Abstract:
This study addresses bilevel linear multi-objective problem issues i.e the special case of bilevel linear programming problems where each decision maker has several objective functions conflicting with each other. We introduce an artificial multi-objective linear programming problem of which resolution can permit to generate the whole feasible set of the upper level decisions. Based on this result and depending if the leader can evaluate or not his preferences for his different objective functions, two approaches for obtaining Pareto- optimal solutions are presented.

Abstract:
In this paper, new sufficient optimality theorems for a solution of a differentiable bilevel multiobjective optimization problem (BMOP) are established. We start with a discussion on solution concepts in bilevel multiobjective programming; a theorem giving necessary and sufficient conditions for a decision vector to be called a solution of the BMOP and a proposition giving the relations between four types of solutions of a BMOP are presented and proved. Then, under the pseudoconvexity assumptions on the upper and lower level objective functions and the quasiconvexity assumptions on the constraints functions, we establish and prove two new sufficient optimality theorems for a solution of a general BMOP with coupled upper level constraints. Two corollary of these theorems, in the case where the upper and lower level objectives and constraints functions are convex are presented.

In this paper, we address bilevel multi-objective programming
problems (BMPP) in which the decision maker at each level has multiple
objective functions conflicting with each other. Given a BMPP, we show
how to construct two artificial multiobjective programming problems such that
any point that is efficient for both the two problems is an efficient solution
of the BMPP. Some necessary and sufficient conditions for which the
obtained result is applicable are provided. A complete procedure of the
implementation of an algorithm for generating efficient solutions for the
linear case of BMPP is presented. A numerical example is provided to
illustrate how the algorithm operates.

Abstract:
We present an overview of the CALICE activities on calorimeter development for a future linear collider. We report on test beam analysis results, the status of prototype development and future plans.

Abstract:
A prototype Silicon-Tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) for an International Linear Collider (ILC) detector was installed and tested during summer and autumn 2006 at CERN. The detector had 6480 silicon pads of dimension 1x1 cm^2. Data were collected with electron beams in the energy range 6 to 45 GeV. The analysis described in this paper focuses on electromagnetic shower reconstruction and characterises the ECAL response to electrons in terms of energy resolution and linearity. The detector is linear to within approximately the 1% level and has a relative energy resolution of (16.6 +- 0.1)/ \sqrt{E(GeV}) + 1.1 +- 0.1 (%). The spatial uniformity and the time stability of the ECAL are also addressed.

Abstract:
Application Specific Integrated Circuits, ASICs, similar to those envisaged for the readout electronics of the central calorimeters of detectors for a future lepton collider have been exposed to high-energy electromagnetic showers. A salient feature of these calorimeters is that the readout electronics will be embedded into the calorimeter layers. In this article it is shown that interactions of shower particles in the volume of the readout electronics do not alter the noise pattern of the ASICs. No signal at or above the MIP level has been observed during the exposure. The upper limit at the 95% confidence level on the frequency of faked signals is smaller than 1x10^{-5} for a noise threshold of about 60% of a MIP. For ASICs with similar design to those which were tested, it can thus be largely excluded that the embedding of the electronics into the calorimeter layers compromises the performance of the calorimeters.

Abstract:
The studies presented in this paper provide a first experimental test of the Particle Flow Algorithm (PFA) concept using data recorded in high granularity calorimeters. Pairs of overlaid pion showers from CALICE 2007 test beam data are reconstructed by the PandoraPFA program developed to implement PFA for a future lepton collider. Recovery of a neutral hadron's energy in the vicinity of a charged hadron is studied. The impact of the two overlapping hadron showers on energy resolution is investigated. The dependence of the confusion error on the distance between a 10 GeV neutral hadron and a charged pion is derived for pion energies of 10 and 30 GeV which are representative of a 100 GeV jet. The comparison of these test beam data results with Monte Carlo simulation is done for various hadron shower models within the GEANT4 framework. The results for simulated particles and for beam data are in good agreement thereby providing support for previous simulation studies of the power of Particle Flow Calorimetry at a future lepton collider.

Abstract:
We present an overview of the CALICE activities on calorimeter development for a future linear collider. We report on test beam analysis results, the status of prototype development and future plans.

Abstract:
The CALICE collaboration conducts calorimeter R&D for highly granular calorimeters, mainly for their application in detectors for a future lepton collider at the TeV scale. The activities ranges from generic R&D with small devices up to extensive beam tests with prototypes comprising up to several 100000 calorimeter cells. CALICE has validated the performance of particle flow algorithms with test beam data and delivers the proof of principle that highly granular calorimeters can be built, operated and understood. The successes achieved in the past years allows the step from prototypes to calorimeter systems for particle physics detectors to be addressed.

Abstract:
A prototype module for an International Linear Collider (ILC) detector was built, installed, and tested between 2006 and 2009 at CERN and Fermilab as part of the CALICE test beam program, in order to study the possibilities of extending energy sampling behind a hadronic calorimeter and to study the possibilities of providing muon tracking. The "tail catcher/muon tracker" (TCMT) is composed of 320 extruded scintillator strips (dimensions 1000 mm x 50 mm x 5 mm) packaged in 16 one-meter square planes interleaved between steel plates. The scintillator strips were read out with wavelength shifting fibers and silicon photomultipliers. The planes were arranged with alternating horizontal and vertical strip orientations. Data were collected for muons and pions in the energy range 6 GeV to 80 GeV. Utilizing data taken in 2006, this paper describes the design and construction of the TCMT, performance characteristics, and a beam-based evaluation of the ability of the TCMT to improve hadronic energy resolution in a prototype ILC detector. For a typical configuration of an ILC detector with a coil situated outside a calorimeter system with a thickness of 5.5 nuclear interaction lengths, a TCMT would improve relative energy resolution by 6-16 % for pions between 20 and 80 GeV.