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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167805 matches for " Caitlin E. Gamble "
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Contribution of Distinct Homeodomain DNA Binding Specificities to Drosophila Embryonic Mesodermal Cell-Specific Gene Expression Programs
Brian W. Busser, Stephen S. Gisselbrecht, Leila Shokri, Terese R. Tansey, Caitlin E. Gamble, Martha L. Bulyk, Alan M. Michelson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069385
Abstract: Homeodomain (HD) proteins are a large family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors (TFs) having diverse developmental functions, often acting within the same cell types, yet many members of this family paradoxically recognize similar DNA sequences. Thus, with multiple family members having the potential to recognize the same DNA sequences in cis-regulatory elements, it is difficult to ascertain the role of an individual HD or a subclass of HDs in mediating a particular developmental function. To investigate this problem, we focused our studies on the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm where HD TFs are required to establish not only segmental identities (such as the Hox TFs), but also tissue and cell fate specification and differentiation (such as the NK-2 HDs, Six HDs and identity HDs (I-HDs)). Here we utilized the complete spectrum of DNA binding specificities determined by protein binding microarrays (PBMs) for a diverse collection of HDs to modify the nucleotide sequences of numerous mesodermal enhancers to be recognized by either no or a single subclass of HDs, and subsequently assayed the consequences of these changes on enhancer function in transgenic reporter assays. These studies show that individual mesodermal enhancers receive separate transcriptional input from both I–HD and Hox subclasses of HDs. In addition, we demonstrate that enhancers regulating upstream components of the mesodermal regulatory network are targeted by the Six class of HDs. Finally, we establish the necessity of NK-2 HD binding sequences to activate gene expression in multiple mesodermal tissues, supporting a potential role for the NK-2 HD TF Tinman (Tin) as a pioneer factor that cooperates with other factors to regulate cell-specific gene expression programs. Collectively, these results underscore the critical role played by HDs of multiple subclasses in inducing the unique genetic programs of individual mesodermal cells, and in coordinating the gene regulatory networks directing mesoderm development.
Anxiety-Inducing Dietary Supplements: A Review of Herbs and Other Supplements with Anxiogenic Properties  [PDF]
Caitlin E. McCarthy, Danielle M. Candelario, Mei T. Liu
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.510109
Abstract: Anxiety disorders comprise the most common group of mental disorders to affect the general population in the United States. These disorders are heterogeneous in nature, highly comorbid with one another, and pose a degree of difficulty regarding diagnosis and management. The exact etiology and pathophysiology of anxiety remains to be elucidated; however, it is likely that it is multifactorial, and all potential causes of anxiety must be investigated, including substance-induced anxiety. Among substances that may induce anxiety are dietary supplements. As utilization of these products appears to be high in the US population, it is important to identify which of available supplements may cause anxiety. Objective: To review the scientific literature to identify dietary supplements associated with induction of anxiety and related symptoms. Methods: A search of Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements, and Natural Standard was performed to identify dietary supplements with anxiogenic properties. Dietary supplements were included based on product availability, utilization trends, and if there was sufficient evidence that the substance could elicit anxiety via direct pharmacologic effects. Agents were excluded from the review if anxiety was solely due to withdrawal from the substance or only occurred in the setting of intoxication. A search of MEDLINE and PUBMED was performed to identify relevant peer reviewed publications concerning induction of anxiety and/or its associated symptoms by those dietary supplements chosen for review. Conclusions: Dietary supplements can contribute to and cause anxiety and its related symptoms via overstimulation of the Central Nervous System. Healthcare professionals should screen all patients presenting with symptoms consistent with anxiety for recent or current use of all products capable of inducing anxiety, including dietary supplements.
A Quantitative LC-MS/MS Study of the Partitioning, Transport, and Fate of Pesticide Residues on Soil  [PDF]
Heather A. Gamble, Donald S. Gamble
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.73029

Titration of pesticides onto sorption sites can determine sorption capacities on soils. Previous studies have tracked the sorption capacities and detailed kinetics of the uptake of atrazine and its decomposition byproduct hydroxyatrazine on different soils, including measurements made using LC-MS/MS. These studies have now been extended to explore sorption-desorption equilibria for a mixture of pesticides from soil using LC-MS/MS. Desorption of sorbed pesticide residues has environmental regulatory implications for pesticide levels in runoff, or for longer term sequestration, partitioning, and transport. The uptake of pesticides by the soil at equilibrium was measured for a number of different concentrations, and sorption capacities were estimated. Pesticide-soil interaction studies were conducted by exposing standard stock solutions of pesticide mixtures to a characterized Nova Scotia soil. The mixture contained atrazine and dicamba. Initial aqueous mixture concentrations ranging from 5 × 10-9 to 10-5 M or greater were exposed to 25 mg aliquots of soil and allowed to reach equilibrium. The total uptake of each pesticide was measured indirectly, by measuring the concentration remaining in solution using an IONICS 3Q 120 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. These sorption capacities have been supplemented by studies examining equilibrium recovery rates from soil aliquots with different initial uptakes. This gives insight into the fraction of easily recoverable (reversibly sorbed) pesticides on the soil. Proper quantification of equilibrium constants and kinetic rate coefficients using high performance LC-MS/MS facilitates the construction of accurate, predictive models. Predictive kinetic models can successfully mimic the experimental results for solution concentration, labile sorption, and intra-particle diffusion, and could be used to guide regulatory practices.

Contemporary female smokers in the us are younger and of lower socioeconomic status  [PDF]
Jennifer L. Jarvie, Yun Wang, Caitlin E. Johnson, JoAnne M. Foody
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.36060
Abstract: Smoking is the most common cause of prema-ture cardiovascular disease in women, but con-temporary data is lacking. We sought to inves-tigate the differences between female smokers and nonsmokers in the US. Methods: Using a registry of almost 19,000 women who attended free public heart screenings sponsored by Sis-ter to Sister between 2008 and 2009 in 17 large US cities, we compared the means for lipid val-ues, cardiometabolic measures, and differences in sociodemographic information between smok-ers and nonsmokers. Secondary outcomes were age and race-adjusted odds for obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, a non-HDL > 160 mg/dl, and a serum glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl between smoking and nonsmoking women. Results: The final sample included 18,892 women (49.8 ± 14.3 years, 37% black, and 32% white, 14% Hispanic), with 1,216 (6.4%) current smokers. Smokers were younger than non-smokers (45.6 ± 13.0 vs 50.1 ± 14.4 years, p < 0.001), with lower HDL levels (55.5 ± 17.4 vs 58.6 ± 17.4, p < 0.001), and higher triglycerides (148.8 ± 103.7 vs 145.5 ± 93, p = 0.4082). There were no significant differences in LDL between smokers versus nonsmokers. There were more black and white women in the smoking group. Smoking women were more likely to meet criteria for the metabolic syndrome (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.00 - 1.49) and have a non-HDL > 160 mg/dl (OR 1.19; 1.01 - 1.39). Insurance and income data showed a sig-nificant inverse relationship between smoking prevalence and increasing household income. Conclusions: In this richly diverse sample of women, female smokers were younger and of lower socioeconomic status than nonsmokers with significant differences in cardiometabolic risk factors.
Transcriptional Control of Cell Lineage Development in Epicardium-Derived Cells
Caitlin M. Braitsch,Katherine E. Yutzey
Journal of Developmental Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/jdb1020092
Abstract: Epicardial derivatives, including vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts, are crucial for proper development of the coronary vasculature and cardiac fibrous matrix, both of which support myocardial integrity and function in the normal heart. Epicardial formation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and epicardium-derived cell (EPDC) differentiation are precisely regulated by complex interactions among signaling molecules and transcription factors. Here we review the roles of critical transcription factors that are required for specific aspects of epicardial development, EMT, and EPDC lineage specification in development and disease. Epicardial cells and subepicardial EPDCs express transcription factors including Wt1, Tcf21, Tbx18, and Nfatc1. As EPDCs invade the myocardium, epicardial progenitor transcription factors such as Wt1 are downregulated. EPDC differentiation into SMC and fibroblast lineages is precisely regulated by a complex network of transcription factors, including Tcf21 and Tbx18. These and other transcription factors also regulate epicardial EMT, EPDC invasion, and lineage maturation. In addition, there is increasing evidence that epicardial transcription factors are reactivated with adult cardiac ischemic injury. Determining the function of reactivated epicardial cells in myocardial infarction and fibrosis may improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of heart disease.
Exchangeable Ions Are Responsible for the In Vitro Antibacterial Properties of Natural Clay Mixtures
Caitlin C. Otto, Shelley E. Haydel
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064068
Abstract: We have identified a natural clay mixture that exhibits in vitro antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. We collected four samples from the same source and demonstrated through antibacterial susceptibility testing that these clay mixtures have markedly different antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we used X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to characterize the mineralogical and chemical features of the four clay mixture samples. XRD analyses of the clay mixtures revealed minor mineralogical differences between the four samples. However, ICP analyses demonstrated that the concentrations of many elements, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn, in particular, vary greatly across the four clay mixture leachates. Supplementation of a non-antibacterial leachate containing lower concentrations of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn to final ion concentrations and a pH equivalent to that of the antibacterial leachate generated antibacterial activity against E. coli and MRSA, confirming the role of these ions in the antibacterial clay mixture leachates. Speciation modeling revealed increased concentrations of soluble Cu2+ and Fe2+ in the antibacterial leachates, compared to the non-antibacterial leachates, suggesting these ionic species specifically are modulating the antibacterial activity of the leachates. Finally, linear regression analyses comparing the log10 reduction in bacterial viability to the concentration of individual ion species revealed positive correlations with Zn2+ and Cu2+ and antibacterial activity, a negative correlation with Fe3+, and no correlation with pH. Together, these analyses further indicate that the ion concentration of specific species (Fe2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+) are responsible for antibacterial activity and that killing activity is not solely attributed to pH.
Systematically generated two-qubit anyon braids
Caitlin Carnahan,Daniel Zeuch,N. E. Bonesteel
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Fibonacci anyons are non-Abelian particles for which braiding is universal for quantum computation. Reichardt has shown how to systematically generate nontrivial braids for three Fibonacci anyons which yield unitary operations with off-diagonal matrix elements that can be made arbitrarily small in a particular natural basis through a simple and efficient iterative procedure. This procedure does not require brute force search, the Solovay-Kitaev method, or any other numerical technique, but the phases of the resulting diagonal matrix elements cannot be directly controlled. We show that despite this lack of control the resulting braids can be used to systematically construct entangling gates for two qubits encoded by Fibonacci anyons.
Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder insomnia with blue wavelength light-blocking glasses
Fargason RE, Preston T, Hammond E, May R, Gamble KL
ChronoPhysiology and Therapy , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CPT.S37985
Abstract: eatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder insomnia with blue wavelength light-blocking glasses Short Report (873) Total Article Views Authors: Fargason RE, Preston T, Hammond E, May R, Gamble KL Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:3 Pages 1 - 8 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CPT.S37985 Received: 11 September 2012 Accepted: 06 November 2012 Published: 07 January 2013 Rachel E Fargason, Taylor Preston, Emily Hammond, Roberta May, Karen L Gamble Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: The aim of this study was to examine a nonmedical treatment alternative to medication in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) insomnia, in which blue wavelength light-blocking glasses are worn during the evening hours to counteract the phase-delaying effect of light. Outcome measures included sleep quality and midsleep time. The capacity of ADHD subjects to comply with treatment using the glasses was assessed. Methods: Daily bedtime, wake-up time, and compliance diaries were used to assess sleep quality and timing during a baseline observation week and a 2-week intervention period. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was administered following baseline and intervention. The intervention protocol consisted of use of blue wavelength-blocking glasses and a moderate lighting environment during evening hours. Results: Partial and variable compliance were noted, with only 14 of 22 subjects completing the study due to nonadherence with wearing the glasses and diary completion. Despite the minimum 3-hour recommendation, glasses were worn, on average, for 2.4 hours daily. Lighting was reduced for only 58.7% of the evening. Compared with baseline, the intervention resulted in significant improvement in global PSQI scores, PSQI subcomponent scores, and sleep diary measures of morning refreshment after sleep (P = 0.037) and night-time awakenings (P = 0.015). Global PSQI scores fell from 11.15 to 4.54, dropping below the cut-off score of 5 for clinical insomnia. The more phase-delayed subjects, ie, those with an initial midsleep time after 4:15 am, trended towards an earlier midsleep time by 43.2 minutes following the intervention (P = 0.073). Participants reported less anxiety following the intervention (P = 0.048). Conclusions: Despite only partial compliance with intervention instructions, subjects completing the study showed subjectively reduced anxiety and improved sleep quality on multiple measures. The more sleep-delayed subjects trended toward an earlier sleep period following use of the glasses. Blue-blocking glasses are a potential insomnia treatment for more compliant subjects with ADHD insomnia, especially those with prominent sleep delay. Larger studies of blue light-blocking glasses in more phase-delayed groups could reveal significant advances in chronotherapeutics.
Jos Gamble
Asian Academy of Management Journal , 2006,
Abstract: The management of host country employees is often portrayed as a particularly fraught dimension for multinational firms. The problems involved are considered exponentially greater when there are substantial institutional differences and 'cultural distance' between the host country and a firm's parent country, as is assumed to be the case for Western firms operating in China. Based upon detailed case study research conducted at a UK-invested firm in China between 1999 and 2003 and a comparative study of a Chinese state-owned firm, this paper explores the veracity of such assumptions. The findings indicate that Western human resource management practices can be transplanted successfully and questions the degree to which foreign-invested enterprises need to adopt 'the Chinese way of doing things'. Indeed, such practices can be innovative in the Chinese context and provide a competitive source of differentiation for multinationals as employees.
Foundations of Quantum Decoherence
John Gamble
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: The conventional interpretation of quantum mechanics, though it permits a correspondence to classical physics, leaves the exact mechanism of transition unclear. Though this was only of philosophical importance throughout the twentieth century, over the past decade new technological developments, such as quantum computing, require a more thorough understanding of not just the result of quantum emergence, but also its mechanism. Quantum decoherence theory is the model that developed out of necessity to deal with the quantum-classical transition explicitly, and without external observers. In this thesis, we present a self-contained and rigorously argued full derivation of the master equation for quantum Brownian motion, one of the key results in quantum decoherence theory. We accomplish this from a foundational perspective, only assuming a few basic axioms of quantum mechanics and deriving their consequences. We then consider a physical example of the master equation and show that quantum decoherence successfully represents the transition from a quantum to classical system.
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