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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 542502 matches for " Cécile M Berri "
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Chicken meat quality: genetic variability and relationship with growth and muscle characteristics
Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval, Martine Debut, Cécile M Berri, Nadine Sellier, Véronique Santé-Lhoutellier, Yves Jégo, Catherine Beaumont
BMC Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-9-53
Abstract: Significant levels of heritability (averaging 0.3) were obtained for breast meat quality traits such as pH at 15 min post-slaughter, ultimate pH (pHu), color assessed by lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss and shear-force. The rate of decrease in pH early post-mortem and the final pH of the meat were shown to be key factors of chicken meat quality. In particular, a decrease in the final pH led to paler, more exudative and tougher breast meat. The level of glycogen stored in breast muscle estimated by the Glycolytic Potential (GP) at slaughter time was shown to be highly heritable (h2 0.43). There was a very strong negative genetic correlation (rg) with ultimate meat pH (rg -0.97), suggesting a common genetic control for GP and pHu. While breast muscle weight was genetically positively correlated with fiber size (rg 0.76), it was negatively correlated with the level of glycogen stored in the muscle (rg -0.58), and as a consequence it was positively correlated with the final pH of the meat (rg 0.84).This genetic study confirmed that selection should be useful to improve meat characteristics of meat-type chickens without impairing profitability because no genetic conflict was detected between meat quality and meat quantity. Moreover, the results suggested relevant selection criteria such as ultimate pH, which is strongly related to color, water-holding capacity and texture of the meat in this heavy chicken line.As in other animal species, the technological quality of poultry meat is now of major importance, since poultry meat is nowadays usually consumed as cuts or as processed products rather than as whole carcasses. As already reported for pigs [1], technological quality refers to several meat properties, including water-holding capacity (i.e. drip loss during storage), intensity and homogeneity of color, firmness, shelf-life and processing yields. Meat quality is closely related to the decrease in muscle pH post-mortem. Rapid
Detection of a Cis eQTL Controlling BMCO1 Gene Expression Leads to the Identification of a QTG for Chicken Breast Meat Color
Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval,Javad Nadaf,Cécile Berri,Frédérique Pitel,Beno?t Graulet,Estelle Godet,Sophie Y. Leroux,Olivier Demeure,Sandrine Lagarrigue,Cécile Duby,Larry A. Cogburn,Catherine M. Beaumont,Michel J. Duclos
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014825
Abstract: Classical quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and gene expression QTL (eQTL) were combined to identify the causal gene (or QTG) underlying a highly significant QTL controlling the variation of breast meat color in a F2 cross between divergent high-growth (HG) and low-growth (LG) chicken lines. Within this meat quality QTL, BCMO1 (Accession number GenBank: AJ271386), encoding the β-carotene 15, 15′-monooxygenase, a key enzyme in the conversion of β-carotene into colorless retinal, was a good functional candidate. Analysis of the abundance of BCMO1 mRNA in breast muscle of the HG x LG F2 population allowed for the identification of a strong cis eQTL. Moreover, reevaluation of the color QTL taking BCMO1 mRNA levels as a covariate indicated that BCMO1 mRNA levels entirely explained the variations in meat color. Two fully-linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located within the proximal promoter of BCMO1 gene were identified. Haplotype substitution resulted in a marked difference in BCMO1 promoter activity in vitro. The association study in the F2 population revealed a three-fold difference in BCMO1 expression leading to a difference of 1 standard deviation in yellow color between the homozygous birds at this haplotype. This difference in meat yellow color was fully consistent with the difference in carotenoid content (i.e. lutein and zeaxanthin) evidenced between the two alternative haplotypes. A significant association between the haplotype, the level of BCMO1 expression and the yellow color of the meat was also recovered in an unrelated commercial broiler population. The mutation could be of economic importance for poultry production by making possible a gene-assisted selection for color, a determining aspect of meat quality. Moreover, this natural genetic diversity constitutes a new model for the study of β-carotene metabolism which may act upon diverse biological processes as precursor of the vitamin A.
Identification of QTL controlling meat quality traits in an F2 cross between two chicken lines selected for either low or high growth rate
Javad Nadaf, Hélène Gilbert, Frédérique Pitel, Cécile M Berri, Katia Feve, Catherine Beaumont, Michel J Duclos, Alain Vignal, Tom E Porter, Jean Simon, Samuel E Aggrey, Larry A Cogburn, Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval
BMC Genomics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-155
Abstract: The HG and LG birds exhibit large differences in body weight and abdominal fat content. Several meat quality traits [pH at 15 min post-slaughter (pH15) and ultimate pH (pHu), breast color-redness (BCo-R) and breast color-yellowness (BCo-Y)] were lower in HG chickens. In contrast, meat color-lightness (BCo-L) was higher in HG chickens, whereas meat drip loss (DL) was similar in both lines. HG birds were more active on the shackle line. Association analyses were performed using maximum-likelihood interval mapping in QTLMAP. Five genome-wide significant QTLs were revealed: two for pH15 on GGA1 and GGA2, one for DL on GGA1, one for BCo-R and one for BCo-Y both on GGA11. In addition, four suggestive QTLs were identified by QTLMAP for BCo-Y, pHu, pH15 and DL on GGA1, GGA4, GGA12 and GGA14, respectively. The QTL effects, averaged on heterozygous families, ranged from 12 to 31% of the phenotypic variance. Further analyses with QTLExpress confirmed the two genome-wide QTLs for meat color on GGA11, failed to identify the genome-wide QTL for pH15 on GGA2, and revealed only suggestive QTLs for pH15 and DL on GGA1. However, QTLExpress qualified the QTL for pHu on GGA4 as genome-wide.The present study identified genome-wide significant QTLs for all meat technological traits presently assessed in these chickens, except for meat lightness. This study highlights the effects of divergent selection for growth rate on some behavioral traits, muscle biochemistry and ultimately meat quality traits. Several QTL regions were identified that are worthy of further characterization. Some QTLs may in fact co-localize, suggesting pleiotropic effects for some chromosomal regions.Meat-type chickens have been intensively selected for a long time mainly on growth rate, which has reduced the age at market weight (i.e. ~2 kg live body weight). Selection efforts have improved body composition (i.e. increasing breast yield and lowering carcass fatness). However, these improvements have also led to indi
Identification of differentially expressed genes in chickens differing in muscle glycogen content and meat quality
Vonick Sibut, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval, Sylvain Marthey, Michel J Duclos, Cécile Berri
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-112
Abstract: Among the genes found to be expressed in chicken P. major muscle, 197 and 254 transcripts appeared to be differentially expressed on microarrays for the F vs. L and the G+ vs. G- comparisons, respectively. Some involved particularly in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were selected for further validation studies by real-time RT-PCR. We confirmed that, as in mammals, the down-regulation of CEBPB and RGS2 coincides with a decrease in peripheral adiposity in the chicken, but these genes are also suggested to affect muscle glycogen turnover through their role in the cAMP-dependent signalling pathway. Several other genes were suggested to have roles in the regulation of glycogen storage in chicken muscle. PDK4 may act as a glycogen sensor in muscle, UGDH may compete for glycogen synthesis by using UDP-glucose for glucoronidation, and PRKAB1, PRKAG2, and PHKD may impact on glycogen turnover in muscle, through AMP-activated signalling pathways.This study is the first stage in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying variations in poultry meat quality. Large scale analyses are now required to validate the role of the genes identified and ultimately to find molecular markers that can be used for selection or to optimize rearing practices.With changes similar to those that occurred in the pig industry, the poultry market is now characterized by increasing diversity of processed products [1]. As a consequence, poultry companies are now involved in food technology and product development, and improvement of meat processing ability has become a prevalent concern. As in pigs, post-mortem pH is a key factor controlling chicken meat quality [2]. Variations in ultimate meat pH (pHu) are responsible for variations in several breast meat properties, including water-holding capacity, colour and firmness [2,3]. Low ultimate pH results in "acid meat", with a pale aspect and reduced water-holding capacity [4], while high ultimate pH leads to DFD (dark, firm, dry) meat, dark i
Genetic parameters of meat technological quality traits in a grand-parental commercial line of turkey
élisabeth Le Bihan-Duval, Cécile Berri, élisabeth Baéza, Véronique Santé, Thierry Astruc, Hervé Rémignon, Gilles Le Pottier, James Bentley, Catherine Beaumont, Xavier Fernandez
Genetics Selection Evolution , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-35-7-623
Abstract: (To access the full article, please see PDF)
Transcriptome profiling of the feeding-to-fasting transition in chicken liver
Colette Désert, Michel J Duclos, Pierre Blavy, Frédéric Lecerf, Fran?ois Moreews, Christophe Klopp, Marc Aubry, Frédéric Herault, Pascale Le Roy, Cécile Berri, Madeleine Douaire, Christian Diot, Sandrine Lagarrigue
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-611
Abstract: A large number of genes were modulated by fasting (3532 genes with a pvalue corrected by Benjamini-Hochberg < 0.01); 2062 showed an amplitude of variation higher than +/- 40% among those, 1162 presented an human ortholog, allowing to collect functional information. Notably more genes were down-regulated than up-regulated, whatever the duration of fasting (16 h or 48 h). The number of genes differentially expressed after 48 h of fasting was 3.5-fold higher than after 16 h of fasting. Four clusters of co-expressed genes were identified by a hierarchical cluster analysis. Gene Ontology, KEGG and Ingenuity databases were then used to identify the metabolic processes associated to each cluster. After 16 h of fasting, genes involved in ketogenesis, gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial or peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, were up-regulated (cluster-1) whereas genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis were down-regulated (cluster-2). For all genes tested, the microarray data was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Most genes were altered by fasting as already reported in mammals. A notable exception was the HMG-CoA synthase 1 gene, which was up-regulated following 16 and 48 h of fasting while the other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were down-regulated as reported in mammalian studies. We further focused on genes not represented on the microarray and candidates for the regulation of the target genes belonging to cluster-1 and -2 and involved in lipid metabolism. Data are provided concerning PPARa, SREBP1, SREBP2, NR1H3 transcription factors and two desaturases (FADS1, FADS2).This study evidences numerous genes altered by starvation in chickens and suggests a global repression of cellular activity in response to this stressor. The central role of lipid and acetyl-CoA metabolisms and its regulation at transcriptional level are confirmed in chicken liver in response to short-term fasting. Interesting expression modulations were observed for NR1H3, FADS1
Households Credits, Financial Intermediation and Monetary Policies  [PDF]
Cécile Bastidon
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.510093
Abstract: This paper develops a theoretical model of financial intermediation with three original characteristics. Firstly, all sectors are taken into account within total outstanding credits, including households. Secondly, in periods of high financial strains, the relationship between prices and funding supply volumes may be non-monotonic. Finally, the occurrence of interbank credit rationing results in other sectors’ funding rationing in credit and securities markets. The central bank conducts a non-standard type monetary policy. We show that the characteristics of financial intermediation then determine the magnitude of transmission of a shock on households financing costs and the content of the resulting monetary policy.
Radiation and breast cancer: a review of current evidence
Cécile M Ronckers, Christine A Erdmann, Charles E Land
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr970
Abstract: The mammary gland is very sensitive to radiation-associated carcinogenesis, especially after exposures at young ages. Many aspects of the association between radiation and breast cancer have been elucidated in the past decades. This review is intended to summarize widely recognized features of radiation-associated breast cancer and to add a more detailed overview of relevant recent findings, especially focusing on factors that modify the radiation-related risk.In 2000, breast cancer was the most common malignant disease in women worldwide, with an estimated 1.05 million cases. Owing to high levels of screening in developed countries and the relatively favorable prognosis of early-stage disease, it is also the most prevalent malignancy in women, with almost 4 million women alive who have had breast cancer in the past 5 years [1]. In the USA, it is estimated that about 216,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in 2004 and that 40,000 will die from the disease [2]. Male breast cancer is a rare disease, with an incidence about 1/100 of that for female breast cancer [2].Breast cancer is very rare before age 30 years, after which incidence rises steeply with advancing age up to about age 50 years. Thereafter, incidence still increases with age, but more slowly [3]. The strong dependence on age, as seen for many other adult-type cancers, is probably related to accumulating genetic damage that occurs during a human lifespan. The apparent change in slope of the age–incidence curve at about age 50 years is unique for breast cancer, and this is presumably related to hormonal changes associated with menopause, which is accompanied by a decrease in circulating estrogen levels [3]. Estrogens and other hormones are thought to affect the progression of initiated mammary gland cells in the path to malignancy. This has been shown clearly in early rodent studies, where chemical-associated or radiation-associated mammary tumors were most abundant after additional hormonal stim
Root Starch Reserves Are Necessary for Vigorous Re-Growth following Cutting Back in Lotus japonicus
Cécile Vriet, Alison M. Smith, Trevor L. Wang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087333
Abstract: Perenniality and vegetative re-growth vigour represent key agronomic traits in forage legume (Fabaceae) species. The known determinants of perenniality include the conservation of the vegetative meristem during and after the flowering phase, and the separation of flowering from senescence. The ability of the plants to store nutrient resources in perennial organs and remobilize them may also play an important role in the perennial growth habit, and in determining the capacity of the plant to re-grow following grazing or from one season to the next. To examine the importance of stored starch, we examined the vegetative re-growth vigour following cutting back of a unique collection of Lotus japonicus mutants impaired in their ability to synthesize or degrade starch. Our results establish that starch stored in the roots is important for re-growth vigour in Lotus japonicus. We extended this analysis to a collection of Lotus (trefoil) species and two ecotypes of Lotus japonicus displaying a large variation in their carbohydrate resource allocation. There was a positive correlation between root starch content and re-growth vigour in these natural variants, and a good general correlation between high re-growth vigour and the perennial life-form. We discuss the relationship between perenniality and the availability of root carbohydrates for re-growth.
Condensation and symmetry-breaking in the zero-range process with weak site disorder
Cécile Mailler,Peter M?rters,Daniel Ueltschi
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Condensation phenomena in particle systems typically occur as one of two distinct types: either as a spontaneous symmetry breaking in a homogeneous system, in which particle interactions enforce condensation in a randomly located site, or as an explicit symmetry breaking in a system with background disorder, in which particles condensate in the site of extremal disorder. In this paper we confirm a recent conjecture by Godr\`eche and Luck by showing, for a zero range process with weak site disorder, that there exists a phase where condensation occurs with an intermediate type of symmetry-breaking, in which particles condensate in a site randomly chosen from a range of sites favoured by disorder. We show that this type of condensation is characterised by the occurrence of a Gamma distribution in the law of the disorder at the condensation site. We further investigate fluctuations of the condensate size and confirm a phase diagram, again conjectured by Godr\`eche and Luck, showing the existence of phases with normal and anomalous fluctuations.
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