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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219392 matches for " C. Hutton "
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The economics of health and climate change: key evidence for decision making
Guy Hutton
Globalization and Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-7-18
Abstract: Relevant literature was obtained using a Medline and INTERNET search of key terms and institutions working in health and climate change. Eighteen available economic studies are presented under three categories of economic evidence: health damage cost, health adaptation cost and health economic evaluation.In economic studies valuing the predicted increased mortality from climate change, the health damages represent an important fraction of overall economic losses. Similarly, when considering broader health protection measures beyond the health sector (e.g. agriculture, water supply) health considerations are central. Global adaptation cost studies carried out so far indicate health sector costs of roughly US$2-5 billion annually (mid-estimates). However, these costs are expected to be an underestimate of the true costs, due to omitted health impacts, omitted economic impacts, and the costs of health actions in other sectors. No published studies compare the costs and benefits of specific health interventions to protect health from climate change.More economic studies are needed examining the costs and benefits of adaptation measures to inform policy making. There is an urgent need for climate change-specific health economic guidelines to ensure robust methods are used, giving comparable results. Broader advocacy and focused training of decision makers is needed to increase the uptake of economic evidence in decision making. Until further climate change-specific economic studies have been conducted, decision makers should selectively draw on published studies of the costs and benefits of environmental health interventions.In responding to the health challenges of climate change, those responsible for international and national health policies and budget allocations need to know the resource consequences of their decisions. These include the size of costs, benefits and financing of policy implementation, the distribution of gains, as well as unintended or negative cons
Privacy and Online Social Networks: A Proposed Approach for Academic Librarians in University Libraries
Greg Hutton
Dalhousie Journal of Interdisciplinary Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5931/djim.v4i1.46
Abstract: This paper analyzes the ways in which academic librarians in university settings can educate the staff, students, and public involved in the library community of both the risks and benefits of involvement in online social network sites such as Facebook. The concerns addressed range from maintaining users’ basic privacy and protecting themselves from physical and mental harm, to making users aware of how the information being shared on these sites may be used in newly emerging marketing practices. The paper recommends that academic librarians utilize social networking sites themselves in order to provide current, relevant information to the relevant parties in the university library community.
Jungle Clearing Song
Mrs Hutton
Journal of Literature, Culture and Media Studies , 2009,
Victory Song
Mrs. Hutton
Journal of Literature, Culture and Media Studies , 2009,
Mrs. Hutton
Journal of Literature, Culture and Media Studies , 2009,
Doubling the Intensity of an ERL Based Light Source
Andrew Hutton
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: A light source based on an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) [1] consist of a superconducting linac and a transfer line that includes wigglers and undulators to produce the synchrotron light. The transfer line brings the electrons bunches back to the beginning of the linac so that their energy can be recovered when they traverse the linac a second time, lambda/2 out of phase. There is another interesting condition when the length of the transfer line is (n+/- 1/4) lambda. In this case, the electrons drift through on the zero RF crossing, and make a further pass around the transfer line, effectively doubling the circulating current in the wigglers and undulators. On the third pass through the linac, they will be decelerated and their energy recovered. The longitudinal focusing at the zero crossing is a problem, but it can be canceled if the drifting beam sees a positive energy gradient for the first half of the linac and a negative gradient for the second half (or vice versa). This paper presents a proposal to use a double chicane at the center of the linac to provide this focusing inversion fo rthe drifting beam while leaving the accelerating and decelerating beams on crest.
A sonography assisted technique for the removal of a femoral interlocking nail – a technical note
Kai-Jow Tsai, Po-Wen Shen, William C Hutton
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-6-51
Abstract: Sonography of soft tissue has been established to identify a foreign body. A metallic implant has a hyperechoic image; therefore, we can identify the correct position of the screws preoperatively and intraoperatively.We have developed a technique using sonography and minimal incisions for the removal of a femoral interlocking nail. The proximal wound is 2.5 cm in length and the wound is 0.5 cm in length for each distal locking screw.The sonography can be used to minimize the length of incision and prevent radiation exposure in the removal of intramedullary femoral nails.The development of closed interlocking intramedullary nailing has allowed the treatment of femoral diaphyseal fractures to become safer and more effective [1,2]. The nail is usually inserted under fluoroscopic control which brings concern over the radiation exposure [3]. There have been efforts to minimize the fluoroscopic radiation [4]. Ultrasound, on the other hand, is cheaper and more easily available and can be used to monitor alignment during closed femoral nailing [5]. Thus, using ultrasound can reduce the fluoroscopic monitoring time and reduce the radiation exposure to the patient and the surgeon.It is often necessary to remove femoral nails after bony union. Conventional open methods require up to a 10 cm incision over the trochanter. The distal locking screws are difficult to palpate, and open distal incisions are often needed. Fluoroscopy is frequently used in an attempt to decrease the size of the wound.Sonography for evaluation of soft tissues has been in use for years. The sonographic signal is reflected by cortical bone [6], and any metallic implant has a hyperechoic image. Therefore sonography can identify the position of locking screws. We applied sonography for the wound of the removal of distal locking screws using a minimal incision. We report on this technique that was used successfully in three patients.After bony union was achieved, the patient had surgery for the removal of th
Vulnerability to climate change: people, place and exposure to hazard
C. W. Hutton, S. Kienberger, F. Amoako Johnson, A. Allan, V. Giannini,R. Allen
Advances in Science and Research (ASR) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/asr-7-37-2011
Abstract: The Human Dimension of the Twinning European and South Asian River Basins to Enhance Capacity and Implement Adaptive Management Approaches Project (EC-Project BRAHMATWINN) is aimed at developing socio-economic tools and context for the effective inclusion of the "Human Dimension" or socio-economic vulnerability into the overall assessment of climate risk in the twinned basins of the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin (UBRB), and the Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) . This work is conducted in the light of stakeholder/actor analysis and the prevailing legal framework. In order to effectively achieve this end, four key research and associated activities were defined: 1. Identifying stakeholders and actors including: implement an approach to ensure a broad spread of appropriate stakeholder input to the assessment of vulnerability undertaken in Asia and Europe within the research activities of the project. 2. Contextualising legal framework: to provide an assessment of the governance framework relating to socio-environmental policy development within the study site administrative areas leading to the specific identification of related policy and legal recommendations. 3. Spatial analysis and mapping of vulnerability: providing a spatial assessment of the variation of vulnerability to pre-determined environmental stressors across the study areas with an additional specific focus on gender. 4. Inclusion of findings with the broader context of the BRAHMATWINN risk of climate change study through scenarios of hazard and vulnerability (subsequent chapters). This study utilises stakeholder inputs to effectively identify and map relative weightings of vulnerability domains, such as health and education in the context of pre-specified hazards such as flood. The process is underpinned by an adaptation of the IPCC (2001) which characterizes Risk as having the components of Hazard (physiographic component) and Vulnerability (socio-economic component).
Influencia del movimiento respiratorio sobre el contraste de las lesiones en estudios de perfusión pulmonar: simulación mediante el uso de un fantoma virtual.
Nú?ez, Margarita.,Cánepa, Jorge.,Alonso, Omar.,Hutton, Brian F.
Alasbimn Journal , 2010,
Abstract: ResumenEl movimiento respiratorio (MR) constituye un factor de degradación de las imágenes con potencial influencia sobre la capacidad de detección de lesiones tromboembólicas en estudios de perfusión pulmonar. El objetivo fue investigar la influencia del MR sobre el contraste de lesiones pulmonares, por medio de simulación con un fantoma virtual. Mediante un fantoma N-CAT se generó un modelo de perfusión pulmonar con SPECT; el modelo fue reconstruido produciendo cortes tomográficos y reproyección de los mismos en tres situaciones: sin MR, simulando MR con desplazamiento diafragmático de 2 cm, y con desplazamiento de 4 cm. Se instalaron en el modelo 7 “lesiones” hipocaptantes simulando la situación del tromboembolismo pulmonar (TEP) en situación superior, media y basal y se calculó el contraste de las lesiones en las 3 situaciones descriptas. Los resultados muestran que el contraste de las lesiones es menor con el MR, que se deteriora más cuanto mayor es la magnitud del MR, y que el MR afecta en mayor grado el contraste de las lesiones de ubicación basal. La corrección de MR podría mejorar la detectabilidad de algunos defectos de perfusión, especialmente los de ubicación basal, incrementando la sensibilidad de la técnica para el diagnóstico de TEP. AbstractRespiratory motion (RM) represents a major factor of image degradation with potential impact on the detection of embolic lesions in lung perfusion scintigraphy. The aim was to investigate the influence of RM on the contrast of pulmonary lesions through a simulation study with a virtual phantom. Using a N-CAT phantom, a SPECT lung perfusion model was generated; the model was reconstructed producing three sets of tomographic slices and image reprojection under different conditions: without RM, RM simulation with 2 cm diaphragmatic displacement, and RM simulation with 4 cm diaphragmatic displacement. Seven “cold” lesions were placed in the model resembling a typical pulmonary embolism (PE) situation in superior, medial and basal locations and image contrast was calculated. Results showed a decrease in lesion contrast proportional to the degree of RM, which was more pronounced for basal lesions. Motion correction could improve the detectability of some perfusión defects, especially those in basal locations, thus incrementing the sensitivity of the technique for the diagnosis of PE.
New constraints on the X-ray spectral properties of type 1 AGN
A. E. Scott,G. C. Stewart,S. Mateos,D. M. Alexander,S. Hutton,M. J. Ward
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19325.x
Abstract: We present a detailed characterization of the X-ray spectral properties of 761 type 1 AGN, selected from a cross-correlation of the SDSS DR5 quasar catalogue and the incremental version of the second XMM-Newton serendipitous X-ray source catalogue 2XMMi-DR2. The X-ray spectrum of each source is fit with models based on a simple power law to which additional cold absorption and/or soft excess features are added if an F-test at 99% significance requires them. The distribution of best-fitting photon indices, Gamma, is fit with a Gaussian with mean = 1.99 +/- 0.01 and dispersion sigma = 0.30 +/- 0.01, however this does not provide a good representation of the distribution due to sources with very flat or steep gamma values. A highly significant trend for decreasing gamma values with increasing 2-10 keV luminosity, L_X, is seen but only a weak trend with redshift is found. Intrinsic cold absorption is detected in ~4% of the sample and soft excess emission is detected in ~8%. These values are lower limits due to the detectability being limited by the quality of the spectra and we suggest the intrinsic values may be as high as ~25% and ~80% respectively. The levels of rest-frame absorption are higher than expected for type 1 objects (N_H = 10^21-10^23 cm^-2) and the fraction of absorbed sources and the N_H values are not seen to vary with L_X or z. The average blackbody temperature used to model the soft excesses is = 0.17 +/- 0.09 keV. This temperature is found to correlate with L_X but not the blackbody luminosity or the black hole mass which do correlate with each other. A strong correlation is found between the luminosities in the blackbody and power law components suggesting that a similar fraction is re-processed from the blackbody to the power law component for the entire luminosity range of objects. . . [Abridged]
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