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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 96 matches for " Captopril "
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Angiotensin Receptor Type I Blockade Inhibits Apoptosis in Meconium-Instilled Rabbit Lungs  [PDF]
Alexander Zagariya, Shan Navale, Bruce Uhal, Olga Zagariya, Dharmapuri Vidyasagar
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.25084
Abstract: Background and objectives: In prior studies we demonstrated that meconium-induced lung cell death by apoptosis was associated with activation of the local pulmonary renin-angiotensin system (RASL). Alveolar epithelial apoptosis requires the authocrine synthesis and proteolytic processing of angiotensinogen (AGT) to Angiotensin II (ANG II). Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) block meconium-induced apoptosis. ANG II plays an essential role in vascular homeostasis and lung injury. The objectives of this study were to evaluate expression of AGT, ANG II and Caspase 3 in meconium and saline treated newborn lungs and to study mechanisms of its inhibition by a selective antagonist of the AT1 receptor. Methods: Two week old rabbits were studied. Three treatment groups were studied (six rabbit pups in each group): Group 1: rabbits instilled with saline; Group 2: rabbits instilled with 10% meconium; Group 3: Losartan pretreated followed by meconium-instillation. Three groups of A549 human lung epithelial cells were studies as well. Group 4: AGT pretreated and then meconium-exposed cells; Group 5: ANG II pretreated and then meconium exposed cells and Group 6: Caspase 3 inhibitor ZVAD-fmk pretreated and then meconium exposed cells. AGT, ANG II and Caspase 3 were evaluated and compared with and without inhibitors in meconium and control groups. Results: In Situ End Labeling (ISEL) and Caspase 3 assays showed that purified ANG II induced dose dependent apoptosis in rabbit lung lavage cells and the human A549 lung epithelial cell line. Apoptosis also was induced by purified AGT. The increase in apoptotic cells was accompanied by increases in ANG II and Caspase 3 activities. In both airway epithelium and alveolar wall cells, measures of apoptosis were attenuated by Losartan or by the Caspase 3 inhibitor ZVAD-fmk. Conclusions: These data demonstrate the presence of a functional ANG II and Caspase 3 dependent apoptotic pathways in newborn meconium-instilled lungs. They also imply that meconium-induced apoptosis is modulated by the pulmonary RASL system in which ANG II plays a critical role. Both losartan and the Caspase 3 inhibitor ZVAD-fmk pretreatment significantly decreased meconium-induced Caspase-3 activation and lung cell apoptosis.
Papel permisivo de la Angiotensina II en la respuesta simpática al Estrés
Sosa,B; Israel,A;
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica , 2002,
Abstract: the present study was carried out to assess whether endogenous angiotensin ii (ang) supports sympathetically mediated cardiovascular response to stress in conscious unrestrained rats, using experimental models in which the renin-angiotensin-system was reduced or blocked. footshock-stress increased mean arterial pressure (map) and heart rate (hr). inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme with captopril or blockade of at1 angiotensin receptor with losartan, attenuated vasopressor responses to footshocks, while heart rate response was not altered. bilateral nephrectomy suppressed vasopressor response as well the elevation of plasma norepinephrine (ne) and epinephrine (epi) induced by footshocks, and reduced heart rate response. cardiovascular response to stress in nephrectomyzed rats was restored by exogenous administration of a subpressor dose of angiotensin ii. our results demonstrate that in conscious rats cardiovascular response to footshocks is dependent on an active renin-angiotensin system and they indicate that endogenous ang supports the sympathetically mediated vasopressor response to footshocks.
Use of oral antihypertensive medication preceding blood pressure elevation in hospitalized patients
Macedo, Cristiano Ricardo Bastos de;Noblat, Antonio Carlos Beisl;Noblat, Lúcia de Araújo Costa Beisl;Macedo, Jeane Meire Sales de;Lopes, Antonio Alberto;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2001001000002
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the frequency of oral antihypertensive medication preceding the increase in blood pressure in patients in a university hospital, the drug of choice, and the maintained use of antihypertensive medication. methods: data from january to june 1997 from the university hospital professor edgard santos pharmacy concerning the prescriptions of all inpatients were used. variables included in the analysis were: antihypertensive medication prescription preceding increase in blood pressure, type of antihypertensive medication, gender, clinical or surgical wards, and the presence of maintained antihypertensive medication. results: the hospital admitted 2,532 patients, 1,468 in surgical wards and 818 in medical wards. antihypertensive medication prescription preceding pressure increase was observed in 578 patients (22.8%). nifedipine was used in 553 (95.7%) and captopril in 25 (4.3%). in 50.7% of patients, prescription of antihypertensive medication was not associated with maintained antihypertensive medication. prescription of antihypertensive drugs preceding elevation of blood pressure was significantly (p<0.001) more frequent on the surgical floor (27.5%; 405/1468) than on the medical floor (14.3%; 117/818). the frequency of prescription of antihypertensive drugs preceding elevation of blood pressure without maintained antihypertensive drugs and the ratio between the number of prescriptions of nifedipine and captopril were greater in surgical wards. conclusion: the use of antihypertensive medication, preceding elevation of blood pressure (22.8%) observed in admitted patients is not supported by scientific evidence. the high frequency of this practice may be even greater in nonuniversity hospitals.
Ausência de efeito do captopril no metabolismo de uma emuls?o lipídica artificial semelhante aos quilomícrons em pacientes hipertensos e hipercolesterolêmicos
Alves, Renato J.;Diament, Jayme;Amancio, Rosangela F.;Forti, Neusa;Maranh?o, Raul C.;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2004001800009
Abstract: objective: to assess the effect of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, on the metabolism of chylomicrons and their remnants and the possible alterations in the concentrations of plasma lipids caused by the drug in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic individuals. methods: the metabolism of chylomicrons was tested with the method of artificial lipid emulsion of chylomicrons labeled with 3h-cholesteryl oleate. the emulsion was injected intravenously in 10 patients with mild-moderate arterial hypertension before and 45 days after treatment with captopril (50 mg/day). after injection, blood samples were collected during 60 minutes at pre-established time intervals for determining the decay curve, the fractional catabolic rate (fcr in min-1), and the plasma residence time of the artificial lipid emulsion by analyzing different compartments. the plasma concentrations of the lipids were also assessed before and after treatment. results: the fractional catabolic rate (min-1) of the lipid emulsion before and after treatment with captopril (0.012±0.003 and 0.011±0.003, respectively; p=0.85, n.s.) and the plasma residence time of the emulsion (83.3±20.8 and 90.9±22.5 min, n.s.) did not change, but the total cholesterol and ldl-c levels decreased by 7% and 10%, respectively (p=0.02). the concentrations of hdl-c, triglycerides, lp(a), and apolipoproteins ai and b did not change. conclusion: treatment with captopril, evaluated with the artificial lipid emulsion method, does not cause deleterious changes in the metabolism of chylomicrons and their remnants.
Captopril associado à hidroclorotiazida no tratamento da hipertens?o leve e moderada. Estudo multicêntrico brasileiro
Santello, José Luiz;Mion Jr, Décio;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X1998001100012
Abstract: purpose: to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of the association of captopril 50mg and hydrochlorithiazide 25mg in hypertensive patients with diastolic pressure between 95 and 115 mmhg. methods: an open, multicenter and non-comparative study was performed. after 2 weeks of placebo, the patients received ? tablet of drug association. patients were evaluated after 4, 8 and 12 weeks, and those who had diastolic pressure >90mmhg after 8 weeks of therapy received 1 tablet/day. results: the results of 433 patients were analyzed: 47±10 years old, 30% female, 76% white. initial systolic and diastolic pressures were 156±16 and 103±11mmhg and after 14 days of placebo were 156±15 and 103±9mmhg (p>0.05). systolic/diastolic pressure after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment reduced progressively (p<0.05) to 143±14/95±11, 140±13/91±9 and 134±11/86±8mmhg. blood pressure control was observed in 45, 67 and 88% (p<0.05) of patients after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. cough was the most important symptom, registered in 7% of patients under placebo and 12% in patients under treatment. the tolerance was considered good for 98% of patients. conclusion: the association of captopril with hydrochlorothiazide is effective with good tolerance, being indicated as a once a day monotherapy for mild and moderate hypertension.
Chronic converting enzyme inhibition normalizes QT interval in aging rats
Silva, V.J. Dias da;Ferreira Neto, E.;Salgado, H.C.;Fazan Júnior, R.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2002000900003
Abstract: the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of converting enzyme inhibition by captopril on ecg parameters in aged rats. four-month-old male rats received captopril dissolved in tap water (0.5 mg/l) or tap water for 2 or 20 months. at the end of treatment, under anesthesia, rr and pr interval, p wave and qrs duration, qt and corrected qt interval were measured in all animals. on the following day, chronic ecg (lead ii) recordings were performed to quantify supraventricular (svpb) or ventricular premature beats (vpb). after sacrifice, the hearts were removed and weighed. rr interval was similar in young and untreated aged rats, but significantly larger in aged rats treated with captopril. p wave and qrs length did not differ among groups. pr interval was significantly larger in old than in young rats and was not affected by captopril. corrected qt interval was larger in aged than in young rats (117 ± 4 vs 64 ± 6 ms, p<0.05) and was reduced by captopril (71 ± 6 ms, p<0.05). vpb were absent in young rats and highly frequent in untreated old animals (8.4 ± 3.0/30 min). captopril significantly reduced vpb in old rats (0.3 ± 0.1/30 min, p<0.05). the cardiac hypertrophy found in untreated aged rats was prevented by captopril (3.44 ± 0.14 vs 3.07 ± 0.10 mg/g, p<0.05). the beneficial effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on the rat heart during the aging process are remarkable.
Efecto de la inhibición de la síntesis de angiotensina II en el consumo de alcohol
Guivernau,Mauricio; Pallavicini,Julio;
Revista médica de Chile , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872008000800002
Abstract: background: central reninangiotensin system modulates alcohol intake and inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme reduces ethanol consumption in rats, and may be potentially useful in the treatment of alcoholism. aim: to study the effect of captopríl on alcohol intake, both in humans and animals . material and methods: in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, 15 alcoholics who met dsm-iv criíteria were randomized to receive captopril 100 mg/day or placebo for 12 weeks. in the experimental study, daily consumption of ethanol (10% v/v), water and solid food was assessed in 12 male wistar rats before and after the intraperítoneal administration of captopríl 50 mg/kg/day. results: in alcoholics, mean weekly standard alcoholic drínk consumption was not different during captopríl treatment or placebo. however, both groups had a signi?cantly lower intake than duríng baseline. days of abstinence increased and days of drunkeness decreased in the group receiving captopril, when compared with baseline but not with placebo. craving was significantly reduced by captopríl when compared with placebo. in rats, captopríl reduced not only alcohol consumption but also water and food intake. conclusions: captopríl decreases alcohol intake in rats and this effect is not speci?c for ethanol. captopril did not alter alcohol consumption in alcoholics when compared with placebo but reduced craving.
Use of oral antihypertensive medication preceding blood pressure elevation in hospitalized patients
Macedo Cristiano Ricardo Bastos de,Noblat Antonio Carlos Beisl,Noblat Lúcia de Araújo Costa Beisl,Macedo Jeane Meire Sales de
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2001,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of oral antihypertensive medication preceding the increase in blood pressure in patients in a university hospital, the drug of choice, and the maintained use of antihypertensive medication. METHODS: Data from January to June 1997 from the University Hospital Professor Edgard Santos Pharmacy concerning the prescriptions of all inpatients were used. Variables included in the analysis were: antihypertensive medication prescription preceding increase in blood pressure, type of antihypertensive medication, gender, clinical or surgical wards, and the presence of maintained antihypertensive medication. RESULTS: The hospital admitted 2,532 patients, 1,468 in surgical wards and 818 in medical wards. Antihypertensive medication prescription preceding pressure increase was observed in 578 patients (22.8%). Nifedipine was used in 553 (95.7%) and captopril in 25 (4.3%). In 50.7% of patients, prescription of antihypertensive medication was not associated with maintained antihypertensive medication. Prescription of antihypertensive drugs preceding elevation of blood pressure was significantly (p<0.001) more frequent on the surgical floor (27.5%; 405/1468) than on the medical floor (14.3%; 117/818). The frequency of prescription of antihypertensive drugs preceding elevation of blood pressure without maintained antihypertensive drugs and the ratio between the number of prescriptions of nifedipine and captopril were greater in surgical wards. CONCLUSION: The use of antihypertensive medication, preceding elevation of blood pressure (22.8%) observed in admitted patients is not supported by scientific evidence. The high frequency of this practice may be even greater in nonuniversity hospitals.
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and aortic arch obstructive malformations
Maliheh Kadivar,Abdorrazagh Kiani,Armen Kocharian,Reza Shabanian
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: We describe two newborn infants with aortic arch obstructive malformations who became anuric after initiation of captopril. Since angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors can alter renal blood flow by reduction in angiotensin II and blocking autoregulation phenomenon, it is important to use them with great caution in neonates with aortic arch obstructive malformations, while monitoring their renal function closely.
Efecto de la inhibición de la síntesis de angiotensina II en el consumo de alcohol Effect of angiotensin II synthesis inhibition on alcohol consumption
Mauricio Guivernau,Julio Pallavicini
Revista médica de Chile , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Central reninangiotensin system modulates alcohol intake and inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme reduces ethanol consumption in rats, and may be potentially useful in the treatment of alcoholism. Aim: To study the effect of captopríl on alcohol intake, both in humans and animals . Material and methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, 15 alcoholics who met DSM-IV criíteria were randomized to receive captopril 100 mg/day or placebo for 12 weeks. In the experimental study, daily consumption of ethanol (10% v/v), water and solid food was assessed in 12 male Wistar rats before and after the intraperítoneal administration of captopríl 50 mg/kg/day. Results: In alcoholics, mean weekly standard alcoholic drínk consumption was not different during captopríl treatment or placebo. However, both groups had a signi cantly lower intake than duríng baseline. Days of abstinence increased and days of drunkeness decreased in the group receiving captopril, when compared with baseline but not with placebo. Craving was significantly reduced by captopríl when compared with placebo. In rats, captopríl reduced not only alcohol consumption but also water and food intake. Conclusions: Captopríl decreases alcohol intake in rats and this effect is not speci c for ethanol. Captopril did not alter alcohol consumption in alcoholics when compared with placebo but reduced craving.
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