Abstract:
The multiplicity distribution of particles in relativistic gases is studied in terms of Tsallis' nonextensive statistics. For an entropic index q>1 the multiplicity distribution is wider than the Poisson distribution with the same average number of particles, being similar to the negative binomial distribution commonly used in phenomenological analysis of hadron production in high-energy collisions.

Abstract:
we investigate the onset of spinodal decomposition in a relativistic fluid of quarks coupled to a nonequilibrium chiral condensate. studying small fluctuations around equilibrium, we identify the role played by sound and chiral waves in the generation of unstable modes.

Abstract:
We investigate the onset of spinodal decomposition in a relativistic fluid of quarks coupled to a nonequilibrium chiral condensate. Studying small fluctuations around equilibrium, we identify the role played by sound and chiral waves in the generation of unstable modes.

Abstract:
We study the mechanism responsible for the onset of instabilities in a chiral phase transition at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential. As a low-energy effective model, we consider an expanding relativistic plasma of quarks coupled to a chiral field, and obtain a phenomenological chiral hydrodynamics from a variational principle. Studying the dispersion relation for small fluctuations around equilibrium, we identify the role played by chiral waves and pressure waves in the generation of instabilities. We show that pressure modes become unstable earlier than chiral modes.

Abstract:
some consequences of the presence of critical point in the equation of state on the hydrodynamical evolution of the strongly interacting matter are discussed. for this purpose, we apply the low energy effective theory of qcd, the nambu-jona-lasinio model and show some examples.

Abstract:
The method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is developped appropriately for the study of relativistic heavy ion collision processes. In order to describe the flow of a high energy but low baryon number density fluid, the entropy is taken as the SPH base. We formulate the method in terms of the variational principle. Several examples show that the method is very promising for the study of hadronic flow in RHIC physics.

Abstract:
Effects caused by the event-by-event fluctuation of the initial conditions in hydrodynamical description of high-energy heavy-ion collisions are investigated. Non-negligible effects appear for several observable quantities, even for a fixed impact parameter $\vec b $. They are sensitive to the equation of state, being the dispersions of the observable quantities in general smaller when the QGP phase appears at the beginning of hydrodynamic evolution than when the fluid remains hadron gas during whole the evolution.

Abstract:
We present a simple and general argument showing that a class of dynamical correlations give rise to the so-called Tsallis nonextensive statistics. An example of a system having such a dynamics is given, exhibiting a non-Boltzmann energy distribution. A relation with prethermalization processes is discussed.

Abstract:
The method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is applied for ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The SPH method has several advantages in studying event-by-event fluctuations, which attract much attention in looking for quark gluon plasma (QGP) formation, because it gives a rather simple scheme for solving hydrodynamical equations. Using initial conditions for Au+Au collisions at RHIC energy produced by NeXus event generator, we solve the hydrodynamical equation in event-by-event basis and study the fluctuations of hadronic observables such as dN/dy due to the initial conditions. In particular, fluctuations of elliptic flow coefficient v2 is investigated for both the cases, with and without QGP formation. This can be used as an additional test of QGP formation.

Abstract:
We argue that the non-perturbative Schwinger mechanism may play an important role in the hadronic production of charm. We present a flux tube model which assumes that the colliding hadrons become color charged because of gluon exchange, and that a single non-elementary flux tube is built up as they recede. The strong chromoelectric field inside this tube creates quark pairs (including charmed ones) and the ensuing color screening breaks the tube into excited hadronic clusters. On their turn these clusters, or `fireballs', decay statistically into the final hadrons. The model is able to account for the soft production of charmed, strange and lighter hadrons within a unified framework.