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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 599496 matches for " C. A. "
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Rainfall Variability and Its Impact on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya  [PDF]
C. A. Shisanya, C. Recha, A. Anyamba
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2011.21004
Abstract: Agriculture in arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya is depends on seasonal characteristics of rainfall. This study seeks to distinguish components of regional climate variability, especially El Niño Southern Oscillation events and their impact on the growing season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Datasets used were: 1) rainfall (1961-2003) and 2) NDVI (1981-2003). Results indicate that climate variability is persistent in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya and continues to affect vegetation condition and consequently crop production. Correlation calculations between seasonal NDVI and rainfall shows that the October-December (OND) growing season is more reliable than March-May (MAM) season. Results show that observed biomass trends are not solely explained by rainfall variability but also changes in land cover and land use. Results show that El Niño and La Niña events in southeast Kenya vary in magnitude, both in time and space as is their impact on vegetation; and that variation in El Niño intensity is higher than during La Niña events. It is suggested that farmers should be encouraged to increase use of farm input in their agricultural enterprises during the OND season; particularly when above normal rains are forecast. The close relationship between rainfall and NDVI yield ground for improvement in the prediction of local level rainfall. Effective dissemination of this information to stakeholders will go along way to ameliorate the suffering of many households and enable government to plan ahead of a worse season. This would greatly reduce the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate related disasters by improving their management.
Virginia Woolf’s History of Sexual Victimization: A Case Study in Light of Current Research  [PDF]
Lucia C. A. Williams
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.510128
Abstract:

Virginia Woolf’s history of sexual victimization is presented in a case study format, and reviewed in light of the present literature on the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) to human development. The methodology to compose the case study involved reviewing the works of Woolf’s main biographers, the author’s memoirs, and the groundbreaking work of Louise DeSalvo, presenting data from Woolf’s diaries and letters, in which sexual abuse is disclosed. Woolf was sexually abused by her two older half-brothers. The abuse was extremely traumatic, and lasted several years. The various mental health symptoms that Woolf experienced are consistent with the literature of CSA. Woolf also presented some adequate coping skills by disclosing the CSA publicly, keeping records of her depressive episodes, and seeking help. Like many incest survivors, Woolf’s sexual abuse was minimized and questioned by biographers. In addition to Woolf’s enormous literary legacy, her knowledge of psychology was impressive. She was a feminist, as well as a visionary in exploring the effects of CSA before other incest survivors. Understanding her life influences is advantageous, not only to literary scholars but to most readers, and mainly clinicians and researchers are interested in the dynamics of sexual abuse.

Farey Triangle Graphs and Farey Triangle Matrices  [PDF]
A. Gnanam, C. Dinesh
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2015.512067
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce Farey triangle graph \"\", Farey triangle matrix \"\", complementary Farey triangle graph \"\"and complementary Farey triangle matrix \"\", and we derive some properties of the following matrices.
Extreme Rainfall Indices in the Hydrographic Basins of Brazil  [PDF]
María C. Valverde, José A. Marengo
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2014.41002
Abstract: The authors analyze climate extremes indices (CEI) of rainfall over the largest basins of the Brazilian territory: Amazon (AMA), S?o Francisco (SF), Tocantins (TO) and Paraná (PAR) rivers. The CEI represent the frequency of heavy precipitation events (R30mm and R95p) and short duration extreme rainfall (RX5day and RX1day). Droughts (CDDd) are identified based on two indicators: The longest dry period (CDD) and the annual cycle. The results demonstrate that CDDd, RX1day and RX5day occurred with more frequency and intensity in SF basin during El Ni?o events. CDDd was of greater magnitude in the TO basin during La Ni?a events, while an increase of RX1day occurred in El Ni?o. The strong El Ni?o events (1983 and 1997) caused more intense and frequent RX1day and R30mm over the PAR basin. Amazon droughts occurred in two out of the six El Ni?o events. Moreover, the relationship between the positive (negative) sea superficial temperatures anomalies in North (South) Tropical Atlantic and drought in AMA basin was corroborated. A gradual warming of SST was observed at the start of 2003 until it achieved a maximum in 2005 associated with the southwestern Amazon drought. The second highest anomaly of SST was in 2010 linked with drought that was more spatially extensive than the 2005 drought. The spatial distribution of annual trends showed a significant increase of CDD in south-eastern AMA, Upper SF, northern PAR and throughout the TO basins. R20mm, RX1day and RX5day tend to increase significantly in southwestern (northeast) PAR (AMA) and northwestern TO basins. Comparisons between CEI derived from daily precipitation data from Climate Prediction Center (CPCp) and of the ETA_HadCM3 model showed that the model overestimated RX1day, RX5day and CDD, in the four basins. Future scenarios show that dry periods will occur with greatest magnitude in all the basins until 2071-2099 time slice, while RX1day will be more intense in the TO and SF basins.
Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) amongst Patients Attending Primary Health Centres in Anambra State  [PDF]
C. M. Ogbukagu, V. N. Anakwenze, C. C. Ekwealor, C. C. Ezemba, I. A. Ekwealor
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.67054
Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most prevalent extra-intestinal bacterial infections. It is a common disease encountered in medical practice affecting people of all ages, from neonate to geriatric age group. These infections are on the increase for outpatients attending Primary Health Centres in Anambra State, Nigeria, therefore the need for this study. The prevalence rate of urinary tract infection, age distribution and influence of sex were determined. Susceptibility pattern of the infectious organisms to antimicrobial agent were examined. Clean-catch midstream urine samples were collected and examined. Out of 3000 urine samples examined, 528 bacterial isolates were recovered and characterized. These include: Escherichia coli (24.2%), Klebsiella spp. (18.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.2%), Proteus mirabilis (9.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.1%), Enterococcus faecalis (9.1%), Citrobacter intermedius (6.1%) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (6.1%). More females (52%) were infected than males (48%) and in both sexes, the highest incidence was found amongst the age group, 26 - 38 years. Gram negative rods had the highest incidence in both sexes. Among the towns in Anambra state, Umunya in southern province was observed to have the highest incidence rate of UTI. Susceptibility test of the bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents showed that Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to Cephalexin, Penicillin V, Erythromycin and Gentamycin while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to all the antibiotics. Escherichia coli
Statistical Mechanics of Recurrent Neural Networks I. Statics
A. C. C. Coolen
Quantitative Biology , 2000,
Abstract: A lecture notes style review of the equilibrium statistical mechanics of recurrent neural networks with discrete and continuous neurons (e.g. Ising, coupled-oscillators). To be published in the Handbook of Biological Physics (North-Holland). Accompanied by a similar review (part II) dealing with the dynamics.
Statistical Mechanics of Recurrent Neural Networks II. Dynamics
A. C. C. Coolen
Quantitative Biology , 2000,
Abstract: A lecture notes style review of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of recurrent neural networks with discrete and continuous neurons (e.g. Ising, graded-response, coupled-oscillators). To be published in the Handbook of Biological Physics (North-Holland). Accompanied by a similar review (part I) dealing with the statics.
Non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of Minority Games
A. C. C. Coolen
Quantitative Finance , 2002,
Abstract: In this paper I give a brief introduction to a family of simple but non-trivial models designed to increase our understanding of collective processes in markets, the so-called Minority Games, and their non-equilibrium statistical mathematical analysis. Since the most commonly studied members of this family define disordered stochastic processes without detailed balance, the canonical technique for finding exact solutions is found to be generating functional analysis a la De Dominicis, as originally developed in the spin-glass community.
Reply to cond-mat/0503325: Comment on `Generating functional analysis of Minority Games with real merket histories' by KH Ho, WC Man, FK Chow and HF Chau
A. C. C. Coolen
Quantitative Finance , 2005,
Abstract: The Comment cond-mat/0503325 is built around two core statements, both of which are plainly incorrect.
Generating functional analysis of Minority Games with real market histories
A. C. C. Coolen
Quantitative Finance , 2004, DOI: 10.1088/0305-4470/38/11/002
Abstract: It is shown how the generating functional method of De Dominicis can be used to solve the dynamics of the original version of the minority game (MG), in which agents observe real as opposed to fake market histories. Here one again finds exact closed equations for correlation and response functions, but now these are defined in terms of two connected effective non-Markovian stochastic processes: a single effective agent equation similar to that of the `fake' history models, and a second effective equation for the overall market bid itself (the latter is absent in `fake' history models). The result is an exact theory, from which one can calculate from first principles both the persistent observables in the MG and the distribution of history frequencies.
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