is mainly mediated by an enhanced superoxide production by the vascular endothelium with its consequent dysfunction. Thioctic, also known as alpha-lipoic acid (1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid), is a naturally occurring antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals in the fatty and watery regions of cells. Both the reduced and oxidized forms of the compound possess antioxidant ability. Thioctic acid has two optical isomers designated as (+)- and (?)-thioctic acid. Naturally occurring thioctic acid is the (+)-thioctic acid form, but the synthetic compound largely used in the market for stability reasons is a mixture of (+)- and (?)-thioctic acid. The present study was designed to compare the antioxidant activity of the two enantiomers versus the racemic form of thioctic acid on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in a rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and free oxygen radical species (ROS) production was assessed by flow cytometry. Antioxidant activity of the two enantiomers and the racemic form of thioctic acid was also evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) used as an in vivo model of increased oxidative stress. A 3-h exposure of PC12 cells to hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) significantly decreased cell viability and increased levels of intracellular ROS production. Pre-treatment with racemic thioctic acid or (+)-enantiomer significantly inhibited H 2O 2-induced decrease in cell viability from the concentration of 50 μmol/L and 20 μmol/L, respectively. Racemic thioctic acid and (+)-salt decreased levels of intracellular ROS, which were unaffected by (?)-thioctic acid. In the brain of SHR, the occurrence of astrogliosis and neuronal damage, with a decreased expression of neurofilament 200 kDa were observed. Treatment of SHR for 30 days with (+)-thioctic acid reduced the size of astrocytes and increased the neurofilament immunoreaction. The above findings could contribute to clarify the role played by thioctic acid in central nervous system injury related to oxidative stress. The more pronounced effect of (+)-thioctic acid observed in this study may have practical therapeutic implications worthy of being investigated in further preclinical and clinical studies.
Comparative Oral Absorption of Different Citicoline and Homotaurine Formulations: A Single-Dose, Two-Period Crossover Trial in the Dog  [PDF]
Andrea Marchegiani, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Maria Rosaria Romano, Decio Capobianco, Ciro Costagliola, Carlotta Marini, Giuseppe Lubrano Lavadera, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Andrea Spaterna
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2019.127028
Abstract: Background: Citicoline and homotaurine are compounds with a potent neuroprotective activity and they have been administered for many years in the treatment of numerous neurodegenerative and ophthalmological diseases, including glaucoma. Initially available only as liquid form, through parenteral route, nowadays citicoline can be administered also as tablet but no data on bioavailability of these different forms are available. In the present study, pharmacokinetics of citicoline in tablet versus vials, each at the therapeutic dose of 500 mg, in addition to 50 mg of homotaurine was investigated. Materials and methods: Ten mixed breed dogs received a single dose of 50 mg oral homotaurine and 500 mg citicoline in tablet and vials with the same dose were administered after a seven days wash-out period. Parameters assessed for citicoline metabolites (cytidine, uridine and choline) were AUC0t, Cmax and Tmax. Results: Citicoline bioavailability appeared to be slightly higher for the tablet compared to the vial formulation. Cytidine is equivalent in absorption dynamics both for tablet and liquid form; uridine for tablet reaches its maximum and is reabsorbed more quickly while choline for the liquid form reaches the maximum first and is reabsorbed more quickly. Conclusions: Citicoline in tablet and liquid formulation have pharmacokinetic properties leading to a very similar bioavailability.
Preparation of Star-Shaped Polylactic Acid Drug Carrier Nanoparticles  [PDF]
Michele Marini
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.11007
Abstract: Drug carrier biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles of about 15 nm were prepared by solvent evaporation technique from star-shaped poly(D,L-lactide) synthesized using dipentaerythritol as core and Tin (II) ethylhexanoate as catalyst.
The Importance of Health Records  [PDF]
Milena Marini
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.75073
Abstract: Health records have played an increasingly important role throughout history as an important legal document for the exercise of individuals’ rights. However, domestic legislation fails to define health records as a legally important collection of health data and documents. Recording facts and storing legally important documents are therefore the tasks of the operator. Using the prescriptive method we will determine which laws are governing the management of medical records, their safety and accessibility. Based on the descriptive method, we will describe the process of handling health records by the provider of health treatment, focusing on exposed regulatory gaps in the area of the protection of the rights of an individual. Through the analysis of the laws governing the management of health records, even after death and operator terminating the service, we will carry out inductive reasoning and provide conclusions regarding the attitude towards health records. Considering different results we can conclude that health information, especially documents relevant to the protection of individual’s rights, is not transparent. Above all, the documents in the collection are not recorded properly, thus allowing for their removal. Even the transfer of health records by the provider of health treatment is not defined, which could result in the disposal of the entire health documentation.
Le droit d'asile dans la pensée de Van Espen: profils juridiques de la formation du ius publicum ecclesiasticum dans les Pays-Bas catholiques.
Carlotta Latini
Forum Historiae Iuris , 2002,
Abstract: CARLOTTA LATINI (UNIVERSITà DEGLI STUDI DI MACERATA). La question du droit d'asile dans le ius publicum ecclesiasticum de Van Espen. La question du droit d'asile chez Van Espen et dans son Ius ecclesiasticum universum assume un r le significatif si l'on considère sa vision peu favorable aux privilèges du clergé et de l'église. La reconnaissance de deux espaces d'autonomie, un pour le pouvoir la c un autre pour l'ecclésiastique, pourrait se résumer à ces fameuses paroles: Rendre à Dieu ce qui appartient à Dieu et à César ce qui appartient à César , et constitue en somme, le point de départ de sa réflexion en matière d'immunité. Nous décrirons le droit d'asile dans les églises, à travers l'indication de deux moments principaux: l'asile comme intercessio épiscopal et l'asile comme privilegium, c'est-à-dire comme immunité locale et donc élément qui prend part au projet de réorganisation juridique de l'église et de formation de ius publicum ecclesiasticum. A l'origine du choix entre l'une et l'autre définition, il existe sans aucun doute une autre conception politique de l'asile, un mode différent de comprendre la question du refuge dans les églises. Une lecture attentive des changements que certaines réalités peuvent subir - comme celle de l'asile, dont l'origine est essentiellement religieuse - suggère de considérer l'asile comme intercessio dans la phase initiale de son emploi. C'est plus tard qu'on l'appellera immunitas localis lorsque l'institution assumera des caractéristiques purement juridiques et acquerra la structure du privilegium. Tout cela le portera à constituer un des éléments fondateurs de la libertas ecclesiae. La position de Van Espen confirme cette conception du droit d'asile: sa dissertation commence justement avec une réflexion sur les origines de l'asile et sur l'activité que les évêques exer aient en faveur des criminels, auprès des princes locaux, afin d'obtenir miséricorde ou indulgence et ainsi la relaxatio de la poena sanguinis. Cette conception du droit d'asile est imprégnée de l'idée que la décision en matière d'asile dépend entièrement du ressort du prince séculaire. Tout au long de la Dissertatio, Van Espen ne se sépare pas de cette idée, qui tire ses origines de l'immunité locale : en effet, de l'avis du canoniste, il n'y a aucun doute - du moins pour les Pays-Bas - qu'une coutume aussi ferme reconnaisse au prince séculaire une compétence exclusive pour le droit d'asile. Durant toute la dissertation, la description de l'institution faite par Van Espen, oscille entre la compréhension, l'appréciation positive de l'intercessio
Aldo Mazzacane (Hrsg.), Diritto economia e istituzioni nell'Italia fascista (Das Europa der Diktatur - Wirtschaftskontrolle und Recht, Bd. 2)
Carlotta Latini
Forum Historiae Iuris , 2003,
Death as a passage. Sacred and archaic in the architecture of Sigurd Lewerentz La morte come passaggio. Sacro e arcaico nell’architettura di Sigurd Lewerentz
Carlotta Torricelli
In_Bo : Ricerche e Progetti per il Territorio, la Città e l'Architettura , 2012, DOI: 10.6092/issn.2036-1602/3249
Abstract: In 1915 E.G. Asplund and S. Lewerentz won the Competition for the Enlargement of the South Cemetery in Stockholm. The long and complex series of events leading to the creation of the cemetery in phases began at that point and continued for the whole period of the two architects’ professional activity. When, in 1921, the cemetery authority entrusted Lewerentz with the task of creating the second of the minor chapels - later called the Chapel of Resurrection - the young architect decided to place a classical temple, built of white stone, at the end of the Way of the Seven Wells, the long straight path cut out of the high, dark mass of forest and coming from the Meditation Grove. Lewerentz envisioned a so-called chapel of passage, meaning that the death is not an end point but rather a gateway toward a new dimension. Nel 1915 E.G. Asplund e S. Lewerentz vincono il Concorso per l’ampliamento del Cimitero Sud di Stoccolma. Da questo momento comincia la lunga e complessa vicenda che porta alla realizzazione per fasi del cimitero, che prosegue durante l’intera attività professionale dei due architetti. Quando nel 1921 l’autorità cimiteriale affida a Lewerentz l’incarico di realizzare la seconda delle cappelle minori - in seguito denominata Cappella della Resurrezione - il giovane architetto decide di collocare un tempio classico, costruito in pietra bianca, alla fine della Via delle Sette Fonti, il lungo cammino rettilineo ritagliato nella massa alta e scura della foresta, che proviene dalla Collina della Meditazione. Lewerentz concepisce una cappella-passaggio, per mostrare come la morte non vada intesa come punto di arrivo, ma piuttosto come un varco verso una nuova dimensione.
Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes
Carlotta Giusti
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: The research activitities carried out in Italy during the last two years in the field of theoretical nuclear physics with electroweak probes are reviewed. Different models for electron-nucleus and neutrino-nucleus scattering are compared. The results obtained for electromagnetic reactions on few-nucleon systems and on complex nuclei are discussed. The recent developments in the study of electron- and photon-induced reactions with one and two-nucleon emission are presented.
Meo Colombo Carlotta
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to study how ita€ s possible to enhance the cognitive enterprise model by the theory of autopoietic systems. I propose a model that considers the organization as a closed system in which all cognitive activity is necessary to develop coherent operations needed to adapt the firm to environmental perturbations. The central issue of the work consists in the presentation and description of the a€ chain thinking-actiona€ as a cognitive basis that builds models from which derive the actions that characterize the transformation of a business enterprise in order to maintain the viability over time. A \\\\\\\"winning\\\\\\\" entrepreneurial thinking is able to give a direction (objectives-strategy) always aimed at improving the organizationa€ s vital parameters. The role of entrepreneurship and management, therefore, is to create the conditions to encourage a continuous development of cognitive models in organizations, in order to maintain the conditions of survival and to lead the company in a situation of evolution and improvement.
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