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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1200 matches for " CG Neumann "
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Micronutrient deficiencies in food aid beneficiaries: A review of seven African countries.
N Drorbaugh, CG Neumann
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: In order to identify micronutrients likely to be deficient in food aid beneficiary populations and to guide the formulation of food aid products, this review was undertaken to summarize published data about micronutrient deficiencies in food aid beneficiaries as compared to the general population in seven African countries (Niger, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe). These countries were identified by SUSTAIN as having received significant quantities of United States Public Law 480 (P.L. 480) Title II fortified and blended food aid products from 2001– 2006. Information was drawn from agency reports, personal communications, national survey data, and academic literature, primarily published since the year 2000. Among food aid beneficiaries in these countries, vitamin A and iron deficiencies were most prevalent. Deficiencies in zinc, folate (particularly in pregnancy), vitamins B-12, C, and D, thiamine, riboflavin, and calcium are likely prevalent based on low intake and physical signs of deficiency documented in the literature. In some cases, food aid rations provide insufficient quantity and quality of micronutrients, especially when used over extended periods of time as the sole food source. In nearly all the countries reviewed, deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, iodine, and other micronutrients are also quite common in the general population (those not receiving food aid). Micronutrient status information for food aid beneficiaries came mainly from studies in refugee/emergency settings, with few published studies found documenting the nutritional status of non-emergency food aid recipients. Useful insights were obtained by the review although limited micronutrient data were available for food aid beneficiaries. The micronutrient status of food aid beneficiaries should be monitored, with food aid products formulated to match the deficiencies present. Where possible, the use of anthropometry, simplified dietary assessment methods, and physical inspection are recommended to estimate micronutrient status where biochemical tests are not feasible. Agencies that currently monitor the nutritional status of food aid recipients are urged to make reports available to researchers, relief agencies, and the public.
The impact of morbidity on food intake in rural Kenyan children
CG Neumann, M Marquardt, NO Bwibo
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: To quantify the effect of common illnesses on energy intake in rural Kenyan children. Design, setting and subjects: Toddlers in rural Kenya (n = 110) were studied longitudinally from 18-30 months of age in the mid-1980s. Outcome measures: Morbidity data were collected weekly using an illness questionnaire and physical inspection. Food intake was quantitatively assessed on two successive days each month. Food intake on days of illness was compared to food intake on days of wellness and during convalescence. Results: Significant decreases in mean daily energy intake were seen between days of wellness vs. days of severe illness. Above usual intake was observed during convalescence. Girls showed a greater reduction in intake during illness compared to boys. Food intake reductions were greatest in children with gastrointestinal (diarrhoea) and lower respiratory tract infections, measles and other febrile illnesses. In the case of severe illness, a compensatory increase in intake during week one of the convalescence period was observed, being greater in girls (376 kcal vs. 71 kcal extra per day for boys). Conclusion: Food intake is decreased during common acute illnesses in children and increased above their usual intake during convalescence. Food should not be withheld from sick children and feeding should be actively encouraged during illness, particularly during convalescence with the return of appetite. These data, although somewhat dated, are still applicable to toddlers in rural Africa where malnutrition and feeding practices have changed very little.
CG Barnes
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/ar976
Abstract: Nevertheless the diagnosis and classification of the condition depends on the acumen of the physician in diagnosis of the individual patient in the routine clinical situation, and the classification of groups of patients with the disease for inclusion into clinical studies and trials. The older 'diagnostic schemes' (e.g. Japanese, Mason and Barnes, O'Duffy, Dilsen) should be discarded and the International Classification of BD used as an entry criterion for clinical studies and trials.The natural history of BD still requires further study with particular reference to being able to predict the type of disease (mucocutaneous, ocular, neuro, etc.), the localization of manifestations, the likelihood of recurrences and their duration, and the overall severity of the disease in the individual patient.Basic research – pathogenesis (?bacterial), immunology (e.g. CD4+CD28- T cells) and gender association (prevalence, severity and response to treatment) – must continue and may proceed more quickly if coordinated on a multicentre, multinational basis. Therapeutic trials continue but to date there are surprisingly few controlled studies (e.g. colchicine, azathioprine and interferon-α). It is imperative that future trials be properly controlled, and open trials reserved for very preliminary 'pilot' studies. Controlled trials (either single or double blind; versus placebo or other comparison drug) are required at present, in particular for the following: IFN-α – optimum dosage regimen with regard to both efficacy and tolerance (side effects); anti-TNF-α, and possibly of antibiotics. Again these may be progressed faster on a coordinated multicentre, multinational basis but with the prior determination of updated entry criteria and outcome measures.The ISBD, as a medical research society, and through its Working Groups, should be a vehicle for the organization and coordination of studies – single centre, multicentre in a single country, or multi-centre on a multinational basis. The
The energy cost of kidney proton dialysis in sickle cell anaemia
CG Osuagwu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: The acidosis known to be associated with sickle cell anaemia is exploited in this work to estimate its energy cost to the kidney that has to dialyse the excess protons from the blood into urine against a concentration gradient, thereby doing significant extra work. The mean blood and urine pHs measured for the four discrete sickle cell states (42 subjects with approximately equal numbers of males and females per group, to minimise sex bias) are: HbAA = 7.39 ± 0.07 and 6.54 ± 0.15, HbAS = 7.35 ± 0.09 and 6.44 ± 0. 15, HbSS = 7.32 ± 0.08 and 5.89 ± 0. 39, HbSS-crisis = 7.15 ± 0.12 and 4.75 ± 0.46, respectively. From these data, the estimated enthalpies of dialysis, DHd, for each of the four states are: HbAA = 1.96RT 4.94 kJ, HbAS = 2.10RT 5.29 kJ, HbSS =3.29RT 8.29 kJ, and HbSS-crisis = 5.53RT 13.93 kJ. The estimated entropies of dialysis, TDSd, compared to the normal HbAA state are: HbAA = 0.00RT 0.00 kJ; HbAS = 0.14RT 0.35 kJ, HbSS = 1.34RT 3.38 kJ and HbSS-crisis = 3.57RT 8.99 kJ (R = 8.31J-mol-1 K-1 and T = 303K). The conclusion from this work is that sickle cell disease is very energy costly to the kidney as most of the energy for proton dialysis is wasted as a result of high entropy.
Polyhedral charge-packing model for blood pH changes in disease states
CG Osuagwu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: This work is the extension to an earlier report of a model, which explained the normal blood pH of 7.4 in terms of the octahedral packing of the six hydroxyl, OH-, ions to one hydrogen, H+, ion that exist at that pH, as this would be the most, naturally, stable arrangement. The logical, possible shifts from the octahedral ideal are suggested to be to the next most stable and efficient natural structures, the other regular polyhedra (tetrahedron, cube, dodecahedron and the icosahedron), depending on the hydroxyl to proton ratio available. Polyhedral charge-structuring is suggested to help define a ‘polyhedral charge-packing pH zone’ (From pH = 7.30, for tetrahedral, to pH = 7.65 for dodecahedral packing), which lies in the neighborhood of the well known physiological pH range. Literature is cited in support of pH 7.65 as the extreme upper limit of tolerable alkalosis. Experimental results from studies on two acidotic diseases (Sickle cell disease, pH = 7.32 ± 0.08 and Asthma, pH = 7.29 ± 0.03) are presented as evidence of the tetrahedron-based tolerable, stable, low limit pH in acidosis. Some medical implications of these ideas are discussed. For instance, the model suggests that the generalized definition of metabolic acidosis as pH less than 7.3 (pH < 7.3) is informed by the underlying tetrahedral charge-packing structure at this pH, which would collapse immediately the blood pH falls below this critical threshold.
Conspectus of the Sphecid wasps of Egypt (Hymenoptera: Ampulicidae, Sphecidae, Crabronidae)
CG Roche
Egyptian Journal of Natural History , 2007,
Abstract: The sphecid wasps of Egypt and the Sinai have received much attention ever since Spinola wrote his paper in 1839 on the wasps collected by Fischer. He listed 29 species, all of which were described as new. The next main contribution was Walker’s unfortunate paper of 1871. His descriptions were seriously inadequate and his type material has disappeared, destroyed by dermestids (Innes 1912). Thus of the 27 species he created, 22 are unidentifiable and are, therefore, mere lumber in the literature. Next was Kohl’s paper of 1897 in which he dealt with the material collected by Schmiedeknecht: a number of species have as their type locality “Adelen Inseln”, which is now known to be an island in the Nile opposite Dahshour (see Morice 1900a). A few more species were added to the Egyptian list by Morice (1897a,b) and Storey (1916).
The sphecid wasps (Hym. Ampulicidae, Sphecidae & Crabronidae) of Egypt. Part 2: Checklist
CG Roche
Egyptian Journal of Natural History , 2007,
Abstract: The list of Egyptian sphecid wasps includes the current names of those species recorded in the literature with indications where these have changed together with previously unrecorded genera and species. Three genera have not been recorded from Egypt hitherto (Spilomena, Crossocerus, Lestica). Twenty-four species are recorded for the first time (Chalybion heinii, Sceliphron madraspatanum tubifex, Sphex lanatus, Sphex libycus, Prionyx judaeus, Ammophila djaouk, Diodontus brachycerus, Spilomena sp., Astata boops, Dryudella beaumonti, Liris pictipennis, Solierella compedita, Miscophus pseudomimeticus, Belomicrus dimorpha, Belomicrus odontophorus, Oxybelus dissectus, Oxybelus haemorrhoidalis, Crossocerus adhaesus, Lestica clypeata, Bembix joeli, Cerceris clytia, Cerceris lunata, Cerceris rybyensis, Cerceris sabulosa algirica).
Gastrointestinal diseases in HIV/AIDS: Gastrointestinal disease is common among HIV-positive patients
CG Troskie
Continuing Medical Education , 2010,
Diclofenac gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses
Nelson CG
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S12498
Abstract: lofenac gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses Review (3560) Total Article Views Authors: Nelson CG Published Date June 2011 Volume 2011:7 Pages 207 - 211 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S12498 Christopher G Nelson Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA Abstract: Actinic keratoses are areas of intraepithelial neoplasia for which treatment is necessary. Because they arise in areas of sun damage, it is desirable to treat the entire damaged field to not only treat visible lesions, but also subclinical, emerging malignancies, ie, “field therapy”, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, and diclofenac are all treatment options, and are discussed and compared.
Modern trends in oesophageal surgery
CG Bremner
South African Journal of Surgery , 2005,
Abstract: Changes in the practice of oesophageal surgery have paralleled the increased incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), the introduction of minimally invasive techniques, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of oesophageal disease, advances in instrumentation and the surge of molecular biological interests. The recent explosion of bariatric surgery in the USA has also opened new dimensions for investigation of the effects of bariatric procedures on oesophageal function. South African Journal of Surgery Vol.43(1) 2005: 13-16
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