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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 614978 matches for " C. M.F. Mbofung "
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A Microbiological and Nutritional Evaluation of the West African Dried Meat Product, Kilishi
M. J. Jones, V. N. Tanya, C. M.F. Mbofung, D. N. Fonkem, D. E. Silverside
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2001,
Abstract: The quality attributes of Kilishi, a West African dried meat product were studied over an eight week storage period comparing traditional production and packaging systems with a potassium sorbate treatment system and simple modern packaging. Changes in chemical composition and microbiological counts are reported. Moisture and water activity results indicated that the experimental Kilishi was sufficiently dried to minimise microbial growth. Fat oxidation levels measured by free fatty acids (FFA) (%) on extracted fats were unacceptably high (>1.2-2.1%) and may be a reflection of the quality of the groundnut and its oil in the ingredients. Processing of beef into Kilishi appears to lead to a decrease in mineral availability. Results suggest that treatment of Kilishi with 10% (w/v) potassium sorbate confers a degree of protection of the product from mould contamination. Aflatoxin levels far exceeded all established safe limits and are thought to be due to the use of pre-contaminated groundnut, as mould growth levels in Kilishi were very low. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 6 No.4, 2001, pp. 126-129 KEY WORDS: aflatoxins, dried meat, food preservative, kilishi, potassium sorbate.
Studies of Bacillus cereus Resistance to Fermentation and Drying of Four Milk Based Cereals Dough
L.N. Tatsadjieu,F.X. Etoa,Carl M.F. Mbofung
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The resistance of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) cells to fermentation and drying in 4 different dough based on cereal flours (malted and unmalted sorghum, malted and unmalted maize) was studied. B. cereus vegetative cells in order of 107 cfu g 1 inoculated in the dough before the onset of fermentation increased to 108 cfu g 1 after fermentation for 48 h at 30 C inspite of the low pH recorded at the end of fermentation (pH< 4,7). Similarly, the cells present in the fermented dough at the start of drying reduced to only 4 104-4,71 104 cfu g 1 after drying in an oven at either of the three different temperatures (50, 65 and 80 C) to a final moisture content of less than 7%. These results reveal that once the cells of B. cereus have established themselves in dough based on cereal flours and milk, they can withstand fermentation and drying at temperatures between 50 and 80 C.
PC-Based Instrumentation System for the Study of Bean Cooking Kinetic
Bitjoka Laurent,Teguia Jean-Blaise,M.F. Mbofung Carl
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to design and develop an electronic device, which allows the follow up of the complete cooking kinetic of bean and could be used to efficiently measure hard to cock (HTC). A prototype device composed of a modified Mattson bean cooker, interfaced with a computer via displacement sensors and a 4-channel, 8 bits, 1 Hz data acquisition module built around the MIC 640 was achieved. Cooking data obtained with this device shown that the beginning and the end of the cooking period separated a transition region portraying an exponential rise characterized by a time constant, which varies for freshly harvested beans (3 sec) as opposed to that of long stored beans (10 sec). This time constant, identified and measured for the first time, could be used to elaborate an index of the degree of hardening that has taken place in a given sample of beans.
Ambiente Multiusuario para Análisis y Dise?o de Sistemas de Control
Munaro,C.J; Soares,M.F;
Formación universitaria , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-50062008000500006
Abstract: this paper presents the structure of a multiuser system for the teaching and practice of analysis and design of control devices. the system uses the software matlab as a computer tool support. several users can have access to the physical devices connected to a central computer server and the connection between the users and the server is done using serial ports. the proposed system uses only one data acquisition card and a dynamic system, optimizing in this way the available resources. the paper also presents some characteristics and applications of the proposed system, demonstrating its simplicity and versatility.
Estudo da degrada??o dos imobilizadores utilizados em pacientes submetidos à radioterapia de cabe?a e pesco?o
Loch, C. P.;Lima, M.F.S.;
Matéria (Rio de Janeiro) , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-70762010000300008
Abstract: in head and neck cancer radiotherapy, immobilization devices are used in order to ensure the patient immobilization and also to provide precise daily positioning during the treatment. accuracy and reproducibility of the patient's position is fundamental to the successful delivery of radiation therapy. such immobilization devices are used in the radiotherapy service of hospital s?o josé (hsj) in criciúma, sc, brazil. these are usually employed in procedures for up to six patients, and the devices have shown deformations during the reuse process, leading the search for solutions to quality assurance in radiotherapy. this work aimed to characterize the polymeric constituent of the immobilizer and study its possible degradation due to thermal aging, the amount of irradiation, and the combined effect of both factors. the samples were prepared in order to undergo changes similar to the immobilization device when reused for up to six patients, according to the protocol used by the radiotherapy service of the hsj. thermogravimetric analysis (tga), differential scanning calorimetry (dsc), and wide-angle x-ray scattering (waxs) techniques were employed for polymer characterization. the dsc and waxs results allowed the identification of constituent polymer of the immobilization device as poly (ε-caprolactone) (pcl). the tga and dsc results indicated no significant effects of degradation in the samples. it was observed a small variation in the crystallinity values between the standard sample and those modified by thermal aging and also by the combined effect of thermal aging and irradiation. the melting point in the dsc curves of the material (tm=63oc) showed a lower value than the thermal bath temperature (t=70oc), employed during the conformation process of the immobilization devices. this result suggests that the temperature of the thermal bath could be reduced to minimize the problems of deformation that has been observed in the immobilization device during reuse and might
Arachidonic acid triggers an oxidative burst in leukocytes
Pompeia, C.;Cury-Boaventura, M.F.;Curi, R.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2003001100013
Abstract: the change in cellular reducing potential, most likely reflecting an oxidative burst, was investigated in arachidonic acid- (aa) stimulated leukocytes. the cells studied included the human leukemia cell lines hl-60 (undifferentiated and differentiated into macrophage-like and polymorphonuclear-like cells), jurkat and raji, and thymocytes and macrophages from rat primary cultures. the oxidative burst was assessed by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. aa increased the oxidative burst until an optimum aa concentration was reached and the burst decreased thereafter. in the leukemia cell lines, optimum concentration ranged from 200 to 400 μm (up to 16-fold), whereas in rat cells it varied from 10 to 20 μm. initial rates of superoxide generation were high, decreasing steadily and ceasing about 2 h post-treatment. the continuous presence of aa was not needed to stimulate superoxide generation. it seems that the nadph oxidase system participates in aa-stimulated superoxide production in these cells since the oxidative burst was stimulated by nadph and inhibited by n-ethylmaleimide, diphenyleneiodonium and superoxide dismutase. some of the effects of aa on the oxidative burst may be due to its detergent action. there apparently was no contribution of other superoxide-generating systems such as xanthine-xanthine oxidase, cytochromes p-450 and mitochondrial electron transport chain, as assessed by the use of inhibitors. eicosanoids and nitric oxide also do not seem to interfere with the aa-stimulated oxidative burst since there was no systematic effect of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, but lipid peroxides may play a role, as indicated by the inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction promoted by tocopherol.
Strengthening of RC Beams with Large Openings in Shear by CFRP Laminates: Experiment and 2D Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis
S.C. Chin,N. Shafiq,M.F. Nuruddin
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: This study presents the experimental study and numerical analysis of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams with large square openings placed in the shear region, at a distance 0.5d and d away from the support, strengthened by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates. This research aims to investigate the strength losses in RC beam due to the presence of large square openings placed at two different locations in shear region. Also, in order to re-gain the beam structural capacity loss due to the openings, strengthening by CFRP laminates around the openings were studied. A total of six RC beams were tested to failure under four point loading including control beams, un-strengthened and strengthened RC beams with large square openings in shear region at a distance 0.5d and d away from the support. The CFRP strengthening configuration considered in this study was a full wrapping system around the square openings. A nonlinear finite element program, ATENA was used to validate the results of the tested beams. Comparisons between the finite element predictions and experimental results in terms of crack patterns and load deflection relationships are presented. The crack pattern results of the finite element model show good agreement with the experimental data. The load midspan deflection curves of the finite element models exhibited a stiffer result compared to the experimental beams. The possible reason may be due to the perfect bond assumption between the concrete and steel reinforcement.
Arachidonic acid triggers an oxidative burst in leukocytes
Pompeia C.,Cury-Boaventura M.F.,Curi R.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2003,
Abstract: The change in cellular reducing potential, most likely reflecting an oxidative burst, was investigated in arachidonic acid- (AA) stimulated leukocytes. The cells studied included the human leukemia cell lines HL-60 (undifferentiated and differentiated into macrophage-like and polymorphonuclear-like cells), Jurkat and Raji, and thymocytes and macrophages from rat primary cultures. The oxidative burst was assessed by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. AA increased the oxidative burst until an optimum AA concentration was reached and the burst decreased thereafter. In the leukemia cell lines, optimum concentration ranged from 200 to 400 μM (up to 16-fold), whereas in rat cells it varied from 10 to 20 μM. Initial rates of superoxide generation were high, decreasing steadily and ceasing about 2 h post-treatment. The continuous presence of AA was not needed to stimulate superoxide generation. It seems that the NADPH oxidase system participates in AA-stimulated superoxide production in these cells since the oxidative burst was stimulated by NADPH and inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, diphenyleneiodonium and superoxide dismutase. Some of the effects of AA on the oxidative burst may be due to its detergent action. There apparently was no contribution of other superoxide-generating systems such as xanthine-xanthine oxidase, cytochromes P-450 and mitochondrial electron transport chain, as assessed by the use of inhibitors. Eicosanoids and nitric oxide also do not seem to interfere with the AA-stimulated oxidative burst since there was no systematic effect of cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, but lipid peroxides may play a role, as indicated by the inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction promoted by tocopherol.
Supplementation levels for growing beef cattle grazing in the dry-rainy transition season
Sales, M.F.L.;Paulino, M.F.;Valadares Filho, S.C.;Figueiredo, D.M.;Porto, M.O.;Detmann, E.;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011000400027
Abstract: the objective of this experiment was to study the effects of different levels of supplementation on the performance, intake, digestibility, ph and rumen ammonia concentration in growing bulls grazing brachiaria decumbens stapf. pasture, during the dry-rainy transition season. for evaluation of performance, intake and digestibility, it was used 25 non-castrated steers at 11 months of age and initial average body weight of 270 kg, grouped in five plots of five animals each, following a completely randomized design. each plot received one of the following feeding treatments: mineral mixture and supplement at the proportion of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg/animal/day, corresponding to 0.18, 0.36, 0.54 and 0.72% of the average body weight of the animals. the area designated for the animals was constituted of five 2.0-ha paddocks. for the evaluation of the ph and rumen ammonia concentration, five crossbred non-castrated steers were used, with average body weight of 240 kg, fistulated in the esophagus, rumen and abomasum, disposed in a 5 × 5 latin square, with five treatments and five experimental periods. animal performance behaved in a positive linear manner according to the supplementation levels, responding with an increase of more than 80% on weight gains of the animals. intakes of total and pasture dry matter (dm), organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by supplementation. intakes of crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrates, ether extract and total digestible nutrients as well as nutrient digestibility and rumen ammonia concentration showed a positive linear pattern in response to supplementation levels. increasing levels of concentrate supplementation influence positively the performance of bulls growing on pastures during the dry-rainy transition season.
Fontes proteicas em suplementos para novilhos no período de transi??o seca-águas: características nutricionais
Acedo, T.S.;Paulino, M.F.;Detmann, E.;Valadares Filho, S.C.;Sales, M.F.L.;Porto, M.O.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352011000400015
Abstract: this study was conducted to evaluate protein sources in supplements for bulls grazing brachiaria decumbens stap., in the dry-rainy transition season, regarding nutritional characteristics. four holstein x zebu bulls (300kg of body weight - bw) fitted with esophageal, ruminal, and abomasal cannulas, allotted in a latin square experimental design 4x4. the treatments were protein supplements with 38% of crude protein (cp) based on grounded corn grain + urea (gcu); grounded corn grain + soybean meal (gcsb); and cotton seed meal (38% cp) (csm), supplied at a level of 0.17% bw, and a mineral mix control treatment (mm). the animals fed diets of gcu treatment showed neutral detergent fiber (ndf) intake of 12.1g/kg of bw, 19.9% greater than the observed on animals fed diets of mm and gcsb, 10.2 g/kg of bw, and similar to the ndf intake found for animals fed csm treatment, 11.0g/kg of bw. the dry matter (dm) total apparent digestibility (tad) was higher for gcu and gcsb treatments. the ruminal ph, microbial nitrogen production (mnp), and microbial synthesis efficiency (mse) were not influenced by the treatments. the supplementation with corn and urea provides greater dm intake and digestibility when compared to the mineral mix.
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