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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2468 matches for " CT "
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Diagnostic CT: Are Patients Adequately Informed?  [PDF]
John Coyne, Angela Brent, Ewan O’Farrell
Advances in Computed Tomography (ACT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/act.2012.11001
Abstract: AIM: CT scanning is a widely utilised effective diagnostic tool. We aimed to establish whether patients are adequately informed prior to undergoing CT investigations. Methods: All adult patients with mental capacity attending the department for a CT study over a week period were invited to fill out a brief questionnaire prior to their scan. Results: 57 patients returned completed questionnaires. Overall 23% of patients were unsure or incorrect about the type of scan scheduled. Of patients attending with a new condition, 46% of them did not know their provisional diagnosis. Only 32 % of patients had insight into how a CT scan worked. This was taken to mean that the patient had included some reference to either x-rays, radiation or cross sectional imaging. Only 23% of patients were aware of potential complications of CT scans. Conclusion: Although written consent prior to CT scan is probably a step too far in providing patients with relevant risks/benefits of their investigation, we propose all patients undergoing CT have prior access to a written information sheet should they wish to be further informed regarding their procedure.
Bizarre Parosteal Osteochondromatous Proliferation of the Skull in a Young Male  [PDF]
Radu Baz, Cosmin Niscoveanu
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2013.33022
Abstract:

Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), as defined by Nora and colleagues in 1983 (also called Nora lesion), is a rare lesion. About 160 cases of BPOP have been presented in the literature to date. The lesion is an exophytic outgrowth from the cortical surface consisting of bone, cartilage and fibrous tissue. These types of lesions have been reported mostly in the hands and feet. Localization at the level of the skull is extremely rare. We report a case of a young man with multiple Nora’s lesions with atypical localization in the skull and mandible.

CT Scans in Primary Survey for Polytrauma Patients  [PDF]
Purnajyoti Banerjee, Soumen Rudra, Madhusree Ghosh, Praveen Panose
Advances in Computed Tomography (ACT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/act.2013.22009
Abstract: Managing critically injured patients are challenging. Victims of major trauma often present with a host of unknowns including the exact site and nature of injury with a need for urgent diagnosis and resuscitation. It takes significant clinical expertise to detect multiple injuries and implement life or limb saving treatment within a short period of time. Conventional radiographs and focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) scans are useful adjuncts to help in initial diagnosis. Conventional computer tomography (CT) investigations have been used for secondary survey in these scenarios. We reviewed the guidelines that regulate the use of CT scans in multiple injured patients in the UK. CT imaging is rapidly emerging as an adjunct to primary survey. It allows quick detection of major organ injury allowing focussed treatment whilst simultaneous initial resuscitation is underway. Availability of adequate resources is needed for widespread adaptation of this technique that involves manpower, relocation and refurbishment of the CT suites. Although it is not yet clear if using CT imaging during primary survey reduces mortality, it surely results in more organised patient care and efficient use of resources in an acute setting.
Cardiac Computed Tomography for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis  [PDF]
Ryotaro Wake, Shinichi Shimodozono, Hiroaki Takeshita, Takanori Kusuyama, Hiroaki Kohno, Hidetaka Iida, Minoru Yoshiyama, Kenei Shimada, Hirohito Ogata
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.43032
Abstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries, although percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting have developed recently. Appropriate diagnosis will improve the prevention, treatment, and care of all patients. We could diagnose only calcification in the coronary arteries with the past computed tomography. Recently, multislice computed tomography has been already accepted as an efficient non-invasive tool for the detection of coronary artery stenosis. We get to estimate the coronary artery stenosis with cardiac computed tomography. We discuss the usefulness of cardiac computed tomography for the risk stratification of coronary artery atherosclerosis.
Intracranial Cryptococcal Infection in HIV Positive Patient  [PDF]
Nabil Moatassim Billah, Touria Amil, Souad Chaouir
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2014.41001
Abstract: Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common fungal infection of the CNS. The majority of patients with cryptococcosis have preexisting immunodeficiency such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). CT and/or MRI of the brain only occasionally detects abnormalities specifically related to this infection. We report a case of MR appearance of central nervous system cryptococcosis in a 33-year-old HIV positive man.
The Sensitivity of Computerized Tomography in Diagnosis of Brain Astrocytomas  [PDF]
E. Abd Elrahim, A. Elzaki, Ali Hassan, A. M. Abd Elgyoum, H. Osman
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2014.44040
Abstract: Astrocytomas are tumors that arise from astrocytes—star-shaped cells that make up the “glue-like” or supportive tissue of the brain. Astrocytomas can appear in various parts of the brain and nervous system, including the cerebellum, the cerebrum, the central areas of the brain, the brainstem and the spinal cord. The main objective of this study was to detect the sensitivity of the CT scan in diagnosis of the brain astrocytoma, in patients who were confirmed as brain gliomas using computerized tomography of the brain versus brain tissue biopsy after surgery. One hundred and one patients were included in this study. Bio-data collected for these patients (age, gender), radiographic appearance, contrast enhancement and the site of the tumor, were statistically analyzed. Out of the 101 patients with brain gliomas, 52 (51.5%) were male whose ages ranged between 1 and 80 years, and 64 (63.4%) cases were diagnosed as astrocytoma by CT. This study concluded that the CT brain was sensitive in the diagnosis of brain astrocytomas.
Aspects of Computer-Aided Tomography Scan (Cat) in the Child Intracranial Tumors in Abidjan: Report of 30 Cases  [PDF]
Ange Eric Zouzou, Ange Patrick N’dja, Alexis Kanga, Debato Tina Gnaoulé, Kouamé Justin N’dah, Lolo Diambra, Alexis Konan, Gogoua Casimir Gbazi
Advances in Computed Tomography (ACT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/act.2016.52003
Abstract: Aim: The aim of this study was to specify the various computed tomography aspects of the intracranial tumors of the child. Equipment and method: It was about a retrospective study carried out in 30 children (15 boys and 15 girls) aged from 3 to 15 years (medium age 8.3 years). All the patients were explored with the computed tomography scan. Sixteen lesions profited from an anatomopathologic analysis for which an anatomoradiologic correlation was obtained. Results: The scanner objectified a cerebral tumor in all the cases. Topography was supratentorial in 19 cases (64%) and 11 cases (36%) were under tentorial. Almost all the tumors were single (96% of the cases) and were well limited (80% of the cases). The tumors were mixed in 50% of the cases with the presence of calcification in 66% of the cases. They were characterized by their large size (3 at 8 cm) in 86% of the cases. The etiologies of the tumors were dominated by glioma in 50% of the cases and as a whole, the radio-histological correlation was good (87.5%). Conclusion: Glial tumors are most frequent in the child. Computer-aided tomography scan represents here the focus of intracranial tumors diagnosis in the child. It must be carried out as a clinical suspicion to improve the diagnosis of these tumors.
Minioptical Navigation System for CT-Guided Percutaneous Liver Procedures  [PDF]
David A. Valenti, Louis-Martin Boucher, Giovanni Artho, Christopher von Jako, Tatiana Cabrera
Advances in Computed Tomography (ACT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/act.2013.23014
Abstract:

Purpose: To evaluate a new miniature optical navigation system for CT-guided liver interventions. Material and Methods: A two-center, prospective study was performed with four interventional radiologists. A total of 20 patients had CT-guided liver biopsy or ablation interventions utilizing the CT-Guide? navigation system (ActiViews Inc., Wakefield, MA) between July 2011 and December 2011. The navigation system consists of a self-adhesive patientsticker printed with coincident colored and radio-opaque reference markers, a miniature disposable video camera that clips on and off an interventional instrument, and software loaded on a computer to display the navigation information. The primary end point was the frequency of a satisfactory instrument position for the intended intervention. Results: The cohort consisted of 13 males and 7 females with an average age of 63.1 years (range of 38 to 80). Most of the patients, 70%, underwent CT-guided liver biopsy while the remainder had CT-guided ablation therapy. The average lesion size was 3.1 cm (range

CT, MRI, and 18F-FDG PET-CT Findings of Pulmonary Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma: A Case Report  [PDF]
Riki Okita, Koichiro Yasuda, Yuji Nojima, Ai Maeda, Takuro Yukawa, Shinsuke Saisho, Katsuhiko Shimizu, Takashi Akiyama, Yasunari Miyagi, Takashi Oda, Masao Nakata
Open Journal of Thoracic Surgery (OJTS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojts.2013.34026
Abstract: Here we report imaging studies of a patient with pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML). A 44-year-old woman who underwent a hysterectomy for uterine cellular leiomyoma presented with abnormal shadows on a chest X-ray. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple well-defined nodules in both lungs. Chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated these nodules as T1-low/T2-high intensity lesions. Contrast-enhanced MRI indicated these nodules as well-enhanced lesions, while 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT revealed no abnormal accumulation in these nodules. Bilateral lung wedge resections were performed for the largest 2 lesions to confirm the diagnosis, and both nodules were histologically diagnosed as BML.
Tissue Density Mapping of Cone Beam CT Images for Accurate Dose Calculations  [PDF]
Bei Liu, Fritz A. Lerma, Jianzhou Wu, Byong Yong Yi, Cedric Yu
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2015.42020
Abstract:
Purpose: To improve the accuracy in megavoltage photon beam dose calculation in CBCT-based radiation treatment (RT) plans, using a kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-to-density-step (CBCT-SF) function. Materials and Methods: The CBCT-SF table is constructed from differential histograms of the voxel values of CBCT and Fan-beam CT (FBCT). From the CBCT histograms, frequency peaks representing air, lung, soft tissue and bone are observed and their widths in CT numbers are assigned to the lower and higher bounds of the steps in the CBCT-SF. The CBCT-SF is entered into a planning system as an alternative to the clinical CT-to-density table. The CT image sets studied in this work consist of FBCT and CBCT scans of three patients: a prostate cancer patient, a lung cancer patient and a head and neck patient; and of a humanoid phantom at sections of the pelvis, the thorax and the head. Deformable image registration is used to map the patient FBCT scans to the corresponding CBCT images to minimize anatomical variations. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans are made on the FBCT image sets of the patients and the phantom. The plans are recalculated on the CBCT scans using both the conventional CT-to-density table and the CBCT-SF. Dose calculations on the CBCT images and FBCT images are compared using dose differences, distance to agreement (DTA), Gamma analyses and dose volume histogram (DVH) analyses. Results: The results show that IMRT plans optimized using CBCT scans and FBCT scans agree dosimetrically within 1% when the CBCT-SF is used for the CBCT-based plans, including thoracic IMRT plan. In contrast, up to 5% dose difference is observed between IMRT plans optimized on FBCT scans and CBCT scans for thoracic cases if conventional CT-to-density table is used on CBCT images. Conclusions: The simple stepwise mapping of the CBCT numbers to density using the CBCT-SF resolves the inaccuracies in dose calculations previously reported in CBCT-based RT plans. CBCT-SF can be used in Image-Guided adaptive radiotherapy planning.
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