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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1123 matches for " Carina Strand "
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RNA quality in frozen breast cancer samples and the influence on gene expression analysis – a comparison of three evaluation methods using microcapillary electrophoresis traces
Carina Strand, Johan Enell, Ingrid Hedenfalk, M?rten Fern?
BMC Molecular Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-8-38
Abstract: Comparing the methods pair-wise, Manual vs. Ratio showed concordance (good vs. degraded RNA) in 20/24, Manual vs. RIN in 23/24, and Ratio vs. RIN in 21/24 samples. All three methods were concordant in 20/24 samples. The comparison between RNA quality and gene expression analysis showed that pieces from the same tumor and with good RNA quality clustered together in most cases, whereas those with poor quality often clustered apart. The number of samples clustering in an unexpected manner was lower for the Manual (n = 1) and RIN methods (n = 2) as compared to the Ratio method (n = 5).Assigning the data into two groups, RIN ≥ 6 or RIN < 6, all but one of the top ten differentially expressed genes showed decreased expression in the latter group; i.e. when the RNA became degraded. Ontological mapping using GoMiner (p ≤ 0.05; ≥ 3 genes changed) revealed deoxyribonuclease activity, collagen, regulation of cell adhesion, cytosolic ribosome, and NADH dehydrogenase activity, to be the five categories most affected by RNA quality.The results indicate that the Manual and RIN methods are superior to the Ratio method for evaluating RNA quality in fresh frozen breast cancer tissues. The objective measurement when using the RIN method is an advantage. Furthermore, the inclusion of samples with degraded RNA may profoundly affect gene expression levels.The development of high-throughput technologies such as microarrays, allowing for the parallel analysis of the expression of thousands of genes from a tumor in one single experiment, has provided new tumor biological knowledge. In breast cancer, for example, microarrays have been suggested to be useful for predicting clinical outcome and for tailoring treatment strategies for individual patients [1-3]. This approach may also increase the ability to identify new targets for more specific therapies. Studies using this technique have furthermore revealed differences in gene expression profiles between different subgroups of breast cancer,
Expansion of CD4+CD25+ and CD25- T-Bet, GATA-3, Foxp3 and RORγt Cells in Allergic Inflammation, Local Lung Distribution and Chemokine Gene Expression
You Lu,Carina Malmh?ll,Margareta Sj?strand,Madeleine R?dinger,Serena E. O'Neil,Jan L?tvall,Apostolos Bossios
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019889
Abstract: Allergic asthma is associated with airway eosinophilia, which is regulated by different T-effector cells. T cells express transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, RORγt and Foxp3, representing Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells respectively. No study has directly determined the relative presence of each of these T cell subsets concomitantly in a model of allergic airway inflammation. In this study we determined the degree of expansion of these T cell subsets, in the lungs of allergen challenged mice. Cell proliferation was determined by incorporation of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) together with 7-aminoactnomycin (7-AAD). The immunohistochemical localisation of T cells in the lung microenvironments was also quantified. Local expression of cytokines, chemokines and receptor genes was measured using real-time RT-PCR array analysis in tissue sections isolated by laser microdissection and pressure catapulting technology. Allergen exposure increased the numbers of T-bet+, GATA-3+, RORγt+ and Foxp3+ cells in CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells, with the greatest expansion of GATA-3+ cells. The majority of CD4+CD25+ T-bet+, GATA-3+, RORγt+ and Foxp3+ cells had incorporated BrdU and underwent proliferation during allergen exposure. Allergen exposure led to the accumulation of T-bet+, GATA-3+ and Foxp3+ cells in peribronchial and alveolar tissue, GATA-3+ and Foxp3+ cells in perivascular tissue, and RORγt+ cells in alveolar tissue. A total of 28 cytokines, chemokines and receptor genes were altered more than 3 fold upon allergen exposure, with expression of half of the genes claimed in all three microenvironments. Our study shows that allergen exposure affects all T effector cells in lung, with a dominant of Th2 cells, but with different local cell distribution, probably due to a distinguished local inflammatory milieu.
Immunophenotyping of Circulating T Helper Cells Argues for Multiple Functions and Plasticity of T Cells In Vivo in Humans - Possible Role in Asthma
Carina Malmh?ll, Apostolos Bossios, Madeleine R?dinger, Margareta Sj?strand, You Lu, Bo Lundb?ck, Jan L?tvall
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040012
Abstract: Background The immune process driving eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic asthma is likely driven by different subsets of T helper (Th) cells. Recently, in vitro studies and animal studies suggest that Th cell subsets displays plasticity by changing their transcription factor or by expressing multiple transcription factors. Our aim was to determine whether individuals with asthma and elevated circulating eosinophils express signs of different regulatory immune mechanisms compared with asthmatics with low blood eosinophils and non-asthmatic control subjects. In addition, determine the relationship between eosinophilia and circulating Th cell subsets. Methodology/Principal findings Participants were selected from a random epidemiological cohort, the West Sweden Asthma Study. Immunophenotypes of fresh peripheral blood cells obtained from stable asthmatics, with and without elevated eosinophilic inflammation (EOS high and EOS low respectively) and control subjects, were determined by flow cytometry. No differences in the number of Th1 (T-bet), Th2 (GATA-3), Th17 (RORγt) or Treg (FOXP3) cells were observed between the groups when analysing each subset separately. However, in all groups, each of the Th subsets showed expression of additional canonical transcription factors T-bet, GATA-3, RORγt and FOXP3. Furthermore, by in vitro stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 there was a significant increase of single expressing GATA-3+ and co-expressing T-bet+GATA-3+ cells in the EOS high asthmatics in comparison with control subjects. In addition, T-bet?GATA-3+RORγt+FOXP3+ were decreased in comparison to the EOS low asthmatics. Finally, in a group of control subjects we found that the majority of proliferating Th cells (CD4+CD25+Ki67+) expressed three or four transcription factors. Conclusions The ability of human Th cells to express several regulatory transcription factors suggests that these cells may display plasticity in vivo.
Tiling array-CGH for the assessment of genomic similarities among synchronous unilateral and bilateral invasive breast cancer tumor pairs
Sara Brommesson, G?ran J?nsson, Carina Strand, Dorthe Grabau, Per Malmstr?m, Markus Ringnér, M?rten Fern?, Ingrid Hedenfalk
BMC Clinical Pathology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6890-8-6
Abstract: 32 K tiling microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was used to explore the genomic similarities among synchronous unilateral and bilateral invasive breast cancer tumor pairs, and was compared with histopathological and tumor biological parameters.Based on global copy number profiles and unsupervised hierarchical clustering, five of ten (p = 1.9 × 10-5) unilateral tumor pairs displayed similar genomic profiles within the pair, while only one of eight bilateral tumor pairs (p = 0.29) displayed pair-wise genomic similarities. DNA index, histological type and presence of vessel invasion correlated with the genomic analyses.Synchronous unilateral tumor pairs are often genomically similar, while synchronous bilateral tumors most often represent individual primary tumors. However, two independent unilateral primary tumors can develop synchronously and contralateral tumor spread can occur. The presence of an intraductal component is not informative when establishing the independence of two tumors, while vessel invasion, the presence of which was found in clustering tumor pairs but not in tumor pairs that did not cluster together, supports the clustering outcome. Our data suggest that genomically similar unilateral tumor pairs may represent a more aggressive disease that requires the addition of more severe treatment modalities, and underscores the importance of evaluating the clonality of multiple tumors for optimal patient management. In summary, our findings demonstrate the importance of evaluating the properties of both tumors in order to determine the most optimal patient management.The incidence of synchronous bilateral breast cancer is low, corresponding to less than 2% of all breast cancer diagnoses [1-3]. The definition of synchronism in this context is, however, ambiguous in the literature, and the time spans used to define breast cancers as synchronous range from one month to two years, making the interpretation of incidence difficult [4-6]. In
Regulatory role of CD8+ T lymphocytes in bone marrow eosinophilopoiesis
Madeleine R?dinger, Svetlana Sergejeva, Anna-Karin Johansson, Carina Malmh?ll, Apostolos Bossios, Margareta Sj?strand, James J Lee, Jan L?tvall
Respiratory Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-7-83
Abstract: Several approaches were utilized. Firstly, mice overexpressing interleukin-5 (IL-5) in CD3+ T lymphocytes (NJ.1638; CD3IL-5+ mice) were bred with gene knockout mice lacking either CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD4-/-) or CD8+ T lymphocytes (CD8-/-) to produce CD3IL-5+ knockout mice deficient in CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD3IL-5+/CD4-/-) and CD8+ T lymphocytes (CD3IL-5+/CD8-/-), respectively. Secondly, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from na?ve CD3IL-5+ and C57BL/6 mice were adoptively transferred to immunodeficient SCID-bg mice to determine their effect on BM eosinophilia. Thirdly, CD3IL-5+, CD3IL-5+/CD8-/- and CD3IL-5+/CD4-/- mice were sensitized and allergen challenged. Bone marrow and blood samples were collected in all experiments.The number of BM eosinophils was significantly reduced in CD3IL-5+/CD8-/- mice compared to CD3IL-5+ mice and CD3IL-5+/CD4-/- mice. Serum IL-5 was significantly higher in CD3IL-5+/CD4-/- mice compared to CD3IL-5+ mice but there was no difference in serum IL-5 between CD3IL-5+/CD4-/- and CD3IL-5+/CD8-/- mice. Adoptive transfer of CD8+, but not CD4+ T lymphocytes from na?ve CD3IL-5+ and C57BL/6 mice restored BM eosinophilia in immunodeficient SCID-bg mice. Additionally, allergen challenged CD3IL-5+/CD8-/- mice developed lower numbers of BM eosinophils compared to CD3IL-5+ mice and CD3IL-5+/CD4-/- mice.This study shows that CD8+ T lymphocytes are intricately involved in the regulation of BM eosinophilopoiesis, both in non-sensitized as well as sensitized and allergen challenged mice.One important pathologic feature of allergic airway inflammation is associated with T lymphocyte activation and increase in eosinophil numbers in the airways [1-3]. Accumulation of eosinophils is considered to be the result of increased production and traffic of cells from the bone marrow (BM) into the airways via the circulation [4,5]. A substantial body of evidence suggests that BM eosinophilopoiesis is enhanced in allergic patients as well as in animal models of allergen-
Increase in Net Activity of Serine Proteinases but Not Gelatinases after Local Endotoxin Exposure in the Peripheral Airways of Healthy Subjects
Margaretha E. Smith, Steven Bozinovski, Carina Malmh?ll, Margareta Sj?strand, Pernilla Glader, Per Venge, Pieter S. Hiemstra, Gary P. Anderson, Anders Lindén, Ingemar Qvarfordt
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075032
Abstract: We tested the hypothesis that activation of the innate immune response induces an imbalance in the proteolytic homeostasis in the peripheral airways of healthy subjects, towards excess serine or gelatinase proteinase activity. During bronchoscopy, 18 healthy human subjects underwent intra-bronchial exposure to endotoxin and contra-lateral exposure to vehicle. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were harvested 24 or 48 hours (h) later. We quantified archetype proteinases, anti-proteinases, inflammatory BAL cells, and, importantly, total plus net proteinase activities using functional substrate assays. As expected, endotoxin exposure increased the concentrations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) and macrophages, of proteinases and the anti-proteinases tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, α-1-antitrypsin and, to a lesser extent, secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor, at both time points. Notably, at these time points, endotoxin exposure substantially increased the quantitative NE/SLPI ratio and the net serine proteinase activity corresponding to neutrophil elastase (NE). Endotoxin exposure also increased the total gelatinase activity corresponding to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9; an activity dominating over that of MMP-2. However, endotoxin exposure had no impact on net gelatinolytic activity at 24 or 48 h after exposure. Thus, local activation of the innate immune response induces an imbalance towards increased net serine proteinase activity in the proteolytic homeostasis of the peripheral airways in healthy subjects. Hypothetically, this serine proteinase activity can contribute to tissue remodelling and hypersecretion via NE from PMN's, if it is triggered repeatedly, as might be the case in chronic inflammatory airway disorders.
DEN PEDAGOGISKE FILOSOFIENS OPPDRAG
Torill Strand
Studier i P?dagogisk Filosofi , 2012,
Abstract: Today, philosophy of education comes forward as diverse, many-faceted and numerous engagements with issues and problems concerning both the fields of philosophy and education. But what is the vital mission of contemporary philosophers of education, and how is this mission justified? Through a tentative reading of Alain Badiou’s ethic and philosophical manifestos, I here hope to throw some lights on these questions. To do so, I clarify Badiou’s epistemic and ontological positions and discuss the relevance of his “ethic of truths” and “democratic materialism”. To what degree may Badiou inform the potential topicality and relevance of a philosophy of education of and for the present?
Being and becoming a teacher in medical education
Pia Strand
H?gre Utbildning , 2011,
Abstract: Pia Strand recenserar: Being and becoming a teacher in medical education, av Terese Stenfors-Hayes (doktorsavhandling, 2011)
Down With the Type-Cult
Embrik Strand
Psyche , 1929, DOI: 10.1155/1929/24041
Abstract:
Dissimilarities in Social Support as Described by Swedish- and Foreign-Born Persons Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes and Living in Sweden  [PDF]
Katarina Hjelm, Carina Berter?
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.43025
Abstract:

Diabetes (DM) requires self-care that is demanding and may cause stress. Social support can buffer effects of stress. No previous study has been found comparing perceptions of foreign-born persons with DM, concerning the content of and need for social support with a population of origin. The aim was to compare the meaning of support and its impact on the life situation in Swedish- and foreign-born persons diagnosed with type 2 DM living in Sweden. A purposive sample of 74 persons; 34 foreign- and 40 Swedish-born, aged 32-80 years, diagnosed with type 2 DM, was included. The foreign-born persons were mostly Middle Eastern and Ex-Yugoslavian refugees. Mixed methods were used and data were collected by qualitative interviews and quantitative data collected by the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ). Studying the figures measured by NSSQ, no significant differences were found according to gender but foreign-born men scored lower than Swedish, especially in emotional support and aid. The main findings showed that respondents, irrespective of origin, described the meaning of the concept of support mainly as information support in learning to manage DM. However, foreign-born persons also focused on medical support with regular follow-ups while Swedes emphasized the need for emotional support. Foreign- and Swedish-born persons are in general more similar than dissimilar in describing the meaning, need and impact of support. Irrespective of origin they want to learn to manage their disease and thus desire and need regular follow-up and information immediately from being diagnosed. Further studies are needed as the study is based on a limited sample.

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