Abstract:
Often, the reader of a published paper is interested in a comparison of parameters that has not been presented. It is not possible to make inferences beyond point estimation since the standard error for the contrast of the estimated parameters depends upon the (unreported) correlation. This study explores approaches to obtain valid confidence intervals when the correlation is unknown. We illustrate three proposed approaches using data from the National Health Interview Survey. The three approaches include the Bonferroni method and the standard confidence interval assuming (most conservative) or (when the correlation is known to be non-negative). The Bonferroni approach is found to be the most conservative. For the difference in two estimated parameter, the standard confidence interval assuming yields a 95% confidence interval that is approximately 12.5% narrower than the Bonferroni confidence interval; when the correlation is known to be positive, the standard 95% confidence interval assuming is approximately 38% narrower than the Bonferroni. In summary, this article demonstrates simple methods to determine confidence intervals for unreported comparisons. We suggest use of the standard confidence interval assuming if no information is available or if the correlation is known to be non-negative.

Abstract:
We report on a new measurement of the cosmic ray antiproton spectrum. The data were collected by the balloon-borne experiment CAPRICE98 which was flown on 28-29 May 1998 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, USA. The experiment used the NMSU-WIZARD/CAPRICE98 balloon-borne magnet spectrometer equipped with a gas Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector, a time-of-flight system, a tracking device consisting of drift chambers and a superconducting magnet and a silicon-tungsten calorimeter. The RICH detector was the first ever flown capable of mass-resolving charge-one particles at energies above 5 GeV. A total of 31 antiprotons with rigidities between 4 and 50 GV at the spectrometer were identified with small backgrounds from other particles. The absolute antiproton energy spectrum was determined in the kinetic energy region at the top of the atmosphere between 3.2 and 49.1 GeV. We found that the observed antiproton spectrum and the antiproton-to-proton ratio are consistent with a pure secondary origin. However, a primary component may not be excluded.

Abstract:
A new measurement of the momentum spectra of both positive and negative muons as function of atmospheric depth was made by the balloon-borne experiment CAPRICE94. The data were collected during ground runs in Lynn Lake on the 19-20th of July 1994 and during the balloon flight on the 8-9th of August 1994. We present results that cover the momentum intervals 0.3-40 GeV/c for negative muons and 0.3-2 GeV/c for positive muons, for atmospheric depths from 3.3 to 1000 g/cm**2, respectively. Good agreement is found with previous measurements for high momenta, while at momenta below 1 GeV/c we find latitude dependent geomagnetic effects. These measurements are important cross-checks for the simulations carried out to calculate the atmospheric neutrino fluxes and to understand the observed atmospheric neutrino anomaly.

Abstract:
We present the case of a 4 year old girl whose adenoidectomy had to be performed via an endoscopictrans oral approach due to the unexpected inability to fully open the mouth during the procedure. The patient had previously been taking Risperidone for behavioral symptoms associated with her autism. The jaw tone returned to normal following the procedure and there were no complications. An interaction between the Risperidone and the anesthetics were the likely cause of the trismus.

One of the more efficient methods to hedge portfolios of securities whose put options are not traded is to use stock index options. We use the mean-extended Gini (MEG) model to derive the optimal hedge ratios for stock index options. We calculate the MEG ratios for some main stocks traded on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange and compare them to the minimum-variance hedge ratios. Computed for specific values of risk aversion, MEG hedge ratios combine systematic risk with basis risk. Our results show that increasing the risk aversion used in the computation reduces the size of the hedge ratio, implying that less put options are needed to hedge away each and every security.

Abstract:
When choosing a
particular alternative from a number of financial assets, risk is an important
feature. According to the classic Capital Assets Pricing Model (CAPM), we would
expect to receive a positive correlation between risk and return of financial
assets. However, studies show that investors judge financial assets in terms of
“good” or “bad”. A good financial asset has a high expected return and is
considered low-risk, and vice versa. This type of thinking is biased, as it is
both irrational and contradicts the classical theory of finance. One
explanation for this bias is the affect heuristic. According to this heuristic,
the investor forms her attitude about the asset in the first stage, and then
links all of her subsequent judgments to this attitude. The aim of this study
is to examine how this bias is affected by studying the CAPM in Finance entry
courses. An experiment was conducted in which each subject made both risk
judgments and return judgments in regard to 25 domestic stocks chosen randomly
from the Tel Aviv 100 stock index. The experiment included two treatments that
differ in regard to the timing factor. Some of the subjects were asked to judge
the return and risk ratings before learning about the CAPM in class; the others
were asked after studying the CAPM material. Finance education reduced the
bias, but did not prevent it. The results show that in the teaching of
Economics, there should be a balance between providing a coherent theoretical
framework together with behavioral aspects. Moreover, given that finance education
did not prevent the bias among students with background in quantitative
analysis, it is reasonable to assume that other agents without this background
would have more difficulties to apply the principles of investments under
uncertainty.

Abstract:
as psychoanalysts engage with our patients in exploring their lives, we learn a great deal about the ways in which they express their own agency, and also about ways in which they respond to being the object of other people. but because of the particular history of psychoanalytic theorizing, we are more familiar with interpreting the patient's activity - the drives and wishes - than we are with dealing with the inevitable reversals between activity and passivity that characterize every life. this problem is explored by drawing parallels between clinical material and sophocles' tragic rendering of the life of oedipus the king.

Abstract:
We study this subject by first proving that the p-primary subgroup of the classical Selmer group for an elliptic curve with good, ordinary reduction at a prime p has a very simple and elegant description which involves just the Galois module of p-power torsion points. We then prove theorems of Mazur, Schneider, and Perrin-Riou on the basis of this description. The final section, which is half of this long paper, contains a number of results and examples including a thorough study of the mu-invariant.

Abstract:
The standard algorithm for higher-order contract checking can lead to unbounded space consumption and can destroy tail recursion, altering a program's asymptotic space complexity. While space efficiency for gradual types---contracts mediating untyped and typed code---is well studied, sound space efficiency for manifest contracts---contracts that check stronger properties than simple types, e.g., "is a natural" instead of "is an integer"---remains an open problem. We show how to achieve sound space efficiency for manifest contracts with strong predicate contracts. The essential trick is breaking the contract checking down into coercions: structured, blame-annotated lists of checks. By carefully preventing duplicate coercions from appearing, we can restore space efficiency while keeping the same observable behavior. Along the way, we define a framework for space efficiency, traversing the design space with three different space-efficient manifest calculi. We examine the diverse correctness criteria for contract semantics; we conclude with a coercion-based language whose contracts enjoy (galactically) bounded, sound space consumption---they are observationally equivalent to the standard, space-inefficient semantics.